register interest

Professor Ian Pavord FMedSci FRCP

Research Area: Integrative Physiology (Systems Biology)
Keywords: Respiratory medicine, Asthma, COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Chest, Allergy, Sputum, Exacerbation, Cough, Cough and Airways disease
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Professor Pavord has a particular interest in asthma, chronic pulmonary disease and chronic cough. He is an internationally renowned researcher in these areas and has played a lead role in developing three of the most promising emerging treatments. He has published 350 scientific papers, including three of the 20 most cited papers in the field in the last 10 years. He has an H-index of 74. His main contribution has been to develop new methods to assess and treat airway inflammation and airway diseases.

He has been joint Chief Medical Advisor to Asthma UK since May 2008 and joint Editor of Thorax since 2010.

in 2016 Professor Pavord was awarded The ERS Gold Medal in Asthma in recognition of his outstanding contribution in the field of asthma research. 

Name Department Institution Country
Professor Mona Bafadhel MRCP Experimental Medicine Division Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital United Kingdom
Pavord ID. 2018. GLUCOLD, eosinophils and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respirology, 23 (11), pp. 966-967. | Read more

Shrimanker R, Pavord ID. 2018. Will precision medicine become an effective tool for airway disease? Per Med, 15 (4), pp. 243-245. | Read more

Hilvering B, Hinks TSC, Stöger L, Marchi E, Salimi M, Shrimanker R, Liu W, Chen W, Luo J, Go S et al. 2018. Synergistic activation of pro-inflammatory type-2 CD8+ T lymphocytes by lipid mediators in severe eosinophilic asthma. Mucosal Immunol, 11 (5), pp. 1408-1419. | Show Abstract | Read more

Human type-2 CD8+ T cells are a cell population with potentially important roles in allergic disease. We investigated this in the context of severe asthma with persistent airway eosinophilia-a phenotype associated with high exacerbation risk and responsiveness to type-2 cytokine-targeted therapies. In two independent cohorts we show that, in contrast to Th2 cells, type-2 cytokine-secreting CD8+CRTH2+ (Tc2) cells are enriched in blood and airways in severe eosinophilic asthma. Concentrations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and cysteinyl leukotriene E4 (LTE4) are also increased in the airways of the same group of patients. In vitro PGD2 and LTE4 function synergistically to trigger Tc2 cell recruitment and activation in a TCR-independent manner. These lipids regulate diverse genes in Tc2 cells inducing type-2 cytokines and many other pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which could contribute to eosinophilia. These findings are consistent with an important innate-like role for human Tc2 cells in severe eosinophilic asthma and suggest a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this and other diseases.

Psallidas I, Kanellakis NI, Gerry S, Thézénas ML, Charles PD, Samsonova A, Schiller HB, Fischer R, Asciak R, Hallifax RJ et al. 2018. Development and validation of response markers to predict survival and pleurodesis success in patients with malignant pleural effusion (PROMISE): a multicohort analysis. Lancet Oncol, 19 (7), pp. 930-939. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malignant pleural effusion is increasing worldwide, but prognostic biomarkers to plan treatment and to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unidentified. The PROMISE study was designed with the objectives to discover, validate, and prospectively assess biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis response in malignant pleural effusion and build a score that predicts survival. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used five separate and independent datasets from randomised controlled trials to investigate potential biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis. Mass spectrometry-based discovery was used to investigate pleural fluid samples for differential protein expression in patients from the discovery group with different survival and pleurodesis outcomes. Clinical, radiological, and biological variables were entered into least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression to build a model that predicts 3-month mortality. We evaluated the model using internal and external validation. FINDINGS: 17 biomarker candidates of survival and seven of pleurodesis were identified in the discovery dataset. Three independent datasets (n=502) were used for biomarker validation. All pleurodesis biomarkers failed, and gelsolin, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, versican, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) emerged as accurate predictors of survival. Eight variables (haemoglobin, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, cancer type, pleural fluid TIMP1 concentrations, and previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy) were validated and used to develop a survival score. Internal validation with bootstrap resampling and external validation with 162 patients from two independent datasets showed good discrimination (C statistic values of 0·78 [95% CI 0·72-0·83] for internal validation and 0·89 [0·84-0·93] for external validation of the clinical PROMISE score). INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, the PROMISE score is the first prospectively validated prognostic model for malignant pleural effusion that combines biological and clinical parameters to accurately estimate 3-month mortality. It is a robust, clinically relevant prognostic score that can be applied immediately, provide important information on patient prognosis, and guide the selection of appropriate management strategies. FUNDING: European Respiratory Society, Medical Research Funding-University of Oxford, Slater & Gordon Research Fund, and Oxfordshire Health Services Research Committee Research Grants.

Castro M, Corren J, Pavord ID, Maspero J, Wenzel S, Rabe KF, Busse WW, Ford L, Sher L, FitzGerald JM et al. 2018. Dupilumab Efficacy and Safety in Moderate-to-Severe Uncontrolled Asthma. N Engl J Med, 378 (26), pp. 2486-2496. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Dupilumab is a fully human anti-interleukin-4 receptor α monoclonal antibody that blocks both interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling. We assessed its efficacy and safety in patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1902 patients 12 years of age or older with uncontrolled asthma in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to receive add-on subcutaneous dupilumab at a dose of 200 or 300 mg every 2 weeks or matched-volume placebos for 52 weeks. The primary end points were the annualized rate of severe asthma exacerbations and the absolute change from baseline to week 12 in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) before bronchodilator use in the overall trial population. Secondary end points included the exacerbation rate and FEV1 in patients with a blood eosinophil count of 300 or more per cubic millimeter. Asthma control and dupilumab safety were also assessed. RESULTS: The annualized rate of severe asthma exacerbations was 0.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.53) among patients assigned to 200 mg of dupilumab every 2 weeks and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.05) among those assigned to a matched placebo, for a 47.7% lower rate with dupilumab than with placebo (P<0.001); similar results were seen with the dupilumab dose of 300 mg every 2 weeks. At week 12, the FEV1 had increased by 0.32 liters in patients assigned to the lower dose of dupilumab (difference vs. matched placebo, 0.14 liters; P<0.001); similar results were seen with the higher dose. Among patients with a blood eosinophil count of 300 or more per cubic millimeter, the annualized rate of severe asthma exacerbations was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.48) among those receiving lower-dose dupilumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.38) among those receiving a matched placebo (65.8% lower rate with dupilumab than with placebo; 95% CI, 52.0 to 75.6); similar results were observed with the higher dose. Blood eosinophilia occurred after the start of the intervention in 52 patients (4.1%) who received dupilumab as compared with 4 patients (0.6%) who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, patients who received dupilumab had significantly lower rates of severe asthma exacerbation than those who received placebo, as well as better lung function and asthma control. Greater benefits were seen in patients with higher baseline levels of eosinophils. Hypereosinophilia was observed in some patients. (Funded by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; LIBERTY ASTHMA QUEST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02414854 .).

Pavord ID. 2018. Biologics and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 141 (6), pp. 1983-1991. | Show Abstract | Read more

The presence of airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) provides a rationale for biological agents targeting specific inflammatory pathways. This approach has been strikingly effective in patients with other chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and asthma. However, there are important and unresolved challenges in COPD, including our incomplete understanding of heterogeneity of the lower airway inflammatory response and how these contribute to the clinical expression of disease. As a result, progress has been slow, and there have been many failures. One notable exception is the targeting of eosinophilic airway inflammation with anti-IL-5, which has an acknowledged and important role in the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Recent phase III studies have shown a reduction in exacerbations of around 20% in patients with COPD and clear evidence of a blood eosinophil count-dependent beneficial effect. The demonstration of clinical efficacy linked to a clinically accessible biomarker raises the possibility of precision biomarker-directed use of biological agents in patients with COPD. The hope is that this will be an exemplar for the future development of biological agents in patients with COPD.

Busse WW, Maspero JF, Rabe KF, Papi A, Wenzel SE, Ford LB, Pavord ID, Zhang B, Staudinger H, Pirozzi G et al. 2018. Liberty Asthma QUEST: Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate Dupilumab Efficacy/Safety in Patients with Uncontrolled, Moderate-to-Severe Asthma. Adv Ther, 35 (5), pp. 737-748. | Show Abstract | Read more

INTRODUCTION: Dupilumab, a fully human anti-IL-4Rα monoclonal antibody, inhibits signaling of both interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which are key drivers of type 2-mediated inflammation. Dupilumab is approved in the EU, USA, and other countries for the treatment of adults with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. Following positive phase 2 results in asthma, the phase 3 Liberty Asthma QUEST trial was initiated to provide further evidence for dupilumab efficacy and safety in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma. METHODS: Liberty Asthma QUEST is a phase 3, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial (NCT02414854) in patients with persistent asthma who are receiving continuous treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus one or two other asthma controller medicines. A total of 1902 patients (aged ≥ 12 years) were randomized in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to receive 52 weeks of add-on therapy with subcutaneously administered dupilumab 200 or 300 mg every 2 weeks or matched placebo. The study consisted of a 4 ± 1-week screening period, 52-week randomized treatment period, and 12-week post-treatment follow-up period. All patients continued to receive their prescribed ICS plus up to two additional controller medications. The primary efficacy endpoints were annualized rate of severe exacerbation events during the 52-week treatment period and absolute change from baseline in pre-bronchodilator FEV1 at week 12. CONCLUSION: Uncontrolled asthma patients with persistent symptoms represent a population of significant unmet need, for whom new treatments are required. Patients with severe asthma are at high risk of asthma exacerbations, and face an accelerated decline in lung function and impaired quality of life. QUEST examines the efficacy of dupilumab in this at-risk patient population; it is the largest placebo-controlled study in uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with a biologic agent to date, and the only phase 3 study of a biologic therapy of asthma that enrolled patients irrespective of baseline type 2 inflammatory biomarker levels. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. CLINICAL TRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02414854.

Ghebre MA, Pang PH, Diver S, Desai D, Bafadhel M, Haldar K, Kebadze T, Cohen S, Newbold P, Rapley L et al. 2018. Biological exacerbation clusters demonstrate asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap with distinct mediator and microbiome profiles. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 141 (6), pp. 2027-2036.e12. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the sputum cellular, mediator, and microbiome profiles of both asthma and COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Patients with severe asthma or moderate-to-severe COPD were recruited prospectively to a single center. Sputum mediators were available in 32 asthmatic patients and 73 patients with COPD assessed at exacerbation. Biologic clusters were determined by using factor and cluster analyses on a panel of sputum mediators. Patterns of clinical parameters, sputum mediators, and microbiome communities were assessed across the identified clusters. RESULTS: The asthmatic patients and patients with COPD had different clinical characteristics and inflammatory profiles but similar microbial ecology. Three exacerbation biologic clusters were identified. Cluster 1 was COPD predominant, with 27 patients with COPD and 7 asthmatic patients exhibiting increased blood and sputum neutrophil counts, proinflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6 receptor, TNF-α, TNF receptors 1 and 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor), and proportions of the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria. Cluster 2 had 10 asthmatic patients and 17 patients with COPD with increased blood and sputum eosinophil counts, type 2 mediators (IL-5, IL-13, CCL13, CCL17, and CCL26), and proportions of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. Cluster 3 had 15 asthmatic patients and 29 patients with COPD with increased type 1 mediators (CXCL10, CXCL11, and IFN-γ) and proportions of the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. CONCLUSIONS: A biologic clustering approach revealed 3 subgroups of asthma and COPD exacerbations, each with different percentages of patients with overlapping asthma and COPD. The sputum mediator and microbiome profiles were distinct between clusters.

Hancox RJ, Pavord ID, Sears MR. 2018. Associations between blood eosinophils and decline in lung function among adults with and without asthma. Eur Respir J, 51 (4), pp. 1702536-1702536. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodelling are characteristic features of asthma, but the association between them is unclear. We assessed associations between blood eosinophils and lung function decline in a population-based cohort of young adults.We used linear mixed models to analyse associations between blood eosinophils and spirometry at 21, 26, 32 and 38 years adjusting for sex, smoking, asthma and spirometry at age 18 years. We further analysed associations between mean eosinophil counts and changes in spirometry from ages 21 to 38 years.Higher eosinophils were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratios and lower FEV1 % predicted values for both pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry (all p-values ≤0.048). Although eosinophil counts were higher in participants with asthma, the associations between eosinophils and spirometry were similar among participants without asthma or wheeze. Participants with mean eosinophil counts >0.4×109 cells·L-1 between 21 and 38 years had greater declines in FEV1/FVC ratios (difference 1.8%, 95% CI 0.7-2.9%; p=0.001) and FEV1 values (difference 3.4% pred, 95% CI 1.5-5.4% pred); p=0.001) than those with lower counts.Blood eosinophils are associated with airflow obstruction and enhanced decline in lung function, independently of asthma and smoking. Eosinophilia is a risk factor for airflow obstruction even in those without symptoms.

Pascoe S, Pavord I, Hinds D, Locantore N, Barnes N. 2018. The association between blood eosinophils and risk and treatment outcome in COPD is not dichotomised. Lancet Respir Med, 6 (5), pp. e18. | Read more

Barker R, Shrimanker R, Russell R, Fenton-Woods J, Jones C, Smith L, Johnson M, Pavord I. 2018. P187 Seasonality of eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic exacerbations of copd (vol 72, pg A183, 2017) THORAX, 73 (4),

Brusselle G, Pavord ID, Landis S, Pascoe S, Lettis S, Morjaria N, Barnes N, Hilton E. 2018. Blood eosinophil levels as a biomarker in COPD. Respir Med, 138 pp. 21-31. | Show Abstract | Read more

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder and patients respond differently to treatment. Blood eosinophils are a potential biomarker to stratify patient subsets for COPD therapy. We reviewed the value of blood eosinophils in predicting exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatment in the available literature (PubMed articles in English; keywords: "COPD" and "eosinophil"; published prior to May 2017). Overall, clinical data suggest that in patients with a history of COPD exacerbations, a higher blood eosinophil count predicts an increased risk of future exacerbations and is associated with improved response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (in combination with long-acting bronchodilator[s]). Blood eosinophils are therefore a promising biomarker for phenotyping patients with COPD, although prospective studies are needed to assess blood eosinophils as a biomarker of corticosteroid response for this.

McKeever T, Mortimer K, Wilson A, Walker S, Brightling C, Skeggs A, Pavord I, Price D, Duley L, Thomas M et al. 2018. Quadrupling Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose to Abort Asthma Exacerbations. N Engl J Med, 378 (10), pp. 902-910. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are frightening for patients and are occasionally fatal. We tested the concept that a plan for patients to manage their asthma (self-management plan), which included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate, would reduce the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations among adults and adolescents with asthma. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, unblinded, randomized trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma who were receiving inhaled glucocorticoids, with or without add-on therapy, and who had had at least one exacerbation in the previous 12 months. We compared a self-management plan that included an increase in the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids by a factor of 4 (quadrupling group) with the same plan without such an increase (non-quadrupling group), over a period of 12 months. The primary outcome was the time to a first severe asthma exacerbation, defined as treatment with systemic glucocorticoids or an unscheduled health care consultation for asthma. RESULTS: A total of 1922 participants underwent randomization, of whom 1871 were included in the primary analysis. The number of participants who had a severe asthma exacerbation in the year after randomization was 420 (45%) in the quadrupling group as compared with 484 (52%) in the non-quadrupling group, with an adjusted hazard ratio for the time to a first severe exacerbation of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.92; P=0.002). The rate of adverse effects, which were related primarily to local effects of inhaled glucocorticoids, was higher in the quadrupling group than in the non-quadrupling group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma, a personalized self-management plan that included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate resulted in fewer severe asthma exacerbations than a plan in which the dose was not increased. (Funded by the Health Technology Assessment Programme of the National Institute for Health Research; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN15441965 .).

Pavord ID. 2018. Rebuttal From Dr Pavord. Chest, 153 (4), pp. 786-787. | Read more

Pavord ID. 2018. COUNTERPOINT: Should an Attempt Be Made to Withdraw Inhaled Corticosteroids in All Patients With Stable GOLD 3 (30% ≤ FEV1 < 50% Predicted) COPD? No. Chest, 153 (4), pp. 782-784. | Read more

Sciurba FC, Bradford ES, Pavord ID. 2018. Mepolizumab for Eosinophilic COPD. N Engl J Med, 378 (7), pp. 681-683. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord ID. 2018. 'We can't diagnose asthma until <insert arbitrary age>'. Arch Dis Child, 103 (8), pp. 729-731. | Read more

Hanratty CE, Matthews JG, Arron JR, Choy DF, Pavord ID, Bradding P, Brightling CE, Chaudhuri R, Cowan DC, Djukanovic R et al. 2018. A randomised pragmatic trial of corticosteroid optimization in severe asthma using a composite biomarker algorithm to adjust corticosteroid dose versus standard care: study protocol for a randomised trial. Trials, 19 (1), pp. 5. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Patients with difficult-to-control asthma consume 50-60% of healthcare costs attributed to asthma and cost approximately five-times more than patients with mild stable disease. Recent evidence demonstrates that not all patients with asthma have a typical type 2 (T2)-driven eosinophilic inflammation. These asthmatics have been called 'T2-low asthma' and have a minimal response to corticosteroid therapy. Adjustment of corticosteroid treatment using sputum eosinophil counts from induced sputum has demonstrated reduced severe exacerbation rates and optimized corticosteroid dose. However, it has been challenging to move induced sputum into the clinical setting. There is therefore a need to examine novel algorithms to target appropriate levels of corticosteroid treatment in difficult asthma, particularly in T2-low asthmatics. This study examines whether a composite non-invasive biomarker algorithm predicts exacerbation risk in patients with asthma on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (± long-acting beta agonist) treatment, and evaluates the utility of this composite score to facilitate personalized biomarker-specific titration of corticosteroid therapy. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients recruited to this pragmatic, multi-centre, single-blinded randomised controlled trial are randomly allocated into either a biomarker controlled treatment advisory algorithm or usual care group in a ratio of 4:1. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with any reduction in ICS or oral corticosteroid dose from baseline to week 48. Secondary outcomes include the rate of protocol-defined severe exacerbations per patient per year, time to first severe exacerbation from randomisation, dose of inhaled steroid at the end of the study, cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid during the study, proportion of patients on oral corticosteroids at the end of the study, proportion of patients who decline to progress to oral corticosteroids despite composite biomarker score of 2, frequency of hospital admission for asthma, change in the 7-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-7), Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), exhaled nitric oxide, blood eosinophil count, and periostin levels from baseline to week 48. Blood will also be taken for whole blood gene expression; serum, plasma, and urine will be stored for validation of additional biomarkers. DISCUSSION: Multi-centre trials present numerous logistical issues that have been addressed to ensure minimal bias and robustness of study conduct. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02717689 . Registered on 16 March 2016.

