Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study.
Shi T., McAllister DA., O'Brien KL., Simoes EAF., Madhi SA., Gessner BD., Polack FP., Balsells E., Acacio S., Aguayo C., Alassani I., Ali A., Antonio M., Awasthi S., Awori JO., Azziz-Baumgartner E., Baggett HC., Baillie VL., Balmaseda A., Barahona A., Basnet S., Bassat Q., Basualdo W., Bigogo G., Bont L., Breiman RF., Brooks WA., Broor S., Bruce N., Bruden D., Buchy P., Campbell S., Carosone-Link P., Chadha M., Chipeta J., Chou M., Clara W., Cohen C., de Cuellar E., Dang D-A., Dash-Yandag B., Deloria-Knoll M., Dherani M., Eap T., Ebruke BE., Echavarria M., de Freitas Lázaro Emediato CC., Fasce RA., Feikin DR., Feng L., Gentile A., Gordon A., Goswami D., Goyet S., Groome M., Halasa N., Hirve S., Homaira N., Howie SRC., Jara J., Jroundi I., Kartasasmita CB., Khuri-Bulos N., Kotloff KL., Krishnan A., Libster R., Lopez O., Lucero MG., Lucion F., Lupisan SP., Marcone DN., McCracken JP., Mejia M., Moisi JC., Montgomery JM., Moore DP., Moraleda C., Moyes J., Munywoki P., Mutyara K., Nicol MP., Nokes DJ., Nymadawa P., da Costa Oliveira MT., Oshitani H., Pandey N., Paranhos-Baccalà G., Phillips LN., Picot VS., Rahman M., Rakoto-Andrianarivelo M., Rasmussen ZA., Rath BA., Robinson A., Romero C., Russomando G., Salimi V., Sawatwong P., Scheltema N., Schweiger B., Scott JAG., Seidenberg P., Shen K., Singleton R., Sotomayor V., Strand TA., Sutanto A., Sylla M., Tapia MD., Thamthitiwat S., Thomas ED., Tokarz R., Turner C., Venter M., Waicharoen S., Wang J., Watthanaworawit W., Yoshida L-M., Yu H., Zar HJ., Campbell H., Nair H., RSV Global Epidemiology Network None.
BACKGROUND: We have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) resulting in 55 000 to 199 000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. In the past 5 years, major research activity on RSV has yielded substantial new data from developing countries. With a considerably expanded dataset from a large international collaboration, we aimed to estimate the global incidence, hospital admission rate, and mortality from RSV-ALRI episodes in young children in 2015. METHODS: We estimated the incidence and hospital admission rate of RSV-associated ALRI (RSV-ALRI) in children younger than 5 years stratified by age and World Bank income regions from a systematic review of studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2016, and unpublished data from 76 high quality population-based studies. We estimated the RSV-ALRI incidence for 132 developing countries using a risk factor-based model and 2015 population estimates. We estimated the in-hospital RSV-ALRI mortality by combining in-hospital case fatality ratios with hospital admission estimates from hospital-based (published and unpublished) studies. We also estimated overall RSV-ALRI mortality by identifying studies reporting monthly data for ALRI mortality in the community and RSV activity. FINDINGS: We estimated that globally in 2015, 33·1 million (uncertainty range [UR] 21·6-50·3) episodes of RSV-ALRI, resulted in about 3·2 million (2·7-3·8) hospital admissions, and 59 600 (48 000-74 500) in-hospital deaths in children younger than 5 years. In children younger than 6 months, 1·4 million (UR 1·2-1·7) hospital admissions, and 27 300 (UR 20 700-36 200) in-hospital deaths were due to RSV-ALRI. We also estimated that the overall RSV-ALRI mortality could be as high as 118 200 (UR 94 600-149 400). Incidence and mortality varied substantially from year to year in any given population. INTERPRETATION: Globally, RSV is a common cause of childhood ALRI and a major cause of hospital admissions in young children, resulting in a substantial burden on health-care services. About 45% of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths due to RSV-ALRI occur in children younger than 6 months. An effective maternal RSV vaccine or monoclonal antibody could have a substantial effect on disease burden in this age group. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.