O'nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996-1997: clinical features and validation of a clinical case definition for surveillance purposes.
Kiwanuka N., Sanders EJ., Rwaguma EB., Kawamata J., Ssengooba FP., Najjemba R., Were WA., Lamunu M., Bagambisa G., Burkot TR., Dunster L., Lutwama JJ., Martin DA., Cropp CB., Karabatsos N., Lanciotti RS., Tsai TF., Campbell GL.
O'nyong-nyong (ONN) fever, caused by infection with a mosquito-borne central African alphavirus, is an acute, nonfatal illness characterized by polyarthralgia. During 1996-1997, south-central Uganda experienced the second ONN fever epidemic ever recognized. Among 391 persons interviewed and sampled, 40 cases of confirmed and 21 of presumptive, well-characterized acute, recent, or previous ONN fever were identified through active case-finding efforts or during a household serosurvey and by the application of clinical and laboratory criteria. Among confirmed cases, the knees and ankles were the joints most commonly affected. The median duration of arthralgia was 6 days (range, 2-21 days) and of immobilization was 4 days (range, 1-14 days). In the majority, generalized skin rash was reported, and nearly half had lymphadenopathy, mainly of the cervical region. Viremia was documented in 16 cases, primarily during the first 3 days of illness, and in some of these, body temperature was normal. During this epidemic, the combination of fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy had a specificity of 83% and a sensitivity of 61% in the identification of cases of ONN fever and thus could be useful for surveillance purposes.