Bruton A, Lee A, Yardley L, Raftery J, Arden-Close E, Kirby S, Zhu S, Thiruvothiyur M, Webley F, Taylor L et al. 2018. Physiotherapy breathing retraining for asthma: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med, 6 (1), pp. 19-28. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Despite effective pharmacotherapy, asthma continues to impair quality of life for most patients. Non-pharmacological approaches, including breathing retraining, are therefore of great interest to patients. However, clinicians rarely advocate breathing retraining and access to this intervention is restricted for most patients due to the limited availability of suitable physiotherapists and poor integration of breathing retraining into standard care. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a digital self-guided breathing retraining intervention. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients from 34 general practices in the UK. Eligibility criteria for patients with asthma were broad, comprising a physician diagnosis of asthma, age of 16-70 years, receipt of at least one anti-asthma medication in the previous year, and impaired asthma-related quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire [AQLQ] score of <5·5). We developed a self-guided intervention, which was delivered as a DVD plus a printed booklet (DVDB). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the DVDB intervention, three face-to-face breathing retraining sessions, or standard care, in a 2:1:2 ratio, for 12 months. Randomisation was achieved using the Southampton Clinical Trials Unit telephone randomisation service by use of random number generators. The primary outcome was the AQLQ score in the intention-to-treat population at 12 months. The trial was powered to show equivalence between the two active intervention groups, and superiority of both intervention groups over usual care. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported and physiological measures of asthma control, patient acceptability, and health-care costs. This trial was registered with International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN88318003. FINDINGS: Between Nov 5, 2012 and Jan 28, 2014, invitations to participate in the study were sent to 15 203 patients with general practitioner-diagnosed asthma, of whom 655 were recruited into the study. AQLQ scores at 12 months were significantly higher in the DVDB group (mean 5·40, SD 1·14) than in the usual care group (5·12, SD 1·17; adjusted mean difference 0·28, 95% CI 0·11 to 0·44), and in the face-to-face group (5·33, SD 1·06) than in the usual care group (adjusted mean difference 0·24, 95% CI 0·04 to 0·44); AQLQ scores were similar between the DVDB group and the face-to-face group (0·04, 95% CI -0·16 to 0·24). There were no significant differences between the randomisation groups in FEV1 or fraction of exhaled nitric oxide. 744 adverse events occurred in 272 patients: 101 (39%) of 261 patients in the DVDB group, 55 (42%) of 132 patients in the face-to-face group, and 132 (50%) of 262 in the usual care group, with patients reporting one or more event. 11 (4%) patients in the DVDB group, four (3%) patients in the face-to-face group, and 20 (8%) patients in the usual care group had a serious adverse event. INTERPRETATION: Breathing retraining programmes improve quality of life in patients with incompletely controlled asthma despite having little effect on lung function or airway inflammation. Such programmes can be delivered conveniently and cost-effectively as a self-guided digital audiovisual programme, so might also reduce health-care costs. FUNDING: UK National Institute of Health Research.

Kerkhof M, Tran TN, van den Berge M, Brusselle GG, Gopalan G, Jones RCM, Kocks JWH, Menzies-Gow A, Nuevo J, Pavord ID et al. 2018. Association between blood eosinophil count and risk of readmission for patients with asthma: Historical cohort study. PLoS One, 13 (7), pp. e0201143. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated an association between high blood eosinophil counts and greater risk of asthma exacerbations. We sought to determine whether patients hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation were at greater risk of readmission if they had a high blood eosinophil count documented before the first hospitalization. METHODS: This historical cohort study drew on 2 years of medical record data (Clinical Practice Research Datalink with Hospital Episode Statistics linkage) of patients (aged ≥5 years) admitted to hospital in England for asthma, with recorded blood eosinophil count within 1 baseline year before admission. We analyzed the association between high blood eosinophil count (≥0.35x109 cells/L) and readmission risk during 1 year of follow-up after hospital discharge, with adjustment for predefined, relevant confounders using forward selection. RESULTS: We identified 2,613 eligible patients with asthma-related admission, of median age 51 years (interquartile range, 36-69) and 76% women (1,997/2,613). Overall, 835/2,613 (32.0%) had a preadmission high blood eosinophil count. During the follow-up year, 130/2,613 patients (5.0%) were readmitted for asthma, including 55/835 (6.6%) with vs. 75/1,778 (4.2%) without high blood eosinophil count at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.49; 95% CI 1.04-2.13, p = 0.029). The association was strongest in never-smokers (n = 1,296; HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.27-3.68, p = 0.005) and absent in current smokers (n = 547; HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.49-2.04, p = 0.997). CONCLUSIONS: A high blood eosinophil count in the year before an asthma-related hospitalization is associated with increased risk of readmission within the following year. These findings suggest that patients with asthma and preadmission high blood eosinophil count require careful follow-up, with treatment optimization, after discharge.

Gunsoy NB, Cockle SM, Yancey SW, Keene ON, Bradford ES, Albers FC, Pavord ID. 2018. Evaluation of Potential Continuation Rules for Mepolizumab Treatment of Severe Eosinophilic Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 6 (3), pp. 874-882.e4. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Mepolizumab significantly reduces exacerbations in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. The early identification of patients likely to receive long-term benefit from treatment could ensure effective resource allocation. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential continuation rules for mepolizumab in addition to initiation criteria defined as 2 or more exacerbations in the previous year and blood eosinophil counts of 150 cells/μL or more at initiation or 300 cells/μL or more in the previous year. METHODS: This post hoc analysis included data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (NCT01000506 and NCT01691521) of mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma (N = 1,192). Rules based on blood eosinophils, physician-rated response to treatment, FEV1, Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5) score, and exacerbation reduction were assessed at week 16. To assess these rules, 2 key metrics accounting for the effects observed in the placebo arm were developed. RESULTS: Patients not meeting continuation rules based on physician-rated response, FEV1, and the ACQ-5 score still derived long-term benefit from mepolizumab. Nearly all patients failing to reduce blood eosinophils had counts of 150 cells/μL or less at baseline. For exacerbations, assessment after 16 weeks was potentially premature for predicting future exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of a reliable physician-rated response, ACQ-5 score, or lung function-based continuation rule. The added value of changes in blood eosinophils at week 16 over baseline was marginal. Initiation criteria for mepolizumab treatment provide the best method for assessing patient benefit from mepolizumab treatment, and treatment continuation should be reviewed on the basis of a predefined reduction in long-term exacerbation frequency and/or oral corticosteroid dose.

Yancey SW, Keene ON, Albers FC, Ortega H, Bates S, Bleecker ER, Pavord I. 2017. Biomarkers for severe eosinophilic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 140 (6), pp. 1509-1518. | Show Abstract | Read more

The last decade has seen the approval of several new biologics for the treatment of severe asthma-targeting specific endotypes and phenotypes. This review will examine how evidence generated from the mepolizumab clinical development program showed that blood eosinophil counts, rather than sputum or tissue eosinophil counts, evolved as a pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker for the efficacy of treatment with mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Based on the available evidence and combined with clinical judgement, a baseline blood eosinophil threshold of 150 cells/μL or greater or a historical blood eosinophil threshold of 300 cells/μL or greater will allow selection of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who are most likely to achieve clinically significant reductions in the rate of exacerbations with mepolizumab treatment.

Haughney J, Morice A, Blyth KG, Lee AJ, Coutts A, McKnight E, Pavord I. 2018. A retrospective cohort study in severe asthma describing commonly measured biomarkers: Eosinophil count and IgE levels. Respir Med, 134 pp. 117-123. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Identifying asthma patients suitable for biologic therapy includes the assessment of blood biomarkers (IgE and eosinophils (EOS)). How they relate to each other is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective, database study used routinely collected clinical data to identify and evaluate an asthma cohort (classification code for asthma; ≥ 18 years; ≥1 prescription for asthma; ≥1 estimation of serum IgE, in 2 years prior to index date). Distribution into high and low IgE and EOS groups (IgE cut-point: > or ≤75 kU/L; EOS cut point: >or ≤400 μ/L), and characteristics by group are described. FINDINGS: In patients with severe asthma (British Thoracic Society Step (BTS) ≥4; N = 884), using maximum recorded IgE/EOS, 33% had high IgE/high EOS, 28% low IgE/low EOS and approximately a fifth each had high IgE/low EOS or low IgE/high EOS. Proportions were similar when EOS values measured 2 or 4 weeks before an exacerbation were excluded. Using EOS/IgE 'same day' measurements (N = 578) only identified half of the high EOS group. Patients in high IgE groups were more likely to be younger males without comorbid COPD; those in high EOS groups were more likely to be on BTS treatment Step 5 vs 4. The low IgE/low EOS group had the lowest incidence of asthma-related hospital attendances, the highest incidence was observed in the high EOS groups. CONCLUSION: Maximum available EOS measurement irrespective of exacerbations may be relevant when considering therapy. These data showed low IgE/Low EOS to be more benign and high EOS groups at increased risk of frequent, severe exacerbations.

Hinks TSC, Batty P, Klenerman P, Pavord ID, Xue L. 2017. Cytometric Gating Stringency Impacts Studies of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Asthma. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 57 (6), pp. 745-747. | Read more

Cooper CB, Brusselle G, Pascoe SJ, Pavord ID. 2018. The Significance of Eosinophilic Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 197 (7), pp. 967-968. | Read more

Hull JH, Pavord ID. 2018. Treating asthma exacerbations in athletes: TUE or not TUE? Lancet Respir Med, 6 (1), pp. 8-10. | Read more

Pavord ID, Chanez P, Criner GJ, Kerstjens HAM, Korn S, Lugogo N, Martinot J-B, Sagara H, Albers FC, Bradford ES et al. 2017. Mepolizumab for Eosinophilic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med, 377 (17), pp. 1613-1629. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with an eosinophilic phenotype may benefit from treatment with mepolizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-5. METHODS: We performed two phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trials comparing mepolizumab (100 mg in METREX, 100 or 300 mg in METREO) with placebo, given as a subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks for 52 weeks in patients with COPD who had a history of moderate or severe exacerbations while taking inhaled glucocorticoid-based triple maintenance therapy. In METREX, unselected patients in the modified intention-to-treat population with an eosinophilic phenotype were stratified according to blood eosinophil count (≥150 per cubic millimeter at screening or ≥300 per cubic millimeter during the previous year). In METREO, all patients had a blood eosinophil count of at least 150 per cubic millimeter at screening or at least 300 per cubic millimeter during the previous year. The primary end point was the annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: In METREX, the mean annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations in the modified intention-to-treat population with an eosinophilic phenotype (462 patients) was 1.40 per year in the mepolizumab group versus 1.71 per year in the placebo group (rate ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.98; adjusted P=0.04); no significant between-group differences were found in the overall modified intention-to-treat population (836 patients) (rate ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.12; adjusted P>0.99). In METREO, the mean annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations was 1.19 per year in the 100-mg mepolizumab group, 1.27 per year in the 300-mg mepolizumab group, and 1.49 per year in the placebo group. The rate ratios for exacerbations in the 100-mg and 300-mg mepolizumab groups versus the placebo group were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98; adjusted P=0.07) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.05; adjusted P=0.14), respectively. A greater effect of mepolizumab, as compared with placebo, on the annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations was found among patients with higher blood eosinophil counts at screening. The safety profile of mepolizumab was similar to that of placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Mepolizumab at a dose of 100 mg was associated with a lower annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations than placebo among patients with COPD and an eosinophilic phenotype. This finding suggests that eosinophilic airway inflammation contributes to COPD exacerbations. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; METREX and METREO ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02105948 and NCT02105961 .).

Agustí A, Bafadhel M, Beasley R, Bel EH, Faner R, Gibson PG, Louis R, McDonald VM, Sterk PJ, Thomas M et al. 2017. Precision medicine in airway diseases: moving to clinical practice. Eur Respir J, 50 (4), pp. 1701655-1701655. | Show Abstract | Read more

On February 21, 2017, a European Respiratory Society research seminar held in Barcelona discussed how to best apply precision medicine to chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is now clear that both are complex and heterogeneous diseases, that often overlap and that both require individualised assessment and treatment. This paper summarises the presentations and discussions that took place during the seminar. Specifically, we discussed the need for a new taxonomy of human diseases, the role of different players in this scenario (exposome, genes, endotypes, phenotypes, biomarkers and treatable traits) and a number of unanswered key questions in the field. We also addressed how to deploy airway precision medicine in clinical practice today, both in primary and specialised care. Finally, we debated the type of research needed to move the field forward.

Spinou A, Lee KK, Sinha A, Elston C, Loebinger MR, Wilson R, Chung KF, Yousaf N, Pavord ID, Matos S et al. 2017. The Objective Assessment of Cough Frequency in Bronchiectasis. Lung, 195 (5), pp. 575-585. | Show Abstract | Read more

INTRODUCTION: Cough in bronchiectasis is associated with significant impairment in health status. This study aimed to quantify cough frequency objectively with a cough monitor and investigate its relationship with health status. A secondary aim was to identify clinical predictors of cough frequency. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with bronchiectasis were compared with thirty-five healthy controls. Objective 24-h cough, health status (cough-specific: Leicester Cough Questionnaire LCQ and bronchiectasis specific: Bronchiectasis Health Questionnaire BHQ), cough severity and lung function were measured. The clinical predictors of cough frequency in bronchiectasis were determined in a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Objective cough frequency was significantly raised in patients with bronchiectasis compared to healthy controls [geometric mean (standard deviation)] 184.5 (4.0) vs. 20.6 (3.2) coughs/24-h; mean fold-difference (95% confidence interval) 8.9 (5.2, 15.2); p < 0.001 and they had impaired health status. There was a significant correlation between objective cough frequency and subjective measures; LCQ r = -0.52 and BHQ r = -0.62, both p < 0.001. Sputum production, exacerbations (between past 2 weeks to 12 months) and age were significantly associated with objective cough frequency in multivariate analysis, explaining 52% of the variance (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant association between cough frequency and lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Cough is a common and significant symptom in patients with bronchiectasis. Sputum production, exacerbations and age, but not lung function, were independent predictors of cough frequency. Ambulatory objective cough monitoring provides novel insights and should be further investigated as an outcome measure in bronchiectasis.

Clark VL, Gibson PG, Genn G, Hiles SA, Pavord ID, McDonald VM. 2017. Multidimensional assessment of severe asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology, 22 (7), pp. 1262-1275. | Show Abstract | Read more

The management of severe asthma is complex. Multidimensional assessment (MDA) of specific traits has been proposed as an effective strategy to manage severe asthma, although it is supported by few prospective studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature published on MDA in severe asthma, to identify the traits included in MDA and to determine the effect of MDA on asthma-related outcomes. We identified 26 studies and classified these based on study type (cohort/cross-sectional studies; experimental/outcome studies; and severe asthma disease registries). Study type determined the comprehensiveness of the assessment. Assessed traits were classified into three domains (airways, co-morbidities and risk factors). The airway domain had the largest number of traits assessed (mean ± SD = 4.2 ± 1.7) compared with co-morbidities (3.6 ± 2.2) and risk factors (3.9 ± 2.1). Bronchodilator reversibility and airflow limitation were assessed in 92% of studies, whereas airway inflammation was only assessed in 50%. Commonly assessed co-morbidities were psychological dysfunction, sinusitis (both 73%) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD; 69%). Atopic and smoking statuses were the most commonly assessed risk factors (85% and 86%, respectively). There were six outcome studies, of which five concluded that MDA is effective at improving asthma-related outcomes. Among these studies, significantly more traits were assessed than treated. MDA studies have assessed a variety of different traits and have shown evidence of improved outcomes. This promising model of care requires more research to inform which traits should be assessed, which traits should be treated and what effect MDA has on patient outcomes.

