Research Highlights

Trends in the Incidence and Recurrence of Inpatient-Treated Spontaneous Pneumothorax, 1968-2016

Trends in the Incidence and Recurrence of Inpatient-Treated Spontaneous Pneumothorax, 1968-2016

Posted 11/10/2018

Pneumothorax is a common condition which can affect anyone where air leaks from the lung and causes lung collapse. Researchers from the Clinical Trials Support Unit and Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit have conducted the world’s largest ever analysis of pneumothorax (over 170,000 cases) using hospital records, and demonstrated that this condition is increasing. The reasons for this are not clear, but provide important data on trends in this disease, and highlight the need for further research in to treatment and prevention

Intragenic transcriptional interference regulates the human immune ligand MICA.

Intragenic transcriptional interference regulates the human immune ligand MICA.

Posted 23/08/2018

Disease processes can switch genes on or off in a cell and this can alter the progress of the disease. In studying the control of immune genes, Chris O’Callaghan and colleagues have discovered a new form of regulation in human genes—interacting control elements within an individual gene can flip the switch on the gene in the opposite direction to that expected.

53BP1 cooperation with the REV7–shieldin complex underpins DNA structure-specific NHEJ

53BP1 cooperation with the REV7–shieldin complex underpins DNA structure-specific NHEJ

Posted 03/08/2018
Ross Chapman and WTCHG colleagues have published their research in Nature which describes the discovery of the Shieldin complex, a single-stranded DNA-binding repair complex that is essential for context-dependent DNA repair events in the immune system and cancer.
Addressing challenges faced by insecticide spraying for the control of dengue fever in Bangkok, Thailand: a qualitative approach

Addressing challenges faced by insecticide spraying for the control of dengue fever in Bangkok, Thailand: a qualitative approach

Posted 25/07/2018

A study from Bangkok by Professor Wirichada Pan-Ngum and colleagues shows accessing households for proper spraying was a problem for control dengue outbreaks. In addition, inefficient communications among the sectors from hospital to district offices led to inaccurate or missing patient addresses for spraying. Involving community networks help to improve public engagement with and participation in the programmes.

Development of a highly protective Zika vaccine through modulation of antigen membrane anchors

Development of a highly protective Zika vaccine through modulation of antigen membrane anchors

Posted 26/06/2018

The leading Oxford’s chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform has been engineered as a Zika vaccine, opening the door to clinical trials at the University of Oxford and Mexico. The development was published in Nature Communications in a multinational team effort lead by Prof. Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, the Jenner Institute (NDM) in collaboration with Imperial College London, University of Glasgow, Harvard Medical School, and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Brazil.

Development and validation of response markers to predict survival and pleurodesis success in patients with malignant pleural effusion (PROMISE): a multicohort analysis

Development and validation of response markers to predict survival and pleurodesis success in patients with malignant pleural effusion (PROMISE): a multicohort analysis

Posted 18/06/2018

The prevalence of malignant pleural effusion is increasing worldwide, but prognostic biomarkers to plan treatment and to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unidentified. The PROMISE study was designed with the objectives to discover, validate, and prospectively assess biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis response in malignant pleural effusion and build a score that predicts survival.

A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015

A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015

Posted 12/06/2018

The Malaria Atlas Project has created a global map of the travel time to urban centers for the year 2015.  Cities concentrate activities that promote human wellbeing including education, employment, and healthcare services. The accessibility map provides a useful dataset for identifying populations with limited access to cities and are thus at risk of being left behind.

Scrub Typhus Point-of-Care Testing

Scrub Typhus Point-of-Care Testing

Posted 15/05/2018

Kartika Karaswati, Stuart Blacksell and colleagues reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of the available scrub typhus point-of-care tests, feasible to be used in resource limited settings. Although the available evidence is varied in methodology and quality, POCTs appear to have low false positive rates, thus confidence in interpreting a positive result can be high.

Scientists discover promising ‘off-switch’ for inflammatory diseases

Scientists discover promising ‘off-switch’ for inflammatory diseases

Posted 04/04/2018

Researchers in Ireland, the UK, including Roman Fischer and Benedikt Kessler from the Target Discovery Institute and US have discovered a new metabolic process in the body that can switch off inflammation. “itaconate” – a molecule derived from glucose – “acts as a powerful off switch for macrophages”, thereby reducing inflammation. The discovery published in Nature offers more effective treatment of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and heart disease.

Promising approach to reducing Malaria transmission by ivermectin

Promising approach to reducing Malaria transmission by ivermectin

Posted 20/03/2018

Blood from patients treated with ivermectin can kill mosquitos. Our results indicate that ivermectin mass drug administration to humans could be a potential malaria control tool to aid malaria elimination efforts in South America.