Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused explosive outbreaks in more than 60 countries. Infection can cause a long-term, debilitating disease characterised by joint inflammation and chronic arthritis lasting several years. No licensed vaccine is yet available, but the team lead by Prof Reyes-Sandoval has developed a Chikungunya vaccine using the adenovirus ChAdOx1 expressing Virus-Like Particles that elicit immune responses able to produce high antibody titres able to neutralise the virus.
Nearly 3 million people are co-infected with hepatitis C and HIV. Effective preventive strategies targeting both viruses are needed. Jenner Investigators, including Professor Lucy Dorrell have published a study in Frontiers in Immunology showing that a two-in-one vaccine regimen employing serologically distinct adenovirus vectors elicited strong immune responses to both pathogens without adverse effects
A research team led by Prof Alison Simmons at MRC HIU and Professor of Gastroenterology used single-cell technology to identify new players in the gut epithelial barrier. “By identifying new colonic epithelial cell types and uncovering fundamental determinants of barrier breakdown in IBD we open up avenues to restore the protective mucus layer pharmaceutically” said Prof Alison Simmons
A new study by the Cornall group provides new insights into the importance of zinc in human health. Led by Consuelo Anzilotti, a clinical immunologist in Richard Cornall’s group in the Nuffield Department of Medicine and MRC Human Immunology Unit, the project published today in Nature Immunology brought together scientists and clinicians from Oxford, the University of Newcastle, Durham, Imperial College, the Netherlands and the USA.
Ludwig Institute's study of venous development by Professor Sarah De Val, identifying a new potential target for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy is now published in Nature Communications. Venous endothelial cells are molecularly and functionally distinct from their arterial counterparts. Although veins are often considered the default endothelial state, genetic manipulations can modulate both acquisition and loss of venous fate, suggesting that venous identity is the result of active transcriptional regulation.
A computational strategy has delivered a redesigned, more stable version of a cytokine protein that mimics the natural protein’s interactions with receptors, opening the way for designer cytokine-based therapeutics. Prof Yvonne Jones et al writing in Nature, describes how they have engineered a protein structure from scratch to replicate the beneficial receptor-binding properties of IL-2 without the drawbacks of the original cytokine.
Four out of five people in the world with diabetes now live in low and middle income countries. Professor Susanna Dunachie and her Thai collaborator Parinya Chamnan describe how diabetes leads to increased risk and worse outcomes for global infections such as TB, melioidosis and dengue, alongside discussing potential mechanisms and interventions.
Vaccines against Ebola remain an urgent global health priority and outbreaks continue, notably the ongoing outbreak in North Kivu in the DRC. In this study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, scientists from the Jenner Institute and IRESSEF in Senegal showed that combining two new vaccines against Ebola was safe and induced strong immune responses
Pneumothorax is a common condition which can affect anyone where air leaks from the lung and causes lung collapse. Researchers from the Clinical Trials Support Unit and Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit have conducted the world’s largest ever analysis of pneumothorax (over 170,000 cases) using hospital records, and demonstrated that this condition is increasing. The reasons for this are not clear, but provide important data on trends in this disease, and highlight the need for further research in to treatment and prevention