Bush A, Pavord ID. 2017. After the asthmas: Star Wars and Star Trek. Eur Respir J, 50 (3), pp. 1701362-1701362. | Read more

Pavord ID, Beasley R, Agusti A, Anderson GP, Bel E, Brusselle G, Cullinan P, Custovic A, Ducharme FM, Fahy JV et al. 2018. After asthma: redefining airways diseases. Lancet, 391 (10118), pp. 350-400. | Read more

Bafadhel M, Pavord ID, Russell REK. 2017. Eosinophils in COPD: just another biomarker? Lancet Respir Med, 5 (9), pp. 747-759. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophils are innate immune cells that, under certain conditions, can be recruited to the lungs, where they have an incompletely understood role in health and disease. Eosinophils have been found in the airways, tissues, and circulation of patients with COPD, during both stable disease and exacerbations. Epidemiological studies and post-hoc analyses of clinical trials of corticosteroid treatment for COPD have shown that the blood eosinophil count is associated with the risk of COPD exacerbations, mortality, decline in FEV1, and response to both inhaled and systemic corticosteroids. Further studies are urgently needed to explore the contribution of eosinophils to the mechanism of disease in COPD and to identify their association with levels of clinical risk. In this review, we explore the role of the eosinophil as a biomarker and mediator of disease in COPD.

Brusselle G, Pavord I. 2017. Azithromycin in uncontrolled asthma. Lancet, 390 (10095), pp. 629-630. | Read more

Morice AH, McGarvey L, Pavord ID, Higgins B, Chung KF, Birring SS. 2017. Theobromine for the treatment of persistent cough: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Thorac Dis, 9 (7), pp. 1864-1872. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of BC1036 on health-related quality of life (QOL) in subjects with persistent cough. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of BC1036 on subjective cough severity. METHODS: This was a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 289 subjects with persistent cough. Subjects received BC1036 or placebo twice daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint comprised cough-related QOL assessed using the validated Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) at Day 14. Secondary endpoints comprised the LCQ scores at Day 7 and Day 28, cough severity VAS scores at each visit and pulmonary function tests. RESULTS: At baseline, mean total LCQ score in the BC1036 group was lower (i.e., worse QOL) than placebo (P<0.001), indicating significant between-group heterogeneity. Mean baseline-adjusted change in LCQ score at Day 14 was greater for BC1036 [mean (SD) 2.4±3.5] compared to placebo [mean (SD) score 2.2±3.0], but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.60). Mean cough severity VAS score decreased to a greater extent in the BC1036 group compared to placebo, but again the results were not statistically significant (-12.2±23.28 in BC1036 group and -11.0±21.34 in placebo group at Day 14, P=0.688). There was no significant change in pulmonary function measurements. The adverse event (AE) profile was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that BC1036 was well tolerated and, although the primary endpoint did not achieve statistical significance, the magnitude of improvement was greater with BC1036 compared to placebo with respect to improving QOL and reducing cough severity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01656668.

Kerkhof M, Sonnappa S, Postma DS, Brusselle G, Agustí A, Anzueto A, Jones R, Papi A, Pavord I, Pizzichini E et al. 2017. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbation risk in patients with COPD. Eur Respir J, 50 (1), pp. 1700761-1700761. | Read more

Bilocca D, Hargadon B, Pavord ID, Green RH, Brightling CE, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Martin N, Murphy AC, Siddiqui S. 2018. The role of oral methotrexate as a steroid sparing agent in refractory eosinophilic asthma. Chron Respir Dis, 15 (1), pp. 85-87. | Show Abstract | Read more

The use of oral methotrexate for refractory eosinophilic asthma in a tertiary asthma referral centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, was evaluated between January 2006 and December 2014. The patients ( n = 61) were carefully phenotyped at baseline with markers of airway inflammation. In addition, a structured oral methotrexate proforma was utilized to evaluate response to therapy and adverse events. Oral steroid withdrawal was attempted 3 months after commencing treatment. Several outcomes were evaluated at 12 months, including both efficacy and adverse effects; 15% ( n = 9/61) responded by achieving a decrease in daily oral corticosteroid dose (mean 8.43 (±8.76) mg), although we were unable to identify factors that predicted a treatment response. There were no other significant changes in any other clinical outcome measures. There was a high rate of adverse events (19/61 (31%)), primarily gastrointestinal/hepatitis. Our findings support the use of biological agents in preference to using oral methotrexate as a steroid sparing agent at the first instance. In the event of failure of these agents, oral methotrexate remains a therapeutic option, which can be considered in highly specialist severe asthma centres.

Shrimanker R, Choo XN, Pavord ID. 2017. A new approach to the classification and management of airways diseases: identification of treatable traits. Clin Sci (Lond), 131 (10), pp. 1027-1043. | Show Abstract | Read more

This review outlines a new, personalized approach for the classification and management of airway diseases. The current approach to airways disease is, we believe, no longer fit for purpose. It is impractical, overgeneralizes complex and heterogeneous conditions and results in management that is imprecise and outcomes that are worse than they could be. Importantly, the assumptions we make when applying a diagnostic label have impeded new drug discovery and will continue to do so unless we change our approach. This review suggests a new mechanism-based approach where the emphasis is on identification of key causal mechanisms and targeted intervention with treatment based on possession of the relevant mechanism rather than an arbitrary label. We highlight several treatable traits and suggest how they can be identified and managed in different healthcare settings.

Buhl R, Humbert M, Bjermer L, Chanez P, Heaney LG, Pavord I, Quirce S, Virchow JC, Holgate S, expert group of the European Consensus Meeting for Severe Eosinophilic Asthma. 2017. Severe eosinophilic asthma: a roadmap to consensus. Eur Respir J, 49 (5), pp. 1700634-1700634. | Read more

Pavord ID. 2017. Mepolizumab, quality of life, and severe eosinophilic asthma. Lancet Respir Med, 5 (5), pp. 362-363. | Read more

Shrimanker R, Pavord ID. 2017. Interleukin-5 Inhibitors for Severe Asthma: Rationale and Future Outlook. BioDrugs, 31 (2), pp. 93-103. | Show Abstract | Read more

In this review, we outline the pathophysiology of severe asthma and discuss the role of anti-interleukin (IL)-5 inhibitors for the treatment of asthma. Anti-IL-5 treatments have shown efficacy in reducing the rate of severe asthma attacks in eosinophilic asthma. We review the history of the development of these agents, lessons learnt about severe asthma along the way and key clinical trials supporting efficacy of the three anti-IL-5 treatments that are clinically available or undergoing clinical trials in asthma.

Pavord ID, Mathieson N, Scowcroft A, Pedersini R, Isherwood G, Price D. 2017. The impact of poor asthma control among asthma patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonists in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional analysis. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, 27 (1), pp. 17. | Show Abstract | Read more

There are several new treatment options for patients whose asthma remains uncontrolled on free-dose and fixed-dose combinations of inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonists (ICS+LABA). In order to evaluate the likely impact of these treatments, we assessed the effect of uncontrolled asthma on healthcare and patient burden within the UK among adult patients treated with ICS+LABA. Data obtained from 2010-2011 UK National Health and Wellness Surveys identified 701 patients treated with ICS+LABA. Patients with not well-controlled asthma (Asthma Control Test™ score <20) were compared with well-controlled asthma (score ≥ 20) patients on multiple measures. Cost burden was calculated using healthcare resource utilisation models and work productivity and impairment questionnaire. Overall, 452 and 249 patients reported not well-controlled and well-controlled asthma, respectively. A greater proportion of not well-controlled patients visited the accident & emergency department (21 vs. 14%, P = 0.016), were hospitalised (13 vs. 8%, P = 0.022) and had lower mental and physical health-related quality of life (P < 0.001) and impaired work productivity and activity scores: presenteeism (23 vs. 11%, P < 0.001), work impairment (29 vs. 17%, P < 0.001) and activity impairment (46 vs. 24%, P < 0.001). Calculated direct and indirect yearly costs/person doubled among not well-controlled compared to well-controlled asthma patients (£6592 vs. £3220). Total cost to society was estimated at £6172 million/year (direct costs, £1307 million; indirect costs, £4865 million). In conclusion, not well-controlled asthma is common among UK adults treated with ICS+LABA, resulting in impairments across a number of important health outcomes and represents a significant unmet need and resource burden. ASTHMA: DRUG COMBO LEAVES MANY WITH UNCONTROLLED DISEASE: Many people who take inhaled steroids combined with long-acting β2-agonist drugs still have poorly controlled asthma. A team led by Ian Pavord from the University of Oxford, UK, identified 701 people from the 2010-2011 UK National Health and Wellness Surveys who were taking this drug combination for their asthma. The researchers found that nearly two-thirds of these individuals had poorly controlled asthma associated with more visits to the emergency room, worse quality of life (both mentally and physically), impaired productivity and other health problems. The calculated direct and indirect costs per person with poorly controlled asthma were about double that for someone whose asthma was under control. The authors conclude that better treatment and management is needed to reduce costs and address the unmet medical need for people with persistent uncontrolled asthma.

Pavord ID, Afzalnia S, Menzies-Gow A, Heaney LG. 2017. The current and future role of biomarkers in type 2 cytokine-mediated asthma management. Clin Exp Allergy, 47 (2), pp. 148-160. | Show Abstract | Read more

Assessment and management of asthma is complicated by the heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie its clinical presentation, which are not necessarily reflected in standardized management paradigms and which necessitate an individualized approach to treatment. This is particularly important with the emerging availability of a variety of targeted forms of therapy that may only be appropriate for use in particular patient subgroups. The identification of biomarkers can potentially aid diagnosis and inform prognosis, help guide treatment decisions and allow clinicians to predict and monitor response to treatment. Biomarkers for asthma have been identified from a variety of sources, including airway, exhaled breath and blood. Biomarkers from exhaled breath include fractional exhaled nitric oxide, measurement of which can help identify patients most likely to benefit from inhaled corticosteroids and targeted anti-immunoglobulin E therapy. Biomarkers measured in blood are relatively non-invasive and technically more straightforward than those measured from exhaled breath or directly from the airway. The most well established of these are the blood eosinophil count and serum periostin, both of which have demonstrated utility in identifying patients most likely to benefit from targeted anti-interleukin and anti-immunoglobulin E therapies, and in monitoring subsequent treatment response. For example, serum periostin appears to be a biomarker for responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid therapy and may help identify patients as suitable candidates for anti-IL-13 treatment. The use of biomarkers can therefore potentially help avoid unnecessary morbidity from high-dose corticosteroid therapy and allow the most appropriate and cost-effective use of targeted therapies. Ongoing clinical trials are helping to further elucidate the role of established biomarkers in routine clinical practice, and a range of other circulating novel potential biomarkers are currently being investigated in the research setting.

Salimi M, Stöger L, Liu W, Go S, Pavord I, Klenerman P, Ogg G, Xue L. 2017. Cysteinyl leukotriene E4 activates human group 2 innate lymphoid cells and enhances the effect of prostaglandin D2 and epithelial cytokines. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 140 (4), pp. 1090-1100.e11. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a potential innate source of type 2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of allergic conditions. Epithelial cytokines (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP]) and mast cell mediators (prostaglandin D2 [PGD2]) are critical activators of ILC2s. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), including leukotriene (LT) C4, LTD4, and LTE4, are metabolites of arachidonic acid and mediate inflammatory responses. Their role in human ILC2s is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the role of cysLTs and their relationship with other ILC2 stimulators in the activation of human ILC2s. METHODS: For ex vivo studies, fresh blood from patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy control subjects was analyzed with flow cytometry. For in vitro studies, ILC2s were isolated and cultured. The effects of cysLTs, PGD2, IL-33, IL-25, TSLP, and IL-2 alone or in combination on ILC2s were defined by using chemotaxis, apoptosis, ELISA, Luminex, quantitative RT-PCR, and flow cytometric assays. The effect of endogenous cysLTs was assessed by using human mast cell supernatants. RESULTS: Human ILC2s expressed the LT receptor CysLT1, levels of which were increased in atopic subjects. CysLTs, particularly LTE4, induced migration, reduced apoptosis, and promoted cytokine production in human ILC2s in vitro. LTE4 enhanced the effect of PGD2, IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, resulting in increased production of type 2 and other proinflammatory cytokines. The effect of LTE4 was inhibited by montelukast, a CysLT1 antagonist. Interestingly, addition of IL-2 to LTE4 and epithelial cytokines significantly amplified ILC2 activation and upregulated expression of the receptors for IL-33 and IL-25. CONCLUSION: CysLTs, particularly LTE4, are important contributors to the triggering of human ILC2s in inflammatory responses, particularly when combined with other ILC2 activators.

Bousquet J, Farrell J, Crooks G, Hellings P, Bel EH, Bewick M, Chavannes NH, de Sousa JC, Cruz AA, Haahtela T et al. 2017. Erratum to: Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5). Clin Transl Allergy, 7 (1), pp. 5. | Show Abstract | Read more

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13601-016-0116-9.].

Hilvering B, Vijverberg SJH, Jansen J, Houben L, Schweizer RC, Go S, Xue L, Pavord ID, Lammers J-WJ, Koenderman L. 2017. Diagnosing eosinophilic asthma using a multivariate prediction model based on blood granulocyte responsiveness. Allergy, 72 (8), pp. 1202-1211. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The identification of inflammatory asthma phenotypes, using sputum analysis, has proven its value in diagnosis and disease monitoring. However due to technical limitations of sputum analysis, there is a strong need for fast and noninvasive diagnostics. This study included the activation state of eosinophils and neutrophils in peripheral blood to phenotype and monitor asthma. OBJECTIVES: To (i) construct a multivariable model using the activation state of blood granulocytes, (ii) compare its diagnostic value with sputum eosinophilia as gold standard and (iii) validate the model in an independent patient cohort. METHODS: Clinical parameters, activation of blood granulocytes and sputum characteristics were assessed in 115 adult patients with asthma (training cohort/Utrecht) and 34 patients (validation cohort/Oxford). RESULTS: The combination of blood eosinophil count, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, Asthma Control Questionnaire, medication use, nasal polyposis, aspirin sensitivity and neutrophil/eosinophil responsiveness upon stimulation with formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine was found to identify sputum eosinophilia with 90.5% sensitivity and 91.5% specificity in the training cohort and with 77% sensitivity and 71% specificity in the validation cohort (relatively high percentage on oral corticosteroids [OCS]). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed prediction model identifies eosinophilic asthma without the need for sputum induction. The model forms a noninvasive and externally validated test to assess eosinophilic asthma in patients not on OCS.

Hynes G, Pavord ID. 2016. Asthma-like Features and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 194 (11), pp. 1308-1309. | Read more

Harnan SE, Essat M, Gomersall T, Tappenden P, Pavord I, Everard M, Lawson R. 2017. Exhaled nitric oxide in the diagnosis of asthma in adults: a systematic review. Clin Exp Allergy, 47 (3), pp. 410-429. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesize evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of FE NO for asthma in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic searches (nine key biomedical databases and trial registers) were carried out on November 2014. Records were included if they recruited patients with the symptoms of asthma; used a single set of inclusion criteria; measured FE NO50 in accordance with American Thoracic Society guidelines, 2005 (off-line excluded); reported/allowed calculation of true-positive, true-negative, false-positive and false-negative patients as classified against any reference standard. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS II. Meta-analysis was planned where clinical study heterogeneity allowed. Rule-in and rule-out uses of FE NO were considered. RESULTS: A total of 4861 records were identified originally and 1312 in an update. Twenty-seven studies were included. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Results varied even within subgroups of studies. Cut-off values for the best sum of sensitivity and specificity varied from 12 to 55 p.p.b., but did not produce high accuracy. 100% sensitivity or 100% specificity was reported by some studies indicating potential use as a rule-in or rule-out strategy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: FE NO50 had variable diagnostic accuracy even within subgroups of studies with similar characteristics. Diagnostic accuracy, optimal cut-off values and best position for FE NO50 within a pathway remain poorly evidenced.

Price D, Miravitlles M, Pavord I, Thomas M, Wedzicha J, Haughney J, Bichel K, West D. 2016. First maintenance therapy for COPD in the UK between 2009 and 2012: a retrospective database analysis. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, 26 (1), pp. 16061. | Show Abstract | Read more

Clinical guidelines recommend long-acting bronchodilators as first maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reserved for patients with more severe disease and exacerbations. The aim of this analysis was to examine real-life prescribing of first maintenance therapy for COPD in the UK. Data were extracted from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database for patients with a first prescription for COPD maintenance therapy between 2009 and 2012 and a diagnosis of COPD at or before the date of the first prescription for COPD maintenance therapy. Routine clinical data including demographics, disease history and symptoms, comorbidities, therapy, hospitalisation rate and exacerbation rate were collected and used to characterise patients stratified by disease severity and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group (A-D). The analysis population included 2,217 individuals (55.4% male, 45.2% smokers). Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) as monotherapy were prescribed as first maintenance therapy for 40.2% of patients. ICS were prescribed as ICS/long-acting beta-agonists combination for 29.1% of patients or as monotherapy for 15.5%. ICS (alone or in combination) were prescribed to >40% of patients in each GOLD group. ICS-containing regimens were prescribed to patients with a history of pneumonia and comorbid conditions for whom the risks of ICS therapy may outweigh the benefits. The clinical reality of prescribing indicates that ICS are often prescribed outside current guideline recommendations for many patients newly diagnosed with COPD in the UK. Encouragingly, LAMAs are increasingly being prescribed as first maintenance therapy for these patients.

