Zika virus RNA is frequently detected in the semen after Zika virus infection. To learn more about persistence of viruses in genital fluids, Dr Alex Salam and Professor Peter Horby searched PubMed and found evidence that 27 viruses can be found in human semen. This may have implications for the risk of sexual transmission, embryonic infection, congenital disease, miscarriage, and infection transmission models.
Amanda Rojek and Peter Horby published a review aimed at clinicians who may treat patients with Ebola Virus Disease. This review outlines advances in understanding the clinical presentation, outcomes and long term sequelae of the disease, and outlines the status of experimental vaccines and treatments.
In a recently published paper in The Lancet, Professor Peter Horby outlines potential epidemics in Africa. It is difficult to predict when and where new epidemics might occur so we can be better prepared and have a proactive response.
Severe malnutrition remains common in low-income countries, principally among young children. It usually arises from poor sanitation and infections, besides food insecurity. This comprehensive review by Professor James Berkley describes how research is needed, using modern clinic and laboratory tools, to better understand changes in metabolism, infections and the immune system to improve treatment.
Changing the practices of health care workers in multiple hospitals in low-income settings is a major contemporary challenge that requires people to think about the complex set of influences that affect clinicians’ behaviour. In this report, Professor Mike English describes a multi-layered strategy utilising a new implementation typology linked to overarching theories of change.
Adjuvants are key components used to enhance vaccine efficacy. Their use has been well characterised to stimulate antibody responses but very little has been investigated regarding their effect on cytotoxic T cell responses. In this study, an extensive group of adjuvants has been assessed to investigate immunity enhancement against liver-stage malaria through stimulation of T cell responses. Two were found to improve vaccine efficacy against a sporozoite challenge and the mechanism is presented.
Although naive human T cells underpin the adaptive arm of the immune system, John Todd, Marcin Pekalski, Linda Wicker and colleagues have discovered that these cells express the innate complement receptors, CR2 (or CD21, the EBV receptor) and CR1, opening a new avenue of research in microbial defence in newborn children.