This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, and treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, insects, and scorpions; and poisoning by ingestion of fish, turtles, and shellfish. Invertebrate stings cause fatalities by anaphylaxis, secondary to acquired hypersensitivity (Hymenoptera, such as bees, wasps, and ants; and jellyfish), and by direct envenoming (scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, and echinoderms). Simple preventive techniques, such as wearing protective clothing, using a flashlight at night, and excluding venomous animals from sleeping quarters, are of paramount importance to reduce the risk of venomous bites and stings.
Infectious disease clinics of North America
17 - 38
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Animals, Humans, Bites and Stings, Ciguatera Poisoning, Hemorrhage, Antivenins, Brazil, Asia, Shellfish Poisoning