Skeggs A, McKeever T, Duley L, Mitchell E, Bradshaw L, Mortimer K, Walker S, Parrott S, Wilson A, Pavord I et al. 2016. FourFold Asthma Study (FAST): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical cost-effectiveness of temporarily quadrupling the dose of inhaled steroid to prevent asthma exacerbations. Trials, 17 (1), pp. 499. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the commonest chronic diseases in the UK. Acute exacerbations of asthma are unpredictable, disruptive and frightening. They cause considerable morbidity and account for a large component of the health service costs of asthma. The widespread use of an asthma self-management plan, designed to encourage disease monitoring and timely intervention, can reduce exacerbations and is, therefore, recommended for all patients with asthma. Unfortunately, the majority of patients are not provided with such a plan. There are a variety of reasons for this but uncertainty about what to include in the plan when asthma control is deteriorating, but before the need for orally administered corticosteroids, is a contributing factor. The aim of this trial is to determine whether an asthma self-management plan, which includes a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled corticosteroid when asthma control starts to deteriorate, reduces asthma exacerbations requiring orally administered corticosteroids or unscheduled health care consultation for asthma. METHODS: A multicentre, pragmatic, randomised trial in adults aged over 16 years with a clinical diagnosis of asthma, treated with a licensed dose of inhaled corticosteroid and at least one exacerbation in the previous 12 months requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Participants will be randomised to either a self-management plan, which includes a temporary (maximum of 14 days) fourfold increase in inhaled corticosteroid or the same plan without an increase in inhaled corticosteroid. Participants will be followed up at 6 and 12 months and will attend the clinic for an additional visit if their asthma control deteriorates. The primary outcome is time to first asthma exacerbation, defined as the need for systemic corticosteroids and/or unscheduled health care consultation for asthma. The estimated sample size is 1800 participants. DISCUSSION: The FAST trial is an independent study that has been prioritised and commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the United Kingdom. It will provide high-quality evidence to inform clinical decision-making on the role of an asthma self-management plan, which includes a temporary fourfold increase of inhaled corticosteroid, when asthma control starts to deteriorate. The first participant was randomised on 17th May 2013 and recruitment will close on 31 January 2016 with the last patient last visit taking place in January 2017. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: 15441965 , registered on 25 April 2013.

Yancey SW, Ortega HG, Keene ON, Mayer B, Gunsoy NB, Brightling CE, Bleecker ER, Haldar P, Pavord ID. 2017. Meta-analysis of asthma-related hospitalization in mepolizumab studies of severe eosinophilic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 139 (4), pp. 1167-1175.e2. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Studies show that mepolizumab can reduce the frequency of clinically significant exacerbations in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, compared with placebo. However, important events such as hospitalizations and emergency room visits are rare and difficult to characterize in single studies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare hospitalization or hospitalization and/or emergency room visit rates in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma treated with mepolizumab or placebo in addition to standard of care for at least 24 weeks. METHODS: This study was conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. PubMed and the GSK Clinical Study Register were searched for suitable studies. The primary end points were the rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalization and the rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalization/emergency room visit. The proportion of patients with 1 or more event was also assessed. All mepolizumab doses were combined and individual patient-level data were analyzed. RESULTS: Four studies (n = 1388) were eligible for inclusion. Mepolizumab significantly reduced the rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (relative rate, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.80; P = .004) and hospitalization/emergency room visit (relative rate, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.73; P < .001) versus placebo. Significant reductions of 45% and 38% were also observed for the proportion of patients experiencing 1 or more hospitalization and hospitalization and/or emergency room visit, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mepolizumab approximately halved exacerbations requiring hospitalization and/or emergency room visits compared with placebo in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. This treatment addresses a key outcome in a patient population with a high unmet need (GSK Study 204664).

Pavord ID. 2016. Lessons from LAVOLTA. Lancet Respir Med, 4 (10), pp. 764-765. | Read more

Hambleton K, Pavord ID. 2016. What can we learn from blood granulocyte patterns in patients with asthma? Eur Respir J, 48 (4), pp. 976-978. | Read more

Slater MG, Pavord ID, Shaw DE. 2016. Step 4: stick or twist? A review of asthma therapy. BMJ Open Respir Res, 3 (1), pp. e000143. | Show Abstract | Read more

Many people with asthma do not achieve disease control, despite bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroid therapy. People with uncontrolled asthma are at higher risk of an asthma attack and death, with mortality rates estimated at 1000 deaths/year in England and Wales. The recent National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) report, 'Why asthma still kills', recommended that patients at step 4 or 5 of the British Thoracic Society/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (BTS/SIGN) guidance must be referred to a specialist asthma service. This article reviews the 2014 evidence base for therapy of asthma patients at BTS/SIGN step 4 of the treatment cascade, in response to key findings of the NRAD report and lack of preferred treatment option at this step.

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Pavord ID, Lettis S, Anzueto A, Barnes N. 2016. Blood eosinophil count and pneumonia risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a patient-level meta-analysis LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, 4 (9), pp. 731-741. | Read more

Pavord ID, Lettis S, Anzueto A, Barnes N. 2016. Blood eosinophil count and pneumonia risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a patient-level meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med, 4 (9), pp. 731-741. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are important in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but can slightly increase the risk of pneumonia in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients with circulating eosinophil counts of 2% or more of blood leucocytes respond better to inhaled corticosteroids than do those with counts of less than 2% and it was therefore postulated that blood eosinophil count might also have an effect on the risk of pneumonia in patients with COPD. In this post-hoc meta-analysis, we investigate whether a 2% threshold can identify patients who differ in their risk of pneumonia, irrespective of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. METHODS: From the GlaxoSmithKline trial registry, we selected randomised, double-blind, clinical trials of patients with COPD that had: inhaled corticosteroid arms (fluticasone propionate and salmeterol or fluticasone furoate and vilanterol); a control arm (not given inhaled fluticasone); and pre-randomisation measurements of blood eosinophil counts and were of at least 24 weeks in duration. With use of specified terms from the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities we identified pneumonia adverse events in patient-level data. We calculated number of patients with pneumonia events, stratified by baseline blood eosinophil count (<2% vs ≥2% of blood leucocytes) and whether or not patients had received inhaled corticosteroids. FINDINGS: We identified ten trials (conducted between 1998 and 2011), with eosinophil count data available for 10 861 patients with COPD. 4043 patients had baseline blood eosinophil counts of less than 2% and 6818 patients had baseline blood eosinophil counts of 2% or more. 149 (3·7%) patients with counts less than 2% had one or more pneumonia adverse events compared with 215 (3·2%) with counts of 2% or more (hazard ratio [HR] 1·31; 95% CI 1·06-1·62). In patients not treated with inhaled corticosteroids, 40 (3·8%) patients with less than 2% blood eosinophil counts had a pneumonia event versus 48 (2·4%) with 2% or more blood eosinophils (HR 1·53; 95% CI 1·01-2·31). In patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids, events occurred in 107 (4·5%) versus 164 (3·9%; HR 1·25; 95% CI 0·98-1·60), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Using 2% baseline eosinophil count as a threshold, patients with COPD with lower blood eosinophil counts had more pneumonia events than did those with higher counts. The magnitude of this increased risk was small and should be further explored in large, prospective studies. These data should be considered when making treatment decisions, alongside existing evidence that patients with COPD and baseline blood eosinophil counts less than 2% have a poorer response to inhaled corticosteroids. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline.

Gonem S, Berair R, Singapuri A, Hartley R, Laurencin MFM, Bacher G, Holzhauer B, Bourne M, Mistry V, Pavord ID et al. 2016. Fevipiprant, a prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 antagonist, in patients with persistent eosinophilic asthma: a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med, 4 (9), pp. 699-707. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic airway inflammation is often present in asthma, and reduction of such inflammation results in improved clinical outcomes. We hypothesised that fevipiprant (QAW039), an antagonist of prostaglandin D2 receptor 2, might reduce eosinophilic airway inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic asthma. METHODS: We performed a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial at Glenfield Hospital (Leicester, UK). We recruited patients with persistent, moderate-to-severe asthma and an elevated sputum eosinophil count (≥2%). After a 2-week single-blind placebo run-in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by the trial pharmacist, using previously generated treatment allocation cards, to receive fevipiprant (225 mg twice per day orally) or placebo, stratified by the use of oral corticosteroid treatment and bronchoscopy. The 12-week treatment period was followed by a 6-week single-blind placebo washout period. The primary outcome was the change in sputum eosinophil percentage from baseline to 12 weeks after treatment, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. All patients who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01545726, and with EudraCT, number 2011-004966-13. FINDINGS: Between Feb 10, 2012, and Jan 30, 2013, 61 patients were randomly assigned to receive fevipiprant (n=30) or placebo (n=31). Three patients in the fevipiprant group and four patients in the placebo group withdrew because of asthma exacerbations. Two patients in the fevipiprant group were incorrectly given placebo (one at the mid-treatment visit and one throughout the course of the study). They were both included in the fevipiprant group for the primary analysis, but the patient who was incorrectly given placebo throughout was included in the placebo group for the safety analyses. Between baseline and 12 weeks after treatment, sputum eosinophil percentage decreased from a geometric mean of 5·4% (95% CI 3·1-9·6) to 1·1% (0·7-1·9) in the fevipiprant group and from 4·6% (2·5-8·7) to 3·9% (CI 2·3-6·7) in the placebo group. Compared with baseline, mean sputum eosinophil percentage was reduced by 4·5 times in the fevipiprant group and by 1·3 times in the placebo group (difference between groups 3·5 times, 95% CI 1·7-7·0; p=0·0014). Fevipiprant had a favourable safety profile, with no deaths or serious adverse events reported. No patient withdrawals were judged by the investigator to be related to the study drug. INTERPRETATION: Fevipiprant reduces eosinophilic airway inflammation and is well tolerated in patients with persistent moderate-to-severe asthma and raised sputum eosinophil counts despite inhaled corticosteroid treatment. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals, AirPROM project, and the UK National Institute for Health Research.

Pavord ID, Hilvering B, Shrimanker R. 2016. Emerging Biologics in Severe Asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am, 36 (3), pp. 609-623. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by persistently elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Eosinophil activity in the airway may be more important than their numbers and this needs to be investigated. Transcriplomic or Metabolomic signatures may also be useful to identify this endotype.

Bousquet J, Schünemann HJ, Hellings PW, Arnavielhe S, Bachert C, Bedbrook A, Bergmann K-C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Brozek J, Calderon M et al. 2016. MACVIA clinical decision algorithm in adolescents and adults with allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 138 (2), pp. 367-374.e2. | Show Abstract | Read more

The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) depends on several factors, including age, prominent symptoms, symptom severity, control of AR, patient preferences, and cost. Allergen exposure and the resulting symptoms vary, and treatment adjustment is required. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) might be beneficial for the assessment of disease control. CDSSs should be based on the best evidence and algorithms to aid patients and health care professionals to jointly determine treatment and its step-up or step-down strategy depending on AR control. Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif en Languedoc-Roussillon (MACVIA-LR [fighting chronic diseases for active and healthy ageing]), one of the reference sites of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, has initiated an allergy sentinel network (the MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel Network). A CDSS is currently being developed to optimize AR control. An algorithm developed by consensus is presented in this article. This algorithm should be confirmed by appropriate trials.

Pascoe SJ, Lipson DA, Locantore N, Barnacle H, Brealey N, Mohindra R, Dransfield MT, Pavord I, Barnes N. 2016. A phase III randomised controlled trial of single-dose triple therapy in COPD: the IMPACT protocol. Eur Respir J, 48 (2), pp. 320-330. | Show Abstract | Read more

Patients with symptomatic advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who experience recurrent exacerbations are particularly at risk of poor outcomes and present a significant burden on healthcare systems. The relative merits of treating with different inhaled combination therapies e.g. inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), LABA/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), ICS/LABA/LAMA, in this patient group are poorly understood, as is reflected in current guidelines. The InforMing the PAthway of COPD Treatment (IMPACT) study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate (FF)/umeclidinium (UMEC)/vilanterol (VI) versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI over a 52-week treatment period. The study has been designed with a focus on understanding the comparative merits of each treatment modality in different phenotypes/endotypes.This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, three-arm, parallel-group, global multicentre study comparing the rate of moderate and severe exacerbations between FF/UMEC/VI and FF/VI or UMEC/VI over a 52-week treatment period. The study aims to recruit 10 000 patients from approximately 1070 centres. Eligible patients are aged ≥40 years, with symptomatic advanced COPD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group D) and an exacerbation in the previous 12 months.The first patients were recruited to the IMPACT study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02164513) in June 2014 and the anticipated completion date is July 2017.

Bafadhel M, Greening NJ, Harvey-Dunstan TC, Williams JEA, Morgan MD, Brightling CE, Hussain SF, Pavord ID, Singh SJ, Steiner MC. 2016. Blood Eosinophils and Outcomes in Severe Hospitalized Exacerbations of COPD. Chest, 150 (2), pp. 320-328. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Patients with moderate exacerbations of COPD and the eosinophilic phenotype have better outcomes with prednisolone. Whether this outcome is similar in patients hospitalized with a severe exacerbation of COPD is unclear. We investigated the rate of recovery of eosinophilic and noneosinophilic exacerbations in patients participating in a multicenter randomized controlled trial assessing health outcomes in hospitalized exacerbations. METHODS: Patients were recruited at presentation to the hospital with an exacerbation of COPD. They were stratified into groups according to eosinophilic exacerbations if the peripheral blood eosinophil count on admission was ≥ 200 cells/μL and/or ≥ 2% of the total leukocyte count. Admission details, serum C-reactive protein levels, length of stay, and subsequent rehospitalization data were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 243 patients with COPD (117 men) with a mean age of 71 years (range, 45-93 years) were recruited. The inpatient mortality rate was 3% (median time to death, 12 days; range, 9-16 days). The median absolute eosinophil count was 100 cells/μL (range, 10-1,500 cells/μL), and 25% met our criteria for an eosinophilic exacerbation; in this population, the mean length of stay (in days) was shorter than in patients with noneosinophilic exacerbations (5.0 [range, 1-19] vs 6.5 [range, 1-33]; P = .015) following treatment with oral corticosteroids and independent of treatment prior to admission. Readmission rates at 12 months were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The study patients presenting to the hospital with a severe eosinophilic exacerbation of COPD had a shorter length of stay. The exacerbations were usually not associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels, suggesting that better treatment stratification of exacerbations can be used. TRIAL REGISTRY: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN05557928.

Trivedi A, Pavord ID, Castro M. 2016. Bronchial thermoplasty and biological therapy as targeted treatments for severe uncontrolled asthma. Lancet Respir Med, 4 (7), pp. 585-592. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although a small proportion of patients with asthma have severe disease, it accounts for the majority of morbidity related to the illness. Severe asthma comprises a heterogeneous group of phenotypes. Targeted treatments for these phenotypes represent a major advancement in the management of severe asthma. Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody to IgE, improves asthma control in patients with a predominant allergic phenotype. Monoclonal antibodies targeted to interleukin 4α and interleukin 5 have shown substantial benefit in patients with the eosinophilic asthma phenotype; so too have monoclonal antibodies targeted to interleukin 13 in patients with a type 2 allergic phenotype. Bronchial thermoplasty, a new technique to reduce airway smooth muscle mass, improves symptoms and reduces exacerbations in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma and the chronic airflow obstruction phenotype. While awaiting comparative trials, we can now use a targeted approach with these phenotypes, guiding our treatment selection with the best evidence. This Review will focus on the latest developments in these new treatments and inform the clinician on how to select the appropriate patient for these treatments.

Ortega HG, Yancey SW, Mayer B, Gunsoy NB, Keene ON, Bleecker ER, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2016. Severe eosinophilic asthma treated with mepolizumab stratified by baseline eosinophil thresholds: a secondary analysis of the DREAM and MENSA studies. Lancet Respir Med, 4 (7), pp. 549-556. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Findings from previous studies showed that mepolizumab significantly reduces the rate of exacerbations in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. To assess the relationship between baseline blood eosinophil counts and efficacy of mepolizumab we did a secondary analysis of data from two studies, stratifying patients by different baseline blood eosinophil thresholds. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of data, which was completed on Sept 25, 2015, from two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of at least 32 weeks duration (NCT01000506 [DREAM] and NCT01691521 [MENSA]) done between 2009 and 2014. In these studies, mepolizumab ( DREAM: 75 mg, 250 mg, or 750 mg intravenously; MENSA: 75 mg intravenously or 100 mg subcutaneously) versus placebo was given at 4-week intervals in addition to standard care (high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus ≥1 additional controller with or without daily oral corticosteroids) to patients aged 12 years or older with a clinical diagnosis of asthma, a history of at least two exacerbations in the previous year that required systemic corticosteroid treatment, and evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The primary endpoint in both studies was the annual rate of clinically significant exacerbations (defined as worsening of asthma that required the use of systemic corticosteroids, or admission to hospital, or an emergency-room visit, or a combination of these occurrences). In our analysis, the primary outcome was the annualised rate of exacerbations in patients stratified by baseline eosinophil counts (≥150 cells per μL, ≥300 cells per μL, ≥400 cells per μL, and ≥500 cells per μL) and baseline blood eosinophil ranges (<150 cells per μL, ≥150 cells per μL to <300 cells per μL, ≥300 cells per μL to <500 cells per μL, and ≥500 cells per μL). We based our analysis on the intention-to-treat populations of the two original studies, and all mepolizumab doses were combined for analysis. FINDINGS: Of 1192 patients, 846 received mepolizumab and 346 received placebo. The overall rate of mean exacerbations per person per year was reduced from 1·91 with placebo to 1·01 with mepolizumab (47% reduction; rate ratio [RR] 0·53, 95% CI 0·44-0·62; p<0·0001). The exacerbation rate reduction with mepolizumab versus placebo increased progressively from 52%; 0·48, 0·39-0·58) in patients with a baseline blood eosinophil count of at least 150 cells per μL to 70%; 0·30, 0·23-0·40]) in patients with a baseline count of at least 500 cells per μL. At a baseline count less than 150 cells per μL, predicted efficacy of mepolizumab was reduced. INTERPRETATION: Our analysis has shown a close relationship between baseline blood eosinophil count and clinical efficacy of mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and a history of exacerbations. We noted clinically relevant reductions in exacerbation frequency in patients with a count of 150 cells per μL or more at baseline. The use of this baseline biomarker will help to select patients who are likely to achieve important asthma outcomes with mepolizumab. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline.

