Distribution and clustering ofOesophagostomum bifurcumand hookworm infections in Northern Ghana
ZIEM JB., OLSEN A., MAGNUSSEN P., HORTON J., AGONGO E., GESKUS RB., POLDERMAN AM.
<jats:p>Human<jats:italic>Oesophagostomum</jats:italic>infections are locally common in northern Ghana. The present study describes the results of a cross-sectional survey involving 1011 subjects, selected by a compound-based random sampling method from 1227 compounds in 24 villages. Selected persons were examined by both Kato and coproculture methods. Hookworm-like eggs, representing ova of<jats:italic>Oesophagostomum bifurcum</jats:italic>and hookworm were detected in 87·5% of the Kato smears. The geometric mean egg count of the infected subjects was 1018. Upon coproculture, third-stage larvae of<jats:italic>O. bifurcum</jats:italic>and hookworm were detected in 53·0% and 86·9% of subjects respectively. Oesophagostomum infections were clustered but no clear explanation for aggregation of infections could be found as yet. Subjects infected with hookworm had a 5-fold higher risk of being infected with<jats:italic>O. bifurcum</jats:italic>. Infection rates in adult women were higher than in adult men. No association was found with family size, level of hygiene or with the presence of animals in the compounds. Representatives of the Bimoba-tribe were significantly more infected than those of the other tribes. It appears, however, that this tribal association is a geographical phenomenon: Bimoba are mostly living in villages with the highest infection rates.</jats:p>