Prof Paul Klenerman
|Technology Exchange:||Cell sorting|
|Keywords:||Hepatitis C virus, HIV, T cells, virus, liver and flow cytometry|
Infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Our group works on the immune response to these infections, focusing on both the host and the pathogen. As there is currently no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C infection, many of our projects have addressed aspects of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and vaccine responses. In addition, our group also looks at a range of viruses and bacteria. Overall our main contributions to date have been to define mechanisms of viral persistence, including: T cell escape, antagonism, original antigen sin, integration of non-retroviral RNA viruses; to define the key features of successful immune responses against HCV, leading to trials of a T cell vaccine; and to define the distinctive CD161+ T cell population, which dominates in the human liver.
We are currently working on three main strands of research:
1. CD161++/MAIT cell biology. These lymphocytes, which are abundant in human blood and highly enriched in the liver, have the capacity to respond to both bacterial and inflammatory signals. We are trying to understand their in vivo role in host defence and immunopathology, through the analysis of patients and in vitro studies of function and activation.
2. HCV immune defence. In collaboration with the groups of Ellie Barnes and Adrian Hill, we are involved in vaccine studies using adenoviral vectors to track vaccine-induced cells and analyse their capacity to recognise viral variants. Upcoming studies include an analysis of host responses in relation to novel drug therapies and the use of new viral sequencing approaches to define the impact of host immunity.
3. Memory inflation. Some persistent virus infections induce a striking host response, which we have termed memory "inflation"; this includes the generation of very large functional T cell populations, which can increase with time. While this was first noted in cytomegalovirus infections, we have found a similar profile of cells after adenoviral vector vaccination. Our group is working to define the qualities of these induced cells, and the critical factors that drive memory inflation.
|Dr. Georg Lauer||Gastroenterology||Harvard||USA|
|Robert Thimme||University Hospital Freiburg||Germany|
|Prof Jonathan Flint||Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics||Oxford University||UK|
|Dr Ellie (Eleanor) Barnes||Experimental Medicine Division||Oxford University||UK|
|Prof Chris A O'Callaghan||Centre for Cellular and Molecular Physiology||Oxford University||UK|
|Dr Alexander Hal Drakesmith||Experimental Medicine Division||Oxford University||UK|
|Dr Nick Haining||Harvard||USA|
|Ray T Chung||Harvard||USA|
|John Wherry||U Penn||USA|
|Ramon Arens||University of Leiden||Holland|
|Andrea Cox||Johns Hopkins||USA|
Currently, no vaccine exists for hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major pathogen thought to infect 170 million people globally. Many studies suggest that host T cell responses are critical for spontaneous resolution of disease, and preclinical studies have indicated a requirement for T cells in protection against challenge. We aimed to elicit HCV-specific T cells with the potential for protection using a recombinant adenoviral vector strategy in a phase 1 study of healthy human volunteers. Two adenoviral vectors expressing NS proteins from HCV genotype 1B were constructed based on rare serotypes [human adenovirus 6 (Ad6) and chimpanzee adenovirus 3 (ChAd3)]. Both vectors primed T cell responses against HCV proteins; these T cell responses targeted multiple proteins and were capable of recognizing heterologous strains (genotypes 1A and 3A). HCV-specific T cells consisted of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets; secreted interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α; and could be sustained for at least a year after boosting with the heterologous adenoviral vector. Studies using major histocompatibility complex peptide tetramers revealed long-lived central and effector memory pools that retained polyfunctionality and proliferative capacity. These data indicate that an adenoviral vector strategy can induce sustained T cell responses of a magnitude and quality associated with protective immunity and open the way for studies of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HCV. Hide abstract