Pavord ID, Agusti A. 2016. Blood eosinophil count: a biomarker of an important treatable trait in patients with airway disease. Eur Respir J, 47 (5), pp. 1299-1303. | Read more

Bousquet J, Barbara C, Bateman E, Bel E, Bewick M, Chavannes NH, Cruz AA, Haahtela T, Hellings PW, Khaltaev N et al. 2016. AIRWAYS-ICPs (European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing) from concept to implementation. Eur Respir J, 47 (4), pp. 1028-1033. | Read more

Gomersal T, Harnan S, Essat M, Tappenden P, Wong R, Lawson R, Pavord I, Everard ML. 2016. A systematic review of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in the routine management of childhood asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol, 51 (3), pp. 316-328. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation which may be used to guide the management of asthma in childhood. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise the available evidence on the efficacy of FeNO-guided management of childhood asthma. METHODS: Databases including MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library were searched, and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing FeNO-guided management with any other monitoring strategy were included. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs, and a number of outcomes were examined, including: exacerbations, medication use, quality of life, adverse events, and other markers of asthma control. Meta-analyses were planned if multiple studies with suitable heterogeneity were available. However, due to wide variations in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not possible. RESULTS: Seven RCTs were identified. There was some evidence that FeNO-guided monitoring results in improved asthma control during the first year of management, although few results attained statistical significance. The impact on severe exacerbations was unclear. Similarly, the impact on use of anti-asthmatic drugs was unclear, and appears to depend on the step up/down protocols, and the clinical characteristics of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The potential benefit of FeNO monitoring is equivocal. Trends toward reduced exacerbation and increased medication use were seen, but typically failed to reach statistical significance. There are a number of issues that complicate data interpretation, including differences in the likely severity of included cohorts and variations in treatment algorithms. Further work is needed to systematically explore the impact of these parameters.

Choo XN, Pavord ID. 2016. Morbidity associated with oral corticosteroids in patients with severe asthma. Thorax, 71 (4), pp. 302-304. | Read more

Essat M, Harnan S, Gomersall T, Tappenden P, Wong R, Pavord I, Lawson R, Everard ML. 2016. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide for the management of asthma in adults: a systematic review. Eur Respir J, 47 (3), pp. 751-768. | Show Abstract | Read more

The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured in a clinical setting for the management of asthma in adults.13 electronic databases were searched and studies were selected against predefined inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using QUADAS-2. Class effect meta-analyses were performed.Six studies were included. Despite high levels of heterogeneity in multiple study characteristics, exploratory class effect meta-analyses were conducted. Four studies reported a wider definition of exacerbation rates (major or severe exacerbation) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.80 (95% CI 0.63-1.02). Two studies reported rates of severe exacerbations (requiring oral corticosteroid use) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.89 (95% CI 0.43-1.72). Inhaled corticosteroid use was reported by four studies, with a pooled standardised mean difference of -0.24 (95% CI -0.56-0.07). No statistically significant differences for health-related quality of life or asthma control were found.FeNO guided management showed no statistically significant benefit in terms of severe exacerbations or inhaled corticosteroid use, but showed a statistically significant reduction in exacerbations of any severity. However, further research is warranted to clearly define which management protocols (including cut-off points) offer best efficacy and which patient groups would benefit the most.

Beasley R, Pavord I, Papi A, Reddel HK, Harrison T, Marks GB, Hancox RJ, Weatherall M. 2016. Description of a randomised controlled trial of inhaled corticosteroid/fast-onset LABA reliever therapy in mild asthma. Eur Respir J, 47 (3), pp. 981-984. | Read more

Sinha A, Lee KK, Rafferty GF, Yousaf N, Pavord ID, Galloway J, Birring SS. 2016. Predictors of objective cough frequency in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J, 47 (5), pp. 1461-1471. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cough is a common symptom of pulmonary sarcoidosis. This study aimed to quantify cough frequency, and investigate its relationship with cough reflex sensitivity, pulmonary function and health status.32 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis were compared with 40 healthy controls. Cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin, objective 24-h cough counts, cough-specific health status, cough severity and cough triggers were measured. The predictors of cough frequency in sarcoidosis were determined in a multivariate analysis.Objective cough frequency was significantly raised in patients with sarcoidosis compared with healthy controls (p<0.001) and patients with cough had an impaired health status. Patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis had a heightened cough reflex sensitivity compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). Only cough reflex sensitivity was significantly associated with objective cough frequency in multivariate analysis, explaining 42% of the variance (p<0.001). There was no association between cough frequency, lung function, number of organs involved, chest radiograph stage or serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels.Cough is a common and significant symptom in patients with sarcoidosis. Ambulatory objective cough monitoring provides novel insights into the determinants of cough in sarcoidosis, suggesting that cough reflex sensitivity may be more important than lung function and other measures of disease severity, and this should be investigated further.

Agusti A, Bel E, Thomas M, Vogelmeier C, Brusselle G, Holgate S, Humbert M, Jones P, Gibson PG, Vestbo J et al. 2016. Treatable traits: toward precision medicine of chronic airway diseases. Eur Respir J, 47 (2), pp. 410-419. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two prevalent chronic airway diseases that have a high personal and social impact. They likely represent a continuum of different diseases that may share biological mechanisms (i.e. endotypes), and present similar clinical, functional, imaging and/or biological features that can be observed (i.e. phenotypes) which require individualised treatment. Precision medicine is defined as "treatments targeted to the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic, or psychosocial characteristics that distinguish a given patient from other patients with similar clinical presentations". In this Perspective, we propose a precision medicine strategy for chronic airway diseases in general, and asthma and COPD in particular.

Willson J, Bateman ED, Pavord I, Lloyd A, Krivasi T, Esser D. 2016. Erratum to: Cost Effectiveness of Tiotropium in Patients with Asthma Poorly Controlled on Inhaled Glucocorticosteroids and Long-Acting β-Agonists. Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 14 (1), pp. 119-125. | Read more

Slater MG, Pavord ID, Shaw DE. 2016. Step 4: stick or twist? A review of asthma therapy. BMJ open respiratory research, 3 (1), | Show Abstract | Read more

Many people with asthma do not achieve disease control, despite bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroid therapy. People with uncontrolled asthma are at higher risk of an asthma attack and death, with mortality rates estimated at 1000 deaths/year in England and Wales. The recent National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) report, ‘Why asthma still kills’, recommended that patients at step 4 or 5 of the British Thoracic Society/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (BTS/SIGN) guidance must be referred to a specialist asthma service. This article reviews the 2014 evidence base for therapy of asthma patients at BTS/SIGN step 4 of the treatment cascade, in response to key findings of the NRAD report and lack of preferred treatment option at this step.

Pavord ID, Jones PW, Burgel P-R, Rabe KF. 2016. Exacerbations of COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 11 Spec Iss pp. 21-30. | Show Abstract | Read more

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined as sustained worsening of a patient's condition beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset, and that may also require a change in medication and/or hospitalization. Exacerbations have a significant and prolonged impact on health status and outcomes, and negative effects on pulmonary function. A significant proportion of exacerbations are unreported and therefore left untreated, leading to a poorer prognosis than those treated. COPD exacerbations are heterogeneous, and various phenotypes have been proposed which differ in biologic basis, prognosis, and response to therapy. Identification of biomarkers could enable phenotype-driven approaches for the management and prevention of exacerbations. For example, several biomarkers of inflammation can help to identify exacerbations most likely to respond to oral corticosteroids and antibiotics, and patients with a frequent exacerbator phenotype, for whom preventative treatment is appropriate. Reducing the frequency of exacerbations would have a beneficial impact on patient outcomes and prognosis. Preventative strategies include modification of risk factors, treatment of comorbid conditions, the use of bronchodilator therapy with long-acting β2-agonists or long-acting muscarinic antagonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying COPD exacerbations will help to optimize use of the currently available and new interventions for preventing and treating exacerbations.

Price DB, Pavord ID, Thomas M, Corrigan CJ, Wilson AM, Hillyer EV, Kerkhof M. 2016. Inhaled corticosteroid dose-response on blood eosinophils in asthma - Authors' reply. Lancet Respir Med, 4 (1), pp. e1-e2. | Read more

Samuelsen C, Bateman ED, Pavord I, Lloyd A, Baldwin M, Esser D. 2016. Comment on: "Cost Effectiveness of Tiotropium in Patients with Asthma Poorly Controlled on Inhaled Glucocorticosteroids and Long-Acting β-Agonists". Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 14 (1), pp. 117-118. | Read more

Forrester DL, Knox AJ, Smyth AR, Barr HL, Simms R, Pacey SJ, Pavord ID, Honeybourne D, Dewar J, Clayton A, Fogarty AW. 2016. Glutamine supplementation in cystic fibrosis: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Pulmonol, 51 (3), pp. 253-257. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Pulmonary infection and malnutrition in cystic fibrosis are associated with decreased survival. Glutamine has a possible anti-microbial effect, with a specific impact against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We aimed to test the hypothesis that oral glutamine supplementation (21 g/day) for 8 weeks in adults with cystic fibrosis would decrease pulmonary inflammation and improve clinical status. METHODS: The study design was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study design with an iso-nitrogenous placebo. The primary analysis was intention to treat, and the primary outcome was change in induced sputum neutrophils. RESULTS: Thirty-nine individuals were recruited and thirty-six completed the study. Glutamine supplementation had no impact on any of the outcome measures in the intention-to-treat analysis. In the per protocol analysis, glutamine supplementation was associated with an increase in induced sputum neutrophils (P = 0.046), total cells (P = 0.03), and in Pseudomonas isolation agar colony forming units (P = 0.04) compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: There was no effect of glutamine supplementation on markers of pulmonary inflammation in the intention-to-treat analysis.

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European Pubmed Central

Soler Artigas M, Wain LV, Miller S, Kheirallah AK, Huffman JE, Ntalla I, Shrine N, Obeidat M, Trochet H, McArdle WL et al. 2015. Sixteen new lung function signals identified through 1000 Genomes Project reference panel imputation. Nat Commun, 6 (1), pp. 8658. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lung function measures are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 38,199 European ancestry individuals, we studied genome-wide association of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with 1000 Genomes Project (phase 1)-imputed genotypes and followed up top associations in 54,550 Europeans. We identify 14 novel loci (P<5 × 10(-8)) in or near ENSA, RNU5F-1, KCNS3, AK097794, ASTN2, LHX3, CCDC91, TBX3, TRIP11, RIN3, TEKT5, LTBP4, MN1 and AP1S2, and two novel signals at known loci NPNT and GPR126, providing a basis for new understanding of the genetic determinants of these traits and pulmonary diseases in which they are altered.

Pavord ID, Lettis S, Locantore N, Pascoe S, Jones PW, Wedzicha JA, Barnes NC. 2016. Blood eosinophils and inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-2 agonist efficacy in COPD. Thorax, 71 (2), pp. 118-125. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: We performed a review of studies of fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) (combination inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)) in patients with COPD, which measured baseline (pretreatment) blood eosinophil levels, to test whether blood eosinophil levels ≥2% were associated with a greater reduction in exacerbation rates with ICS therapy. METHODS: Three studies of ≥1-year duration met the inclusion criteria. Moderate and severe exacerbation rates were analysed according to baseline blood eosinophil levels (<2% vs ≥2%). At baseline, 57-75% of patients had ≥2% blood eosinophils. Changes in FEV1 and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were compared by eosinophil level. RESULTS: For patients with ≥2% eosinophils, FP/SAL was associated with significant reductions in exacerbation rates versus tiotropium (INSPIRE: n=719, rate ratio (RR)=0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.92, p=0.006) and versus placebo (TRISTAN: n=1049, RR=0.63, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.79, p<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the <2% eosinophil subgroup in either study (INSPIRE: n=550, RR=1.18, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.51, p=0.186; TRISTAN: n=354, RR=0.99, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.47, p=0.957, respectively). In SCO30002 (n=373), no significant effects were observed (FP or FP/SAL vs placebo). No relationship was observed in any study between eosinophil subgroup and treatment effect on FEV1 and SGRQ. DISCUSSION: Baseline blood eosinophil levels may represent an informative marker for exacerbation reduction with ICS/LABA in patients with COPD and a history of moderate/severe exacerbations.

Price DB, Rigazio A, Campbell JD, Bleecker ER, Corrigan CJ, Thomas M, Wenzel SE, Wilson AM, Small MB, Gopalan G et al. 2015. Blood eosinophil count and prospective annual asthma disease burden: a UK cohort study. Lancet Respir Med, 3 (11), pp. 849-858. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Elevated sputum eosinophil counts predict asthma exacerbations and responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids but are impractical to measure in primary care. We investigated the relation between blood eosinophil count and prospective annual asthma outcomes for a large UK cohort. METHODS: This historical cohort study used anonymised medical record data to identify primary care patients with asthma aged 12-80 years with 2 years of continuous records, including 1 year before (baseline) and 1 year after (outcome) their most recent eosinophil count. Negative binomial regression was used to compare outcome exacerbation rates and logistic regression to compare odds of asthma control for patients with blood eosinophil counts of 400 cells per μL or less versus greater than 400 cells per μL, adjusting for age, sex, body-mass index, smoking status, and Charlson comorbidity index. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02140541. FINDINGS: Overall, 20 929 (16%) of 130 248 patients had blood eosinophil counts greater than 400 cells per μL. During the outcome year, these patients experienced significantly more severe exacerbations (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 1·42, 95% CI 1·36-1·47) and acute respiratory events (RR 1·28, 1·24-1·33) than those with counts of 400 cells per μL or less. They also had significantly lower odds of achieving overall asthma control (OR 0·74, 95% CI 0·72-0·77), defined as limited reliever use and no asthma-related hospital attendance or admission, acute course of oral corticosteroids, or prescription for antibiotics. Exacerbation rates increased progressively with nine ascending categories of blood eosinophil count as compared with a reference category of 200 cells per μL or less. INTERPRETATION: Patients with asthma and blood eosinophil counts greater than 400 cells per μL experience more severe exacerbations and have poorer asthma control. Furthermore, a count-response relation exists between blood eosinophil counts and asthma-related outcomes. Blood eosinophil counts could add predictive value to Global Initiative for Asthma control-based risk assessment. FUNDING: Teva Pharmaceuticals.

Harnan S, Essat M, Gomersall T, Tappenden P, Wong R, Lawson R, Pavord I, Everard M. 2015. Exhaled Nitric Oxide For The Diagnosis Of Asthma In Adults And Children: A Systematic Review. Value Health, 18 (7), pp. A345. | Read more

De Soyza A, Pavord I, Elborn JS, Smith D, Wray H, Puu M, Larsson B, Stockley R. 2015. A randomised, placebo-controlled study of the CXCR2 antagonist AZD5069 in bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J, 46 (4), pp. 1021-1032. | Show Abstract | Read more

This randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group multicentre phase IIa study evaluated the effect of the CXCR2 antagonist AZD5069 on sputum neutrophil counts in adults with bronchiectasis.Patients were randomised 1:1 to receive AZD5069 80 mg or placebo orally twice daily for 28 days. Assessments included blood cell counts, inflammatory markers in blood, morning spontaneous sputum, lung function, safety and tolerability and patients completed daily BronkoTest diary cards. The primary outcome measure was the change in absolute sputum neutrophil count.Of 52 randomised patients, 45 completed treatment, 20 (76.9%) out of 26 receiving AZD5069 and 25 (96.2%) out of 26 receiving placebo. AZD5069 reduced the absolute neutrophil cell count in morning sputum by 69% versus placebo (p=0.004); percentage sputum neutrophil count was reduced by 36% (p=0.008). The number of infections/exacerbations was similar with AZD5069 and placebo (nine versus eight), but these led to more study discontinuations with AZD5069 (four versus zero). Sputum interleukin (IL)-6 and growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α and serum GRO-α, IL-1ß and IL-8 levels increased with AZD5069 versus placebo (all p<0.001), while serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels did not change. AZD5069 was well tolerated.AZD5069 markedly reduced absolute sputum neutrophil counts in bronchiectasis patients, although this was not associated with improvements in clinical outcomes in this exploratory study.

