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Malarial illness and pathology is generally accepted to be caused by material released when the infected red cells burst at schizogony. The released material has been partially purified and shown to stimulate macrophages to make TNF. We have extended this work to show that these same preparations, isolated from parasitized erythrocytes, induce the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 to produce inducible nitric oxide synthase and release nitric oxide. By using cytokine-specific antisera we have found that this induction is independent of TNF and IL-1 alpha and partly independent of IL-1 beta.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infection

Publication Date





187 - 196


John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.


Erythrocytes, Cell Line, Macrophages, Animals, Mice, Plasmodium falciparum, Escherichia coli, Lipopolysaccharides, Arginine, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Interleukin-1, Antibodies, Immunohistochemistry, Toxins, Biological, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Interferon-gamma