Relatively little is known about the impact of de novomutations on T1D risk. Several studies suggest an important role in common neurodevelopmental conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities, but this has never before been examined on a large scale in autoimmune disorders. De novovariants are likely to have large deleterious consequences and so lead to concrete biological insights. Highly deleterious variants are expected to be maintained, due to mutation-selection balance, at approximately the ratio of the mutation rate to the selection coefficient. If the effects on fitness are very strong, as would have been the case for high-risk T1D alleles prior to the advent of insulin administration, this is approximately equal to the human autosomal mutation rate of 2.5x10-8. At this population frequency, and assuming a T1D prevalence of 0.5%, Mendelian acting variants will have a frequency in cases of 5x10-6, requiring tens of millions of sequences to detect by conventional means. It is therefore reasonable to suspect that there may be a category of large-effect T1D variants which are at too low a frequency to have sufficient statistical power to analyse, even by sequencing large cohorts of unrelated cases. Sequencing the appropriately phenotyped parent-offspring trios and affected sib-pairs may, however, provide a route forwards, as substantial additional power can be gained by restricting the analysis to variants that are clearly the product of de novo mutations, i.e. present in the offspring but in neither parent. Variants that are only ever seen in de novoform are especially likely to be functional, and so limiting statistical testing to this set immediately increases the chances of true positive findings relative to the number of tests performed.
This project will develop of skills in computer programming, use of state of the art bioinformatics tools, application of probability theory and statistical modelling, and will provide extensive experience in the field of statistical genetics.
Project reference number: 878
|Professor John A Todd FRS FMedSci||Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics||Oxford University, Henry Wellcome Building of Genomic Medicine||GBRfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Professor Linda Wicker||Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics||Oxford University,||email@example.com|
|Dr Daniel Crouch||NDM, WHG||University of Oxford||GBRfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Dr Antony Cutler||NDM, WHG||University of Oxford||GBRemail@example.com|
Despite its high heritability, a large fraction of individuals with schizophrenia do not have a family history of the disease (sporadic cases). Here we examined the possibility that rare de novo protein-altering mutations contribute to the genetic component of schizophrenia by sequencing the exomes of 53 sporadic cases, 22 unaffected controls and their parents. We identified 40 de novo mutations in 27 cases affecting 40 genes, including a potentially disruptive mutation in DGCR2, a gene located in the schizophrenia-predisposing 22q11.2 microdeletion region. A comparison to rare inherited variants indicated that the identified de novo mutations show a large excess of non-synonymous changes in schizophrenia cases, as well as a greater potential to affect protein structure and function. Our analyses suggest a major role for de novo mutations in schizophrenia as well as a large mutational target, which together provide a plausible explanation for the high global incidence and persistence of the disease. Hide abstract
Multiple studies have confirmed the contribution of rare de novo copy number variations to the risk for autism spectrum disorders. But whereas de novo single nucleotide variants have been identified in affected individuals, their contribution to risk has yet to be clarified. Specifically, the frequency and distribution of these mutations have not been well characterized in matched unaffected controls, and such data are vital to the interpretation of de novo coding mutations observed in probands. Here we show, using whole-exome sequencing of 928 individuals, including 200 phenotypically discordant sibling pairs, that highly disruptive (nonsense and splice-site) de novo mutations in brain-expressed genes are associated with autism spectrum disorders and carry large effects. On the basis of mutation rates in unaffected individuals, we demonstrate that multiple independent de novo single nucleotide variants in the same gene among unrelated probands reliably identifies risk alleles, providing a clear path forward for gene discovery. Among a total of 279 identified de novo coding mutations, there is a single instance in probands, and none in siblings, in which two independent nonsense variants disrupt the same gene, SCN2A (sodium channel, voltage-gated, type II, α subunit), a result that is highly unlikely by chance. Hide abstract
Schizophrenia is a common disease with a complex aetiology, probably involving multiple and heterogeneous genetic factors. Here, by analysing the exome sequences of 2,536 schizophrenia cases and 2,543 controls, we demonstrate a polygenic burden primarily arising from rare (less than 1 in 10,000), disruptive mutations distributed across many genes. Particularly enriched gene sets include the voltage-gated calcium ion channel and the signalling complex formed by the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated scaffold protein (ARC) of the postsynaptic density, sets previously implicated by genome-wide association and copy-number variation studies. Similar to reports in autism, targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, product of FMR1) are enriched for case mutations. No individual gene-based test achieves significance after correction for multiple testing and we do not detect any alleles of moderately low frequency (approximately 0.5 to 1 per cent) and moderately large effect. Taken together, these data suggest that population-based exome sequencing can discover risk alleles and complements established gene-mapping paradigms in neuropsychiatric disease. Hide abstract