Harnan SE, Tappenden P, Essat M, Gomersall T, Minton J, Wong R, Pavord I, Everard M, Lawson R. 2015. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide concentration in asthma: a systematic review and economic evaluation of NIOX MINO, NIOX VERO and NObreath. Health Technol Assess, 19 (82), pp. 1-330. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: High fractions of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in the breath of patients with symptoms of asthma are correlated with high levels of eosinophils and indicate that a patient is likely to respond to inhaled corticosteroids. This may have a role in the diagnosis and management of asthma. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the hand-held electrochemical devices NIOX MINO(®) (Aerocrine, Solna, Sweden), NIOX VERO(®) (Aerocrine) and NObreath(®) (Bedfont Scientific, Maidstone, UK) for the diagnosis and management of asthma. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches were carried out between March 2013 and April 2013 from database inception. Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Science Citation Index Expanded and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. Trial registers such as ClinicalTrials.gov and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials were also searched in March 2013. All searches were updated in September 2013. REVIEW METHODS: A rapid review was conducted to assess the equivalence of hand-held and chemiluminescent FeNO monitors. Systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy and management efficacy were conducted. A systematic review of economic analyses was also conducted and two de novo health economic models were developed. All three reviews were undertaken according to robust high-quality methodology. RESULTS: The rapid review (27 studies) found varying levels of agreement between monitors (Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement up to ±10 parts per billion), with better agreement at lower FeNO values. Correlation was good (generally r > 0.9). The diagnostic accuracy review identified 22 studies in adults (all ages) and four in children. No studies used NObreath or NIOX VERO and seven used NIOX MINO. Estimates of diagnostic accuracy varied widely. FeNO used in combination with another test altered diagnostic accuracy only slightly. High levels of heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Limited observations included that FeNO may be more reliable and useful as a rule-in than as a rule-out test; lower cut-off values in children and in smokers may be appropriate; and FeNO may be less reliable in the elderly. The management review identified five randomised controlled trials in adults, one in pregnant asthmatics and seven in children. Despite clinical heterogeneity, exacerbation rates were lower in all studies but not generally statistically significantly so. Effects on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use were inconsistent, possibly because of differences in management protocols, differential effectiveness in adults and children and differences in population severity. One UK diagnostic model and one management model were identified. Aerocrine also submitted diagnostic and management models. All had significant limitations including short time horizons and the selective use of efficacy evidence. The de novo diagnostic model suggested that the expected difference in quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains between diagnostic options is likely to be very small. Airway hyper-responsiveness by methacholine challenge test is expected to produce the greatest QALY gain but with an expected incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) compared with FeNO (NObreath) in combination with bronchodilator reversibility of £1.125M per QALY gained. All remaining options are expected to be dominated. The de novo management model indicates that the ICER of guidelines plus FeNO monitoring using NObreath compared with guidelines alone in children is expected to be approximately £45,200 per QALY gained. Within the adult subgroup, FeNO monitoring using NObreath compared with guidelines alone is expected to have an ICER of approximately £2100 per QALY gained. The results are particularly sensitive to assumptions regarding changes in ICS use over time, the number of nurse visits for FeNO monitoring and duration of effect. CONCLUSIONS: Limitations of the evidence base impose considerable uncertainty on all analyses. Equivalence of devices was assumed but not assured. Evidence for diagnosis is difficult to interpret in the context of inserting FeNO monitoring into a diagnostic pathway. Evidence for management is also inconclusive, but largely consistent with FeNO monitoring resulting in fewer exacerbations, with a small or zero reduction in ICS use in adults and a possible increased ICS use in children or patients with more severe asthma. It is unclear which specific management protocol is likely to be most effective. The economic analysis indicates that FeNO monitoring could have value in diagnostic and management settings. The diagnostic model indicates that FeNO monitoring plus bronchodilator reversibility dominates many other diagnostic tests. FeNO-guided management has the potential to be cost-effective, although this is largely dependent on the duration of effect. The conclusions drawn from both models require strong technical value judgements with respect to several aspects of the decision problem in which little or no empirical evidence exists. There are many potential directions for further work, including investigations into which management protocol is best and long-term follow-up in both diagnosis and management studies. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013004149. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

Wain LV, Shrine N, Miller S, Jackson VE, Ntalla I, Soler Artigas M, Billington CK, Kheirallah AK, Allen R, Cook JP et al. 2015. Novel insights into the genetics of smoking behaviour, lung function, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UK BiLEVE): a genetic association study in UK Biobank. Lancet Respir Med, 3 (10), pp. 769-781. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of airflow obstruction and smoking behaviour is key to determining the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used UK Biobank data to study the genetic causes of smoking behaviour and lung health. METHODS: We sampled individuals of European ancestry from UK Biobank, from the middle and extremes of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) distribution among heavy smokers (mean 35 pack-years) and never smokers. We developed a custom array for UK Biobank to provide optimum genome-wide coverage of common and low-frequency variants, dense coverage of genomic regions already implicated in lung health and disease, and to assay rare coding variants relevant to the UK population. We investigated whether there were shared genetic causes between different phenotypes defined by extremes of FEV1. We also looked for novel variants associated with extremes of FEV1 and smoking behaviour and assessed regions of the genome that had already shown evidence for a role in lung health and disease. We set genome-wide significance at p<5 × 10(-8). FINDINGS: UK Biobank participants were recruited from March 15, 2006, to July 7, 2010. Sample selection for the UK BiLEVE study started on Nov 22, 2012, and was completed on Dec 20, 2012. We selected 50,008 unique samples: 10,002 individuals with low FEV1, 10,000 with average FEV1, and 5002 with high FEV1 from each of the heavy smoker and never smoker groups. We noted a substantial sharing of genetic causes of low FEV1 between heavy smokers and never smokers (p=2.29 × 10(-16)) and between individuals with and without doctor-diagnosed asthma (p=6.06 × 10(-11)). We discovered six novel genome-wide significant signals of association with extremes of FEV1, including signals at four novel loci (KANSL1, TSEN54, TET2, and RBM19/TBX5) and independent signals at two previously reported loci (NPNT and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2). These variants also showed association with COPD, including in individuals with no history of smoking. The number of copies of a 150 kb region containing the 5' end of KANSL1, a gene that is important for epigenetic gene regulation, was associated with extremes of FEV1. We also discovered five new genome-wide significant signals for smoking behaviour, including a variant in NCAM1 (chromosome 11) and a variant on chromosome 2 (between TEX41 and PABPC1P2) that has a trans effect on expression of NCAM1 in brain tissue. INTERPRETATION: By sampling from the extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, we identified novel genetic causes of lung function and smoking behaviour. These results provide new insight into the specific mechanisms underlying airflow obstruction, COPD, and tobacco addiction, and show substantial shared genetic architecture underlying airflow obstruction across individuals, irrespective of smoking behaviour and other airway disease. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Look back with (some) anger, and a lot of pleasure. Thorax, 70 (9), pp. 819-821. | Read more

Pascoe S, Locantore N, Dransfield MT, Barnes NC, Pavord I. 2015. Blood eosinophil counts as markers of response to inhaled corticosteroids in COPD?--Authors' reply. Lancet Respir Med, 3 (8), pp. e27. | Read more

Hilvering B, Xue L, Pavord ID. 2015. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma. Ther Adv Respir Dis, 9 (4), pp. 135-145. | Show Abstract | Read more

Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5α receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor α) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments.

Heaney LG, Djukanovic R, Woodcock A, Walker S, Matthews JG, Pavord ID, Bradding P, Niven R, Brightling CE, Chaudhuri R et al. 2016. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK). Thorax, 71 (2), pp. 187-189. | Show Abstract | Read more

The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies.

Bousquet J, Schunemann HJ, Fonseca J, Samolinski B, Bachert C, Canonica GW, Casale T, Cruz AA, Demoly P, Hellings P et al. 2015. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis): the new generation guideline implementation. Allergy, 70 (11), pp. 1372-1392. | Show Abstract | Read more

Several unmet needs have been identified in allergic rhinitis: identification of the time of onset of the pollen season, optimal control of rhinitis and comorbidities, patient stratification, multidisciplinary team for integrated care pathways, innovation in clinical trials and, above all, patient empowerment. MASK-rhinitis (MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a simple system centred around the patient which was devised to fill many of these gaps using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools and a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on the most widely used guideline in allergic rhinitis and its asthma comorbidity (ARIA 2015 revision). It is one of the implementation systems of Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA). Three tools are used for the electronic monitoring of allergic diseases: a cell phone-based daily visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment of disease control, CARAT (Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test) and e-Allergy screening (premedical system of early diagnosis of allergy and asthma based on online tools). These tools are combined with a clinical decision support system (CDSS) and are available in many languages. An e-CRF and an e-learning tool complete MASK. MASK is flexible and other tools can be added. It appears to be an advanced, global and integrated ICT answer for many unmet needs in allergic diseases which will improve policies and standards.

Pavord I, Bush A. 2015. Two Lovely Black Eyes; Oh, what a surprise! Thorax, 70 (7), pp. 609-610. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 70 (7), pp. i-i. | Read more

Pascoe S, Locantore N, Dransfield MT, Barnes NC, Pavord ID. 2015. Blood eosinophil counts, exacerbations, and response to the addition of inhaled fluticasone furoate to vilanterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a secondary analysis of data from two parallel randomised controlled trials (vol 3, pg 435, 2015) LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, 3 (6), pp. E19-E19. | Read more

Rottier BL, Eber E, Hedlin G, Turner S, Wooler E, Mantzourani E, Kulkarni N, ERS Task Force Monitoring Asthma in Children. 2015. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues. Eur Respir Rev, 24 (136), pp. 194-203. | Show Abstract | Read more

Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

Lødrup Carlsen KC, Pijnenburg MW, ERS Task Force Monitoring Asthma in Children. 2015. Monitoring asthma in childhood. Eur Respir Rev, 24 (136), pp. 178-186. | Show Abstract | Read more

The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

Brand PLP, Mäkelä MJ, Szefler SJ, Frischer T, Price D, ERS Task Force Monitoring Asthma in Children. 2015. Monitoring asthma in childhood: symptoms, exacerbations and quality of life. Eur Respir Rev, 24 (136), pp. 187-193. | Show Abstract | Read more

Monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice is primarily performed by reviewing disease activity (daytime and night-time symptoms, use of reliever medication, exacerbations requiring frequent use of reliever medication and urgent visits to the healthcare professional) and the impact of the disease on children's daily activities, including sports and play, in a clinical interview. In such an interview, most task force members also discuss adherence to maintenance therapy and the patients' (and parents') views and beliefs on the goals of treatment and the amount of treatment required to achieve those goals. Composite asthma control and quality of life measures, although potentially useful in research, have limited value in clinical practice because they have a short recall window and do not cover the entire spectrum of asthma control. Telemonitoring of children with asthma cannot replace face-to-face follow-up and monitoring because there is no evidence that it is associated with improved health outcomes.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 70 (6), pp. i-i. | Read more

De Fonseka D, Lama-Lopez A, Batchelor T, Edey A, Maskell NA. 2015. The Harlequin sign Thorax, 70 (6), pp. 605-606. | Read more

Hodgson D, Anderson J, Reynolds C, Meakin G, Bailey H, Pavord I, Shaw D, Harrison T. 2015. A randomised controlled trial of small particle inhaled steroids in refractory eosinophilic asthma (SPIRA) Thorax, 70 (6), pp. 559-565. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background: Some patients with refractory asthma have evidence of uncontrolled eosinophilic inflammation in the distal airways. While traditional formulations of inhaled steroids settle predominantly in the large airways, newer formulations with an extra-fine particle size have a more peripheral pattern of deposition. Specifically treating distal airway inflammation may improve asthma control. Methods: 30 patients with refractory asthma despite high dose inhaled corticosteroids were identified as having persistent airway eosinophilia. Following 2 weeks of prednisolone 30 mg, patients demonstrating an improvement in asthma control were randomised to receive either ciclesonide 320 mg twice daily or placebo in addition to usual maintenance therapy for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was sputum eosinophil count at week 8. Alveolar nitric oxide was measured as a marker of distal airway inflammation. Results: There was continued suppression of differential sputum eosinophil counts with ciclesonide (median 2.3%) but not placebo (median 4.5%) though the between-group difference was not significant. When patients who had changed their maintenance prednisolone dose during the trial were excluded the difference between groups was significant (1.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.028). Though alveolar nitric oxide decreased with ciclesonide the value did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that patients with ongoing eosinophilic inflammation are not truly refractory, and that suppression of airway eosinophilia may be maintained with additional inhaled corticosteroid. Further work is needed with a focus on patient-orientated outcome measures such as exacerbation rate, with additional tests of small airway function.

Moeller A, Carlsen K-H, Sly PD, Baraldi E, Piacentini G, Pavord I, Lex C, Saglani S, ERS Task Force Monitoring Asthma in Children. 2015. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation. Eur Respir Rev, 24 (136), pp. 204-215. | Show Abstract | Read more

This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases.

Pavord I, Bush A. 2015. Two Lovely Black Eyes; Oh, what a surprise! Thorax, 70 (7), pp. 609-610. | Read more

Pavord ID, Bush A, Holgate S. 2015. Asthma diagnosis: addressing the challenges LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, 3 (5), pp. 339-341. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Ring in the new. Thorax, 70 (5), pp. 403. | Read more

Ortega HG, Liu MC, Pavord ID, Brusselle GG, FitzGerald JM. 2015. Mepolizumab Treatment in Patients with Severe Eosinophilic Asthma (vol 371, pg 1198, 2014) NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 372 (18), pp. 1777-1777.

Pascoe S, Locantore N, Dransfield MT, Barnes NC, Pavord ID. 2015. Blood eosinophil counts, exacerbations, and response to the addition of inhaled fluticasone furoate to vilanterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a secondary analysis of data from two parallel randomised controlled trials. Lancet Respir Med, 3 (6), pp. 435-442. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The short-term benefits of inhaled corticosteroids for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are greater in patients with evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. We investigated whether blood eosinophil count is a useful biomarker of the long-term effect of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate on exacerbation frequency. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of data from two replicate, randomised, double-blind trials of 12 months' duration (Sept 25, 2009 to Oct 21, 2011 and Oct 17, 2011) in which once a day vilanterol 25 μg was compared with 25 μg vilanterol plus 50 μg, 100 μg, or 200 μg fluticasone furoate in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and a history of one or more exacerbation in the previous year. We compared exacerbation rates according to two baseline eosinophil cell count strata (<2% and ≥2%), and according to four baseline percentage groupings. We also assessed lung function and incidence of pneumonia per strata in treatment groups. FINDINGS: We included 3177 patients in the analyses, with 2083 patients (66%) having an eosinophil count of 2% or higher at study entry. Across all doses of inhaled corticosteroids, fluticasone furoate and vilanterol reduced exacerbations by 29% compared with vilanterol alone (mean 0·91 vs 1·28 exacerbations per patient per year; p<0·0001) in patients with eosinophil counts of 2% or higher, and by 10% (0·79 vs 0·89; p=0·2827) in patients with eosinophil counts lower than 2%. Reductions in exacerbations with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol, compared with vilanterol alone, were 24% in patients with baseline eosinophil counts of ≥2-<4%, 32% for those with counts of 4-<6%, and 42% for those with eosinophil counts of ≥6%. In patients treated with vilanterol alone, exacerbation rates increased progressively with increasing eosinophil count percentage category. Improvement in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the increased risk of pneumonia with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol compared with vilanterol alone were not associated with eosinophil count. INTERPRETATION: Blood eosinophil count is a promising biomarker of response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD. Blood eosinophil count could potentially be used to stratify patients for different exacerbation rate reduction strategies. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline (study ID 201595).

Hodgson D, Anderson J, Reynolds C, Meakin G, Bailey H, Pavord I, Shaw D, Harrison T. 2015. A randomised controlled trial of small particle inhaled steroids in refractory eosinophilic asthma (SPIRA). Thorax, 70 (6), pp. 559-565. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Some patients with refractory asthma have evidence of uncontrolled eosinophilic inflammation in the distal airways. While traditional formulations of inhaled steroids settle predominantly in the large airways, newer formulations with an extra-fine particle size have a more peripheral pattern of deposition. Specifically treating distal airway inflammation may improve asthma control. METHODS: 30 patients with refractory asthma despite high dose inhaled corticosteroids were identified as having persistent airway eosinophilia. Following 2 weeks of prednisolone 30 mg, patients demonstrating an improvement in asthma control were randomised to receive either ciclesonide 320 µg twice daily or placebo in addition to usual maintenance therapy for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was sputum eosinophil count at week 8. Alveolar nitric oxide was measured as a marker of distal airway inflammation. RESULTS: There was continued suppression of differential sputum eosinophil counts with ciclesonide (median 2.3%) but not placebo (median 4.5%) though the between-group difference was not significant. When patients who had changed their maintenance prednisolone dose during the trial were excluded the difference between groups was significant (1.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.028). Though alveolar nitric oxide decreased with ciclesonide the value did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that patients with ongoing eosinophilic inflammation are not truly refractory, and that suppression of airway eosinophilia may be maintained with additional inhaled corticosteroid. Further work is needed with a focus on patient-orientated outcome measures such as exacerbation rate, with additional tests of small airway function. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01171365. Protocol available at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

Pavord ID, Hilvering B. 2015. Biomarkers and inhaled corticosteroid responsiveness in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 135 (4), pp. 884-885. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Year in review 2014. Paediatric and adult clinical studies. Thorax, 70 (4), pp. 368-372. | Show Abstract | Read more

Our prizes for best papers in the last year have become as eagerly awaited as the Oscars and are much more glamorous. As before, we have awarded GOLD, SILVER and BRONZE prizes in the following categories: paediatrics, adult clinical, basic science and epidemiology. This is the first of two reviews of manuscripts published in Thorax in 2014 dealing with manuscripts on the clinical aspects of paediatrics and adult respiratory medicine. Decisions are purely those of the editors and deputy editors. Our only restriction has been to not consider manuscripts exclusively from Imperial and Oxford because we have conflicts of interest. Next month we deal with basic science and epidemiology manuscripts and reveal the overall winner.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 70 (4), pp. i-i. | Read more

Gaillard EA, McNamara PS, Murray CS, Pavord ID, Shields MD. 2015. Blood eosinophils as a marker of likely corticosteroid response in children with preschool wheeze: time for an eosinophil guided clinical trial? Clin Exp Allergy, 45 (9), pp. 1384-1395. | Show Abstract | Read more

Childhood wheezing is common particularly in children under the age of 6 years and in this age group is generally referred to as preschool wheezing. Particular diagnostic and treatment uncertainties exist in these young children due to the difficulty in obtaining objective evidence of reversible airways narrowing and inflammation. A diagnosis of asthma depends on the presence of relevant clinical signs and symptoms and the demonstration of reversible airways narrowing on lung function testing, which is difficult to perform in young children. Few treatments are available and inhaled corticosteroids are the recommended preventer treatment in most international asthma guidelines. There is, however, considerable controversy about its effectiveness in children with preschool wheeze and a corticosteroid responder phenotype has not been established. These diagnostic and treatment uncertainties in conjunction with the knowledge of corticosteroid side effects, in particular the reduction of growth velocity, have resulted in a variable approach to inhaled corticosteroid prescribing by medical practitioners and a reluctance in carers to regularly administer the treatment. Identifying children who are likely responders to corticosteroid therapy would be a major benefit in the management of this condition. Eosinophils have emerged as a promising biomarker of corticosteroid responsive airways disease, and evaluation of this biomarker in sputum has successfully been employed to direct management in adults with asthma. Obtaining sputum from young children is time consuming and difficult, and it is hard to justify more invasive procedures such as a bronchoscopy in young children routinely. Recently, in children, interest has shifted to assessing the value of less invasive biomarkers of likely corticosteroid response and the biomarker 'blood eosinophils' has emerged as an attractive candidate. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence for blood eosinophils as a predictive biomarker for corticosteroid responsive disease with a particular focus on the difficult area of preschool wheeze.