HIV can be partially contained by host immunity and understanding the basis of this may inform vaccine design. The importance of B-cell function in long-term control is poorly understood. One method of investigating this is in vivo cellular depletion. In this study, we take advantage of a unique opportunity to investigate the role of B cells in an HIV-infected patient. The HIV-1(+) patient studied here was not taking antiretroviral drugs and was treated for pre-existing low-grade lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma by depletion of CD20+ B cells using rituximab. We demonstrate that B-cell depletion results in a decline in autologous neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses and a 1.7 log(10) rise in HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL). The recovery of NAbs results in a decline in pVL. The HIV-1 sequences diversify and NAb-resistant mutants are subsequently selected. These data suggest that B-cell function can contribute to the long-term control of pVL, and that NAbs may be more important in controlling chronic HIV-1 infection than previously suspected. Hide abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease but the full impact of HCV infection on the hepatocyte is poorly understood. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a novel method to analyze the full transcriptional activity of a cell or tissue, thus allowing new insight into the impact of HCV infection. We conducted the first full-genome RNA-Seq analysis in a host cell to analyze infected and noninfected cells, and compared this to microarray and proteomic analyses. The combined power of the triple approach revealed that HCV infection affects a number of previously unreported canonical pathways and biological functions, including pregnane X receptor/retinoic acid receptor activation as a potential host antiviral response, and integrin-linked kinase signaling as an entry factor. This approach also identified several mechanisms implicated in HCV pathogenesis, including an increase in reactive oxygen species. HCV infection had a broad effect on cellular metabolism, leading to increases in cellular cholesterol and free fatty acid levels, associated with a profound and specific decrease in cellular glucose levels. Conclusion: RNA-Seq technology, especially when combined with established methods, demonstrated that HCV infection has potentially wide-ranging effects on cellular gene and protein expression. This in vitro study indicates a substantial metabolic impact of HCV infection and highlights new mechanisms of virus-host interaction which may be highly relevant to pathogenesis in vivo. Hide abstract
CD8(+) T lymphocytes play a key role in host defense, in particular against important persistent viruses, although the critical functional properties of such cells in tissue are not fully defined. We have previously observed that CD8(+) T cells specific for tissue-localized viruses such as hepatitis C virus express high levels of the C-type lectin CD161. To explore the significance of this, we examined CD8(+)CD161(+) T cells in healthy donors and those with hepatitis C virus and defined a population of CD8(+) T cells with distinct homing and functional properties. These cells express high levels of CD161 and a pattern of molecules consistent with type 17 differentiation, including cytokines (e.g., IL-17, IL-22), transcription factors (e.g., retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma-t, P = 6 x 10(-9); RUNX2, P = 0.004), cytokine receptors (e.g., IL-23R, P = 2 x 10(-7); IL-18 receptor, P = 4 x 10(-6)), and chemokine receptors (e.g., CCR6, P = 3 x 10(-8); CXCR6, P = 3 x 10(-7); CCR2, P = 4 x 10(-7)). CD161(+)CD8(+) T cells were markedly enriched in tissue samples and coexpressed IL-17 with high levels of IFN-gamma and/or IL-22. The levels of polyfunctional cells in tissue was most marked in those with mild disease (P = 0.0006). These data define a T cell lineage that is present already in cord blood and represents as many as one in six circulating CD8(+) T cells in normal humans and a substantial fraction of tissue-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in chronic inflammation. Such cells play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis and arthritis and potentially in other infectious and inflammatory diseases of man. Hide abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic infection accompanied by a high risk of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. CD8+ T cell responses are important in the control of viremia. However, the T cell response in chronic infection is weak both in absolute numbers and in the range of epitopes targeted. In order to explore the biology of this response further, we analyzed expression of a panel of natural killer cell markers in HCV compared with other virus-specific T cell populations as defined by major histocompatibility complex class I tetramers. We found that CD161 was significantly expressed on HCV-specific cells (median 16.8%) but not on CD8+ T cells specific for human immunodeficiency virus (3.3%), cytomegalovirus (3.4%), or influenza (3.4%). Expression was seen in acute, chronic, and resolved disease and was greatest on intrahepatic HCV-specific T cells (median 57.6%; P < 0.05). Expression of CD161 was also found on hepatitis B virus-specific CD8+ T cells. In general, CD161+CD8+ T cells were found to be CCR7- "effector memory" T cells that could produce proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) but contained scanty amounts of cytolytic molecules (granzyme B and perforin) and proliferated poorly in vitro. Expression of CD161 on CD8+ T cells was tightly linked to that of CXCR6, a chemokine with a major role in liver homing. Hide abstract