Evidence for the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has consistently pointed to a strong genetic component complicated by substantial locus heterogeneity. We sequenced the exomes of 20 individuals with sporadic ASD (cases) and their parents, reasoning that these families would be enriched for de novo mutations of major effect. We identified 21 de novo mutations, 11 of which were protein altering. Protein-altering mutations were significantly enriched for changes at highly conserved residues. We identified potentially causative de novo events in 4 out of 20 probands, particularly among more severely affected individuals, in FOXP1, GRIN2B, SCN1A and LAMC3. In the FOXP1 mutation carrier, we also observed a rare inherited CNTNAP2 missense variant, and we provide functional support for a multi-hit model for disease risk. Our results show that trio-based exome sequencing is a powerful approach for identifying new candidate genes for ASDs and suggest that de novo mutations may contribute substantially to the genetic etiology of ASDs. Hide abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are believed to have genetic and environmental origins, yet in only a modest fraction of individuals can specific causes be identified. To identify further genetic risk factors, here we assess the role of de novo mutations in ASD by sequencing the exomes of ASD cases and their parents (n = 175 trios). Fewer than half of the cases (46.3%) carry a missense or nonsense de novo variant, and the overall rate of mutation is only modestly higher than the expected rate. In contrast, the proteins encoded by genes that harboured de novo missense or nonsense mutations showed a higher degree of connectivity among themselves and to previous ASD genes as indexed by protein-protein interaction screens. The small increase in the rate of de novo events, when taken together with the protein interaction results, are consistent with an important but limited role for de novo point mutations in ASD, similar to that documented for de novo copy number variants. Genetic models incorporating these data indicate that most of the observed de novo events are unconnected to ASD; those that do confer risk are distributed across many genes and are incompletely penetrant (that is, not necessarily sufficient for disease). Our results support polygenic models in which spontaneous coding mutations in any of a large number of genes increases risk by 5- to 20-fold. Despite the challenge posed by such models, results from de novo events and a large parallel case-control study provide strong evidence in favour of CHD8 and KATNAL2 as genuine autism risk factors. Hide abstract
Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder with a broadly undiscovered genetic etiology. Recent studies of de novo mutations (DNMs) in schizophrenia and autism have reinforced the hypothesis that rare genetic variation contributes to risk. We carried out exome sequencing on 57 trios with sporadic or familial schizophrenia. In sporadic trios, we observed a ~3.5-fold increase in the proportion of nonsense DNMs (0.101 vs 0.031, empirical P=0.01, Benjamini-Hochberg-corrected P=0.044). These mutations were significantly more likely to occur in genes with highly ranked probabilities of haploinsufficiency (P=0.0029, corrected P=0.006). DNMs of potential functional consequence were also found to occur in genes predicted to be less tolerant to rare variation (P=2.01 × 10(-)(5), corrected P=2.1 × 10(-)(3)). Genes with DNMs overlapped with genes implicated in autism (for example, AUTS2, CHD8 and MECP2) and intellectual disability (for example, HUWE1 and TRAPPC9), supporting a shared genetic etiology between these disorders. Functionally CHD8, MECP2 and HUWE1 converge on epigenetic regulation of transcription suggesting that this may be an important risk mechanism. Our results were consistent in an analysis of additional exome-based sequencing studies of other neurodevelopmental disorders. These findings suggest that perturbations in genes, which function in the epigenetic regulation of brain development and cognition, could have a central role in the susceptibility to, pathogenesis and treatment of mental disorders. Hide abstract
Genetic components susceptible to complex disease such as schizophrenia include a wide spectrum of variants, including common variants (CVs) and de novo mutations (DNMs). Although CVs and DNMs differ by origin, it remains elusive whether and how they interact at the gene, pathway, and network levels that leads to the disease. In this work, we characterized the genes harboring schizophrenia-associated CVs (CVgenes) and the genes harboring DNMs (DNMgenes) using measures from network, tissue-specific expression profile, and spatiotemporal brain expression profile. We developed an algorithm to link the DNMgenes and CVgenes in spatiotemporal brain co-expression networks. DNMgenes tended to have central roles in the human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, evidenced in their high degree and high betweenness values. DNMgenes and CVgenes connected with each other significantly more often than with other genes in the networks. However, only CVgenes remained significantly connected after adjusting for their degree. In our gene co-expression PPI network, we found DNMgenes and CVgenes connected in a tissue-specific fashion, and such a pattern was similar to that in GTEx brain but not in other GTEx tissues. Importantly, DNMgene-CVgene subnetworks were enriched with pathways of chromatin remodeling, MHC protein complex binding, and neurotransmitter activities. In summary, our results unveiled that both DNMgenes and CVgenes contributed to a core set of biologically important pathways and networks, and their interactions may attribute to the risk for schizophrenia. Our results also suggested a stronger biological effect of DNMgenes than CVgenes in schizophrenia. Hide abstract
Exome sequencing of 343 families, each with a single child on the autism spectrum and at least one unaffected sibling, reveal de novo small indels and point substitutions, which come mostly from the paternal line in an age-dependent manner. We do not see significantly greater numbers of de novo missense mutations in affected versus unaffected children, but gene-disrupting mutations (nonsense, splice site, and frame shifts) are twice as frequent, 59 to 28. Based on this differential and the number of recurrent and total targets of gene disruption found in our and similar studies, we estimate between 350 and 400 autism susceptibility genes. Many of the disrupted genes in these studies are associated with the fragile X protein, FMRP, reinforcing links between autism and synaptic plasticity. We find FMRP-associated genes are under greater purifying selection than the remainder of genes and suggest they are especially dosage-sensitive targets of cognitive disorders. Hide abstract
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that profoundly affects cognitive, behavioral and emotional processes. The wide spectrum of symptoms and clinical variability in schizophrenia suggest a complex genetic etiology, which is consistent with the numerous loci thus far identified by linkage, copy number variation and association studies. Although schizophrenia heritability may be as high as ∼80%, the genes responsible for much of this heritability remain to be identified. Here we sequenced the exomes of 14 schizophrenia probands and their parents. We identified 15 de novo mutations (DNMs) in eight probands, which is significantly more than expected considering the previously reported DNM rate. In addition, 4 of the 15 identified DNMs are nonsense mutations, which is more than what is expected by chance. Our study supports the notion that DNMs may account for some of the heritability reported for schizophrenia while providing a list of genes possibly involved in disease pathogenesis. Hide abstract