Pijnenburg MW, Baraldi E, Brand PLP, Carlsen K-H, Eber E, Frischer T, Hedlin G, Kulkarni N, Lex C, Mäkelä MJ et al. 2015. Monitoring asthma in children. Eur Respir J, 45 (4), pp. 906-925. | Show Abstract | Read more

The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence.

Pavord ID, Bush A, Holgate S. 2015. Asthma diagnosis: addressing the challenges. Lancet Respir Med, 3 (5), pp. 339-341. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 70 (3), pp. i-i. | Read more

Hilvering B, Pavord ID. 2015. What goes up must come down: biomarkers and novel biologicals in severe asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 45 (7), pp. 1162-1169. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease characterized by typical symptoms in combination with variable airway obstruction. Most patients with asthma have well controlled symptoms and a low risk of asthma attacks with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. However, a clinically important subgroup (~ 10%) remains symptomatic and/or at risk of asthma attacks despite maximum inhaled therapy. Patients with severe asthma are responsible for a significant proportion of healthcare costs attributable to asthma and have a large unmet need for better treatments. An important advance in recent years has been the recognition that severe asthma is heterogeneous with respect to clinical problems and the pattern of lower airway inflammation. Identification of eosinophilic inflammation in the airways has become an important priority as novel biologicals that target Th2 cytokines, such as anti-IL5, anti-IL-13 and combined anti-IL-4/13 are showing considerable promise as treatments for this subgroup. It has also become clear that anti-IgE (Omalizumab), the first monoclonal antibody registered for treatment of severe asthma, is only active in patients with active eosinophilic airway inflammation. The future will be identification of potentially responsive patients on the basis of raised biomarkers and, as suggested by the title of this review, targeted treatment with specific cytokine blockade that has a direct effect on the biomarkers. In this review, we outline an approach to the clinical assessment of patients potentially suitable for biological treatment and describe in detail the likely clinical impact of established and new biological treatments.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Highlights from this issue: Thorax, 70 (2), pp. i-i. | Read more

Hilvering B, Xue L, Pavord ID. 2015. IL-33-dependent Th2 response after rhinovirus infection in asthma: more information needed. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 191 (2), pp. 237. | Read more

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Bousquet J, Schunemann HJ, Fonseca J, Samolinski B, Bachert C, Canonica GW, Casale T, Cruz AA, Demoly P, Hellings P et al. 2015. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis): The new generation guideline implementation Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 70 (11), pp. 1372-1392. | Show Abstract | Read more

© 2015 John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Several unmet needs have been identified in allergic rhinitis: identification of the time of onset of the pollen season, optimal control of rhinitis and comorbidities, patient stratification, multidisciplinary team for integrated care pathways, innovation in clinical trials and, above all, patient empowerment. MASK-rhinitis (MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a simple system centred around the patient which was devised to fill many of these gaps using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools and a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on the most widely used guideline in allergic rhinitis and its asthma comorbidity (ARIA 2015 revision). It is one of the implementation systems of Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA). Three tools are used for the electronic monitoring of allergic diseases: a cell phone-based daily visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment of disease control, CARAT (Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test) and e-Allergy screening (premedical system of early diagnosis of allergy and asthma based on online tools). These tools are combined with a clinical decision support system (CDSS) and are available in many languages. An e-CRF and an e-learning tool complete MASK. MASK is flexible and other tools can be added. It appears to be an advanced, global and integrated ICT answer for many unmet needs in allergic diseases which will improve policies and standards.

Bafadhel M, Haldar K, Barker B, Patel H, Mistry V, Barer MR, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2015. Airway bacteria measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture in patients with stable COPD: relationship with neutrophilic airway inflammation, exacerbation frequency, and lung function. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 10 pp. 1075-1083. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Potentially pathogenic microorganisms can be detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in sputum from patients with COPD, although how this technique relates to culture and clinical measures of disease is unclear. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal data to test the hypotheses that qPCR is a more sensitive measure of bacterial presence and is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation and adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: Sputum was collected from 174 stable COPD subjects longitudinally over 12 months. Microbial sampling using culture and qPCR was performed. Spirometry and sputum measures of airway inflammation were assessed. FINDINGS: Sputum was qPCR-positive (>10(6) copies/mL) in 77/152 samples (Haemophilus influenzae [n=52], Moraxella catarrhalis [n=24], Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=19], and Staphylococcus aureus [n=7]). Sputum was culture-positive in 50/174 samples, with 49 out of 50 culture-positive samples having pathogen-specific qPCR bacterial loads >10(6) copies/mL. Samples that had qPCR copy numbers >10(6)/mL, whether culture-positive or not, had increased sputum neutrophil counts. H. influenzae qPCR copy numbers correlated with sputum neutrophil counts (r=0.37, P<0.001), were repeatable within subjects, and were >10(6)/mL three or more times in 19 patients, eight of whom were repeatedly sputum culture-positive. Persistence, whether defined by culture, qPCR, or both, was associated with a higher sputum neutrophil count, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and worsened quality of life. INTERPRETATION: qPCR identifies a significant number of patients with potentially bacteria-associated neutrophilic airway inflammation and disease that are not identified by traditional culture-based methods.

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Pascoe S, Locantore N, Dransfield MT, Barnes NC, Pavord ID. 2015. Blood eosinophil counts, exacerbations, and response to the addition of inhaled fluticasone furoate to vilanterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A secondary analysis of data from two parallel randomised controlled trials The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3 (6), pp. 435-442. | Show Abstract | Read more

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background: The short-term benefits of inhaled corticosteroids for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are greater in patients with evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. We investigated whether blood eosinophil count is a useful biomarker of the long-term effect of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate on exacerbation frequency. Methods: We did a post-hoc analysis of data from two replicate, randomised, double-blind trials of 12 months' duration (Sept 25, 2009 to Oct 21, 2011 and Oct 17, 2011) in which once a day vilanterol 25 μg was compared with 25 μg vilanterol plus 50 μg, 100 μg, or 200 μg fluticasone furoate in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and a history of one or more exacerbation in the previous year. We compared exacerbation rates according to two baseline eosinophil cell count strata (<2% and ≥2%), and according to four baseline percentage groupings. We also assessed lung function and incidence of pneumonia per strata in treatment groups. Findings: We included 3177 patients in the analyses, with 2083 patients (66%) having an eosinophil count of 2% or higher at study entry. Across all doses of inhaled corticosteroids, fluticasone furoate and vilanterol reduced exacerbations by 29% compared with vilanterol alone (mean 0·91 vs 1·28 exacerbations per patient per year; p<0·0001) in patients with eosinophil counts of 2% or higher, and by 10% (0·79 vs 0·89; p=0·2827) in patients with eosinophil counts lower than 2%. Reductions in exacerbations with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol, compared with vilanterol alone, were 24% in patients with baseline eosinophil counts of ≥2-<4%, 32% for those with counts of 4-<6%, and 42% for those with eosinophil counts of ≥6%. In patients treated with vilanterol alone, exacerbation rates increased progressively with increasing eosinophil count percentage category. Improvement in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV<inf>1</inf>) and the increased risk of pneumonia with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol compared with vilanterol alone were not associated with eosinophil count. Interpretation: Blood eosinophil count is a promising biomarker of response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD. Blood eosinophil count could potentially be used to stratify patients for different exacerbation rate reduction strategies. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline (study ID 201595).

Pavord ID, Bush A, Holgate S. 2015. Asthma diagnosis: Addressing the challenges The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3 (5), pp. 339-341. | Read more

Bush A, Kleinert S, Pavord ID. 2015. The asthmas in 2015 and beyond: a Lancet Commission. Lancet, 385 (9975), pp. 1273-1275. | Read more

Brightling CE, Pavord ID, Bafadhel M. 2015. Inhaled Glucocorticoids and COPD Exacerbations New England Journal of Medicine, 372 (1), pp. 92-94. | Read more

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Ghebre MA, Bafadhel M, Desai D, Cohen SE, Newbold P, Rapley L, Woods J, Rugman P, Pavord ID, Newby C et al. 2015. Biological clustering supports both "dutch" and "british" hypotheses of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 135 (1), pp. 63-72. | Show Abstract | Read more

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Conclusions Sputum cytokine profiling can determine distinct and overlapping groups of subjects with asthma and COPD, supporting both the British and Dutch hypotheses. These findings may contribute to improved patient classification to enable stratified medicine.Results Discriminant analysis distinguished severe asthma from COPD completely using a combination of clinical and biological variables. Factor and cluster analyses of the sputum cytokine profiles revealed 3 biological clusters: cluster 1: asthma predominant, eosinophilic, high TH2 cytokines; cluster 2: asthma and COPD overlap, neutrophilic; cluster 3: COPD predominant, mixed eosinophilic and neutrophilic. Validation subjects were classified into 3 subgroups using discriminant analysis, or disease status with a binary assessment of sputum IL-1β expression. Sputum cellular and cytokine profiles of the validation subgroups were similar to the subgroups from the test study.Background Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous diseases.Objective We sought to determine, in terms of their sputum cellular and mediator profiles, the extent to which they represent distinct or overlapping conditions supporting either the "British" or "Dutch" hypotheses of airway disease pathogenesis.Methods We compared the clinical and physiological characteristics and sputum mediators between 86 subjects with severe asthma and 75 with moderate-to-severe COPD. Biological subgroups were determined using factor and cluster analyses on 18 sputum cytokines. The subgroups were validated on independent severe asthma (n = 166) and COPD (n = 58) cohorts. Two techniques were used to assign the validation subjects to subgroups: linear discriminant analysis, or the best identified discriminator (single cytokine) in combination with subject disease status (asthma or COPD).

Bush A, Pavord I. 2015. Thorax: the lean and slippered Pantaloon years. Thorax, 70 (1), pp. 11. | Read more

Gupta S, Hartley R, Singapuri A, Hargadon B, Monteiro W, Pavord ID, Sousa AR, Marshall RP, Subramanian D, Parr D et al. 2015. Temporal assessment of airway remodeling in severe asthma using quantitative computed tomography. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 191 (1), pp. 107-110. | Read more

Brightling CE, Pavord ID, Bafadhel M. 2015. Inhaled glucocorticoids and COPD exacerbations. N Engl J Med, 372 (1), pp. 93. | Read more

Bel EH, Ortega HG, Pavord ID. 2014. Glucocorticoids and mepolizumab in eosinophilic asthma The New England journal of medicine, 371 (25), pp. 2434. | Read more

Bel EH, Ortega HG, Pavord ID. 2014. Glucocorticoids and mepolizumab in eosinophilic asthma. N Engl J Med, 371 (25), pp. 2434. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 69 (12), pp. i-i. | Read more

Baines KJ, Pavord ID, Gibson PG. 2014. The role of biomarkers in the management of airways disease. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 18 (11), pp. 1264-1268. | Show Abstract | Read more

Chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are responsible for a large global disease burden. The recognition of airway disease phenotypes is important for the application of new therapies targeted at specific underlying biological mechanisms. Biomarkers are indicators of biological or pathogenic processes that are objectively measured. In airway disease, biomarkers will ideally provide predictive information regarding diagnosis, disease mechanisms, phenotypes, treatment responses and prognosis or future risk. Non-invasive biomarkers that aid phenotyping are crucial to the development of targeted and more efficacious treatment, leading to personalised approaches to airway disease management. Sputum and peripheral blood eosinophils and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) are current examples of potential biomarkers. However, recent advances in technology have demonstrated the role for airway transcriptomics in biomarker discovery. This perspective piece discusses the need for biomarkers in airway disease, the use of eosinophil counts and FeNO as biomarkers, the use of transcriptomics for biomarker discovery, and the application of biomarkers in clinical and research settings. A combined approach incorporating clinical information with biological markers such as eosinophils, FeNO and inflammatory gene markers is likely to have the most success in predicting patient outcomes.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 69 (11), pp. i-i. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Upping the impact: to (not quite!) infinity and beyond. Thorax, 69 (10), pp. 890. | Read more

Bel EH, Wenzel SE, Thompson PJ, Prazma CM, Keene ON, Yancey SW, Ortega HG, Pavord ID, SIRIUS Investigators. 2014. Oral glucocorticoid-sparing effect of mepolizumab in eosinophilic asthma. N Engl J Med, 371 (13), pp. 1189-1197. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Many patients with severe asthma require regular treatment with oral glucocorticoids despite the use of high-dose inhaled therapy. However, the regular use of systemic glucocorticoids can result in serious and often irreversible adverse effects. Mepolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to and inactivates interleukin-5, has been shown to reduce asthma exacerbations in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind trial involving 135 patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, we compared the glucocorticoid-sparing effect of mepolizumab (at a dose of 100 mg) with that of placebo administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 20 weeks. The primary outcome was the degree of reduction in the glucocorticoid dose (90 to 100% reduction, 75 to less than 90% reduction, 50 to less than 75% reduction, more than 0 to less than 50% reduction, or no decrease in oral glucocorticoid dose, a lack of asthma control during weeks 20 to 24, or withdrawal from treatment). Other outcomes included the rate of asthma exacerbations, asthma control, and safety. RESULTS: The likelihood of a reduction in the glucocorticoid-dose stratum was 2.39 times greater in the mepolizumab group than in the placebo group (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 4.56; P=0.008). The median percentage reduction from baseline in the glucocorticoid dose was 50% in the mepolizumab group, as compared with no reduction in the placebo group (P=0.007). Despite receiving a reduced glucocorticoid dose, patients in the mepolizumab group, as compared with those in the placebo group, had a relative reduction of 32% in the annualized rate of exacerbations (1.44 vs. 2.12, P=0.04) and a reduction of 0.52 points with respect to asthma symptoms (P=0.004), as measured on the Asthma Control Questionnaire 5 (in which the minimal clinically important difference is 0.5 points). The safety profile of mepolizumab was similar to that of placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients requiring daily oral glucocorticoid therapy to maintain asthma control, mepolizumab had a significant glucocorticoid-sparing effect, reduced exacerbations, and improved control of asthma symptoms. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; SIRIUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01691508.).

Ortega HG, Liu MC, Pavord ID, Brusselle GG, FitzGerald JM, Chetta A, Humbert M, Katz LE, Keene ON, Yancey SW et al. 2014. Mepolizumab treatment in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. N Engl J Med, 371 (13), pp. 1198-1207. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Some patients with severe asthma have frequent exacerbations associated with persistent eosinophilic inflammation despite continuous treatment with high-dose inhaled glucocorticoids with or without oral glucocorticoids. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study, we assigned 576 patients with recurrent asthma exacerbations and evidence of eosinophilic inflammation despite high doses of inhaled glucocorticoids to one of three study groups. Patients were assigned to receive mepolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, which was administered as either a 75-mg intravenous dose or a 100-mg subcutaneous dose, or placebo every 4 weeks for 32 weeks. The primary outcome was the rate of exacerbations. Other outcomes included the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and scores on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the 5-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5). Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: The rate of exacerbations was reduced by 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29 to 61) among patients receiving intravenous mepolizumab and by 53% (95% CI, 37 to 65) among those receiving subcutaneous mepolizumab, as compared with those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Exacerbations necessitating an emergency department visit or hospitalization were reduced by 32% in the group receiving intravenous mepolizumab and by 61% in the group receiving subcutaneous mepolizumab. At week 32, the mean increase from baseline in FEV1 was 100 ml greater in patients receiving intravenous mepolizumab than in those receiving placebo (P=0.02) and 98 ml greater in patients receiving subcutaneous mepolizumab than in those receiving placebo (P=0.03). The improvement from baseline in the SGRQ score was 6.4 points and 7.0 points greater in the intravenous and subcutaneous mepolizumab groups, respectively, than in the placebo group (minimal clinically important change, 4 points), and the improvement in the ACQ-5 score was 0.42 points and 0.44 points greater in the two mepolizumab groups, respectively, than in the placebo group (minimal clinically important change, 0.5 points) (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The safety profile of mepolizumab was similar to that of placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Mepolizumab administered either intravenously or subcutaneously significantly reduced asthma exacerbations and was associated with improvements in markers of asthma control. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; MENSA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01691521.).

