Renal impairment and clinical outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection in two randomized trials.
Mullane KM., Cornely OA., Crook DW., Golan Y., Louie TJ., Miller MA., Josephson MA., Gorbach SL.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and for subsequent mortality. We determined the effect of CKD on response to treatment for CDI. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of two randomized controlled phase 3 trials that enrolled patients with CDI. Patients received either fidaxomicin 200 mg b.i.d. or vancomycin 125 mg q.i.d. for 10 days. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared end points by treatment received and CKD stage. RESULTS: At baseline, 27, 21, and 9% of the patients had stage 2 (60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), stage 3 (30-59), and stage 4 or higher (<30) CKD. Cure rates were similar for normal (91%) and stage 2 CKD (92%), but declined to 80% for stage 3 and to 75% for stage 4 CKD (p < 0.001 for trend). Time to resolution of diarrhea (TTROD) increased with stage 3 and stage 4 CKD. CDI recurrence rates 4 weeks after treatment were 16, 20, 27, and 24% for normal, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4 or higher CKD, respectively. Mortality increased with CKD stage. In multivariate analyses, stage 3 or higher CKD correlated with lower odds of cure, greater chance of recurrence, and lower odds of sustained response 28 days after treatment. Initial cure rates were similar in the vancomycin or fidaxomicin groups; however, the rate of recurrence was higher following vancomycin treatment independent of renal function. The presence of immunosuppression did not alter this effect. CONCLUSION: Progressive CKD is associated with increased TTROD, lower cure rates, and higher recurrence rates with treatment of CDI.