Blood donors are routinely screened for hepatitis C virus infection. Some individuals have weak or restricted virus-specific antibody responses, and are classed as indeterminate. Such donors are almost always negative for viral RNA in blood. We postulated that previous transient virus exposure might account for some of these cases. With sensitive ex-vivo analyses of T-cell responses, we identified virus-specific responses in 15 of 30 indeterminate blood donors tested, compared with none in controls (p=0.0013). Additionally, these responses were typically focused on core-derived peptides. These findings suggest previous exposure to the virus in many indeterminate blood donors. Hide abstract
Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is very common, identification of patients during acute infection is rare. Consequently, little is known about the immune response during this critical stage of the disease. We analyzed the T lymphocyte response during and after acute resolving HCV infection in three persons, using interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) peptide tetramer assays. Acute infection was associated with a broadly directed T helper and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, which persisted after resolution of clinical hepatitis and clearance of viremia. At the earliest time point studied, highly activated CTL populations were observed that temporarily failed to secrete IFN-gamma, a "stunned" phenotype, from which they recovered as viremia declined. In long-term HCV-seropositive persons, CTL responses were more common in persons who had cleared viremia compared with those with persistent viremia, although the frequencies of HCV-specific CTLs were lower than those found in persons during and after resolution of acute HCV infection. These studies demonstrate a strong and persistent CTL response in resolving acute HCV infection, and provide rationale to explore immune augmentation as a therapeutic intervention in chronic HCV infection. Hide abstract
Infection of adult mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a non-cytopathic segmented RNA virus, leads initially to generalized infection, followed by clearance and subsequent life-long immunity. Indirect evidence has suggested that viral antigens may persist in lymphoid tissues during the phase of immunological memory, but viral genomic RNA has not been detected in previous studies. During a search for persistent virus in the spleen, we identified LCMV-specific sequences present as DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in mice over 200 days after infection. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed that reverse transcription of viral RNA into complementary DNA occurred after acute infection of cells of its natural hosts, mouse and hamster, but not of other species and could be inhibited in vitro by azidothymidine (AZT), indicating that this was mediated by endogenous reverse transcriptase activity. These findings reveal a surprising and new pathway of interaction between exogenous RNA viruses and endogenous retroviral, and perhaps other host components, that results in the persistence of virally determined DNA. We speculate that the latter may function in vivo as a form of DNA vaccine. Hide abstract
Most asymptomatic individuals infected with HIV-1 have a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the virus Gag proteins which can be demonstrated in vitro. Epitopes have been mapped in p17 Gag and p24 Gag restricted by HLA-B8 (p17-3 and p24-13) and -B27 (p24-14). Viruses isolated from patients who make CTL responses to these peptides vary within the genetic sequences encoding these epitopes and some mutations lead to reduction in killing activity in vitro. This was attributed to either failure of the variant epitope to bind major histocompatibility complex class I or failure of T-cell receptors to bind the presented peptide. But peptide variants of class I-restricted epitopes cause 'antagonism', that is, the presence of a variant epitope (in the form of peptide) inhibits normal lysis of targets presenting the original epitope. This mirrors similar findings in class II-restricted systems. Here we report that naturally occurring variant forms of p17-3, p24-13 and p24-14 may cause antagonism of CTL lines derived from the same individuals. The effect is present if the epitopes are derived from synthetic peptides and when they are processed from full-length proteins expressed by either recombinant vaccinia constructs or replicating HIV. Hide abstract
Activation and function of human CD161++/MAIT cells and bacterial defence
CD161++/MAIT cells make up 1 in 6 circulating CD8+ T cells and up to half of CD8+ T cells in the liver during chronic inflammation, such as hepatitis C. These unique cells sit at the bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, capable of secreting a broad range of cytokines, and readily induced to kill infected cells. They can be activated in two ways – one by innate signals such as the cytokines IL-12 and IL-18, and also through their TCR, which binds the conserved MHC Class I like ...