Morice AH, Jakes AD, Faruqi S, Birring SS, McGarvey L, Canning B, Smith JA, Parker SM, Chung KF, Lai K et al. 2014. A worldwide survey of chronic cough: a manifestation of enhanced somatosensory response. Eur Respir J, 44 (5), pp. 1149-1155. | Show Abstract | Read more

Reports from individual centres suggest a preponderance of females with chronic cough. Females also have heightened cough reflex sensitivity. Here we have reviewed the age and sex of unselected referrals to 11 cough clinics. To investigate the cause of any observed sex dimorphism, functional magnetic resonance imaging of putative cough centres was analysed in normal volunteers. The demographic profile of consecutive patients presenting with chronic cough was evaluated. Cough challenge with capsaicin was undertaken in normal volunteers to construct a concentration-response curve. Subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging during repeated inhalation of sub-tussive concentrations of capsaicin observed areas of activation within the brain and differences in the sexes identified. Of the 10,032 patients presenting with chronic cough, two-thirds (6591) were female (mean age 55 years). The patient profile was largely uniform across centres. The most common age for presentation was 60-69 years. The maximum tolerable dose of inhaled capsaicin was lower in females; however, a significantly greater activation of the somatosensory cortex was observed. Patients presenting with chronic cough from diverse racial and geographic backgrounds have a strikingly homogeneous demographic profile, suggesting a distinct clinical entity. The preponderance of females may be explained by sex-related differences in the central processing of cough sensation.

Wilson E, McKeever T, Hargadon B, Hearson G, Anderson J, Hodgson D, Bailey H, Meakin G, Thomas M, Pavord ID et al. 2014. Exhaled nitric oxide and inhaled corticosteroid dose reduction in asthma: a cohort study. Eur Respir J, 44 (6), pp. 1705-1707. | Read more

Barker BL, Haldar K, Patel H, Pavord ID, Barer MR, Brightling CE, Bafadhel M. 2015. Association between pathogens detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with airway inflammation in COPD at stable state and exacerbations. Chest, 147 (1), pp. 46-55. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Relationships between airway inflammation and respiratory potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in subjects with COPD are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate mediators of airway inflammation and their association with PPMs in subjects with COPD at stable state and during exacerbations. METHODS: Sputum from 120 stable subjects with COPD was analyzed for bacteriology (colony-forming units; total 16S; and qPCR targeting Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae), differential cell counts, and inflammatory mediators using the Meso-Scale Discovery Platform. Subjects were classified as colonized if any PPM was identified above the threshold of detection by qPCR. Symptoms were quantified using the visual analog scale. RESULTS: At stable state, 60% of subjects were qPCR positive for H influenzae, 48% for M catarrhalis, and 28% for S pneumoniae. Elevated sputum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in samples qPCR positive for either H influenzae or M catarrhalis. Bacterial loads of H influenzae positively correlated with IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and symptoms; and M catarrhalis correlated with IL-10 and TNF-α. H influenzae qPCR bacterial load was an independent predictor of sputum TNF-α and IL-1β. In 55 subjects with paired exacerbation data, qPCR bacterial load fold change at exacerbation in M catarrhalis but not H influenzae correlated to changes in sputum TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: At stable state, H influenzae is associated with increased airway inflammation in COPD. The relationship between bacterial load changes of specific pathogens and airway inflammation at exacerbation and recovery warrants further investigation.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 69 (7), pp. i-i. | Read more

Willson J, Bateman ED, Pavord I, Lloyd A, Krivasi T, Esser D. 2014. Cost effectiveness of tiotropium in patients with asthma poorly controlled on inhaled glucocorticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists. Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 12 (4), pp. 447-459. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of patients with asthma remain uncontrolled or symptomatic despite treatment with a high dose of inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium Respimat(®) added to usual care improves lung function, asthma control, and the frequency of non-severe and severe exacerbations, in a population of adult asthma patients who are uncontrolled despite treatment with ICS/LABA. OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the cost effectiveness of tiotropium therapy as add-on to usual care in asthma patients that are uncontrolled despite treatment with ICS/LABA combination from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: A Markov model was developed which considers levels of asthma control and exacerbations. The model analysed cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); sensitivity and scenario analyses were also conducted to test the robustness of the base case outcomes. All costs are given at 2012 prices. RESULTS: The model found that in this category of asthma with unmet need, add-on tiotropium therapy generated an incremental 0.24 QALYs and £5,238 costs over a lifetime horizon, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £21,906 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis suggested that findings were most dependent on the costs of managing uncontrolled asthma and the cost of treatment with tiotropium. CONCLUSION: In this modelled analysis of two clinical trials, tiotropium was found to be cost effective when added to usual care in patients who remain uncontrolled despite treatment with high-dose ICS/LABA. Further research should investigate the long-term treatment effectiveness of tiotropium.

European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, Action Plan B3, Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, WP 10, Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Bousquet J, Addis A, Adcock I, Agache I, Agusti A, Alonso A, Annesi-Maesano I et al. 2014. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs). Eur Respir J, 44 (2), pp. 304-323. | Show Abstract | Read more

The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5) proposing a common simulation tool to assist physicians; and 6) ultimately reducing the healthcare burden (emergency visits, avoidable hospitalisations, disability and costs) while improving quality of life. In the longer term, the incidence of disease may be reduced by innovative prevention strategies. AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers).

Bafadhel M, Davies L, Calverley PMA, Aaron SD, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2014. Blood eosinophil guided prednisolone therapy for exacerbations of COPD: a further analysis. Eur Respir J, 44 (3), pp. 789-791. | Read more

Newby C, Agbetile J, Hargadon B, Monteiro W, Green R, Pavord I, Brightling C, Siddiqui S. 2014. Lung function decline and variable airway inflammatory pattern: longitudinal analysis of severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 134 (2), pp. 287-294. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic airway inflammation measured by using induced sputum is an important treatment stratification tool in patients with severe asthma. In addition, sputum eosinophilia has been shown to be associated with severe exacerbations and airflow limitation. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify whether eosinophilic inflammation in sputum is associated with FEV₁ decrease in patients with severe asthma and whether we could identify subgroups of decrease behavior based on the variation of eosinophilic airway inflammation over time. METHODS: Ninety-seven patients with severe asthma from the Glenfield Asthma Cohort were followed up with scheduled 3-month visits; the median duration of follow-up and number of visits was 6 years (interquartile range, 5.6-7.6 years) and 2.7 visits per year. Induced sputum was analyzed for eosinophilic inflammation at scheduled visits. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify variables associated with lung function and overall decrease. In addition, using individual patients' mean and SD sputum eosinophil percentages over time, a 2-step cluster analysis was performed to identify patient clusters with different rates of decrease. RESULTS: FEV₁ decrease was -25.7 mL/y in the overall population. Postbronchodilator FEV₁ was also dependent on exacerbations, age of onset, height, age, sex, and log10 sputum eosinophil percentages (P < .001). Three decrease patient clusters were identified: (1) noneosinophilic with low variation (mean decrease, -14.0 mL/y), (2) eosinophilic with high variation (mean decrease, -40.9 mL/y), and (3) hypereosinophilic with low variation (mean decrease in lung function, -19.2 mL/y). CONCLUSION: The amplitude of sputum eosinophilia was associated with postbronchodilator FEV₁ in asthmatic patients. In contrast, high variability rather than the amplitude at baseline or over time of sputum eosinophils was associated with accelerated FEV₁ decrease.

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Bjermer L, Alving K, Diamant Z, Magnussen H, Pavord I, Piacentini G, Price D, Roche N, Sastre J, Thomas M, Usmani O. 2014. Current evidence and future research needs for FeNO measurement in respiratory diseases Respiratory Medicine, 108 (6), pp. 830-841. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although not yet widely implemented, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has emerged in recent years as a potentially useful biomarker for the assessment of airway inflammation both in undiagnosed patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms and in those with established airway disease. Research to date essentially suggests that FeNO measurement facilitates the identification of patients exhibiting T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated airway inflammation, and effectively those in whom anti-inflammatory therapy, particularly inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is beneficial. In some studies, FeNO-guided management of patients with established airway disease is associated with lower exacerbation rates, improvements in adherence to anti-inflammatory therapy, and the ability to predict risk of future exacerbations or decline in lung function. Despite these data, concerns regarding the applicability and utility of FeNO in clinical practice still remain. This article reviews the current evidence, both supportive and critical of FeNO measurement, in the diagnosis and management of asthma and other inflammatory airway diseases. It additionally provides suggestions regarding the practical application of FeNO measurement: how it could be integrated into routine clinical practice, how its utility could be assessed and its true value to both clinicians and patients could be established. Although some unanswered questions remain, current evidence suggests that FeNO is potentially a valuable tool for improving the personalised management of inflammatory airway diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 69 (6), pp. i-i. | Read more

Gonem S, Scadding A, Soares M, Singapuri A, Gustafsson P, Ohri C, Range S, Brightling CE, Pavord I, Horsley A, Siddiqui S. 2014. Lung clearance index in adults with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis Respiratory Research, 15 (1), | Show Abstract | Read more

Background: Lung clearance index (LCI) is a measure of abnormal ventilation distribution derived from the multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) technique. We aimed to determine the clinical utility of LCI in non-CF bronchiectasis, and to assess two novel MBW parameters that distinguish between increases in LCI due to specific ventilation inequality (LCIvent) and increased respiratory dead space (LCIds).Methods: Forty-three patients with non-CF bronchiectasis and 18 healthy control subjects underwent MBW using the sulphur hexafluoride wash-in technique, and data from 40 adults with CF were re-analysed. LCIventand LCIdswere calculated using a theoretical two-compartment lung model, and represent the proportional increase in LCI above its ideal value due to specific ventilation inequality and increased respiratory dead space, respectively.Results: LCI was significantly raised in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis compared to healthy controls (9.99 versus 7.28, p < 0.01), and discriminated well between these two groups (area under receiver operating curve = 0.90, versus 0.83 for forced expiratory volume in one second [% predicted]). LCI, LCIventand LCIdswere repeatable (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.75), and correlated significantly with measures of spirometric airflow obstruction.Conclusion: LCI is repeatable, discriminatory, and is associated with spirometric airflow obstruction in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. LCIventand LCIdsare a practical and repeatable alternative to phase III slope analysis and may allow a further level of mechanistic information to be extracted from the MBW test in patients with severe ventilation heterogeneity. © 2014 Gonem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jones RCM, Price D, Ryan D, Sims EJ, von Ziegenweidt J, Mascarenhas L, Burden A, Halpin DMG, Winter R, Hill S et al. 2014. Opportunities to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine care in the UK: a retrospective study of a clinical cohort. Lancet Respir Med, 2 (4), pp. 267-276. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Patterns of health-care use and comorbidities present in patients in the period before diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. We investigated these factors to inform future case-finding strategies. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of a clinical cohort in the UK with data from Jan 1, 1990 to Dec 31, 2009 (General Practice Research Database and Optimum Patient Care Research Database). We assessed patients aged 40 years or older who had an electronically coded diagnosis of COPD in their primary care records and had a minimum of 3 years of continuous practice data for COPD (2 years before diagnosis up to a maximum of 20 years, and 1 year after diagnosis) and at least two prescriptions for COPD since diagnosis. We identified missed opportunites to diagnose COPD from routinely collected patient data by reviewing patterns of health-care use and comorbidities present before diagnosis. We assessed patterns of health-care use in terms of lower respiratory consultations (infective and non-infective), lower respiratory consultations with a course of antibiotics or oral steroids, and chest radiography. If these events did not lead to a diagnosis of COPD, they were deemed to be missed opportunities. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01655667. FINDINGS: We assessed data for 38,859 patients. Opportunities for diagnosis were missed in 32,900 (85%) of 38,859 patients in the 5 years immediately preceding diagnosis of COPD; in 12,856 (58%) of 22,286 in the 6-10 years before diagnosis, in 3943 (42%) of 9351 in the 11-15 years before diagnosis; and in 95 (8%) of 1167 in the 16-20 years before diagnosis. Between 1990 and 2009, we noted decreases in the age at diagnosis (0·05 years of age per year, 95% CI 0·03-0·07) and yearly frequency of lower respiratory prescribing consultations (rate ratio 0·982 opportunities per year, 95% CI 0·979-0·985). Prevalence of all comorbidities present at COPD diagnosis increased except for asthma and bronchiectasis, which decreased between 1990 and 2007, from 281 (33·4%) of 842 patients to 451 of 1465 (30·8%) for asthma, and from 53 of 842 (6·3%) to 53 of 1465 (3·6%) for bronchiectasis. In the 2 years before diagnosis, of 6897 patients who had had a chest radiography, only 2296 (33%) also had spirometry. INTERPRETATION: Opportunities to diagnose COPD at an earlier stage are being missed, and could be improved by case-finding in patients with lower respiratory tract symptoms and concordant long-term comorbidities. FUNDING: UK Department of Health, Research in Real Life.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Year in review 2013: paediatric and adult clinical studies. Thorax, 69 (4), pp. 309-311. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 69 (4), pp. i-i. | Read more

Gupta S, Hartley R, Khan UT, Singapuri A, Hargadon B, Monteiro W, Pavord ID, Siddiqui S, Brightling CE, Raj V et al. 2014. Quantitative computed tomography-derived clusters: Redefining airway remodeling in asthmatic patients Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133 (3), | Show Abstract | Read more

Background Asthma heterogeneity is multidimensional and requires additional tools to unravel its complexity. Computed tomography (CT)-assessed proximal airway remodeling and air trapping in asthmatic patients might provide new insights into underlying disease mechanisms. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore novel, quantitative, CT-determined asthma phenotypes. Methods Sixty-five asthmatic patients and 30 healthy subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic characterization and quantitative CT analysis. Factor and cluster analysis techniques were used to determine 3 novel, quantitative, CT-based asthma phenotypes. Results Patients with severe and mild-to-moderate asthma demonstrated smaller mean right upper lobe apical segmental bronchus (RB1) lumen volume (LV) in comparison with healthy control subjects (272.3 mm [SD, 112.6 mm], 259.0 mm [SD, 53.3 mm], 366.4 mm [SD, 195.3 mm], respectively; P =.007) but no difference in RB1 wall volume (WV). Air trapping measured based on mean lung density expiratory/inspiratory ratio was greater in patients with severe and mild-to-moderate asthma compared with that seen in healthy control subjects (0.861 [SD, 0.05)], 0.866 [SD, 0.07], and 0.830 [SD, 0.06], respectively; P =.04). The fractal dimension of the segmented airway tree was less in asthmatic patients compared with that seen in control subjects (P =.007). Three novel, quantitative, CT-based asthma clusters were identified, all of which demonstrated air trapping. Cluster 1 demonstrates increased RB1 WV and RB1 LV but decreased RB1 percentage WV. On the contrary, cluster 3 subjects have the smallest RB1 WV and LV values but the highest RB1 percentage WV values. There is a lack of proximal airway remodeling in cluster 2 subjects. Conclusions Quantitative CT analysis provides a new perspective in asthma phenotyping, which might prove useful in patient selection for novel therapies. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

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Gupta S, Hartley R, Khan UT, Singapuri A, Hargadon B, Monteiro W, Pavord ID, Sousa AR, Marshall RP, Subramanian D et al. 2014. Quantitative computed tomography-derived clusters: Redefining airway remodeling in asthmatic patients Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133 (3), | Show Abstract | Read more

Background Asthma heterogeneity is multidimensional and requires additional tools to unravel its complexity. Computed tomography (CT)-assessed proximal airway remodeling and air trapping in asthmatic patients might provide new insights into underlying disease mechanisms. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore novel, quantitative, CT-determined asthma phenotypes. Methods Sixty-five asthmatic patients and 30 healthy subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic characterization and quantitative CT analysis. Factor and cluster analysis techniques were used to determine 3 novel, quantitative, CT-based asthma phenotypes. Results Patients with severe and mild-to-moderate asthma demonstrated smaller mean right upper lobe apical segmental bronchus (RB1) lumen volume (LV) in comparison with healthy control subjects (272.3 mm3[SD, 112.6 mm3], 259.0 mm3[SD, 53.3 mm3], 366.4 mm3[SD, 195.3 mm3], respectively; P =.007) but no difference in RB1 wall volume (WV). Air trapping measured based on mean lung density expiratory/inspiratory ratio was greater in patients with severe and mild-to-moderate asthma compared with that seen in healthy control subjects (0.861 [SD, 0.05)], 0.866 [SD, 0.07], and 0.830 [SD, 0.06], respectively; P =.04). The fractal dimension of the segmented airway tree was less in asthmatic patients compared with that seen in control subjects (P =.007). Three novel, quantitative, CT-based asthma clusters were identified, all of which demonstrated air trapping. Cluster 1 demonstrates increased RB1 WV and RB1 LV but decreased RB1 percentage WV. On the contrary, cluster 3 subjects have the smallest RB1 WV and LV values but the highest RB1 percentage WV values. There is a lack of proximal airway remodeling in cluster 2 subjects. Conclusions Quantitative CT analysis provides a new perspective in asthma phenotyping, which might prove useful in patient selection for novel therapies. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

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Haldar P, Brightling CE, Singapuri A, Hargadon B, Gupta S, Monteiro W, Bradding P, Green RH, Wardlaw AJ, Ortega H, Pavord ID. 2014. Outcomes after cessation of mepolizumab therapy in severe eosinophilic asthma: A 12-month follow-up analysis Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133 (3), pp. 921-923. | Read more

Gupta S, Hartley R, Khan UT, Singapuri A, Hargadon B, Monteiro W, Pavord ID, Sousa AR, Marshall RP, Subramanian D et al. 2014. Quantitative computed tomography-derived clusters: redefining airway remodeling in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 133 (3), pp. 729-38.e18. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Asthma heterogeneity is multidimensional and requires additional tools to unravel its complexity. Computed tomography (CT)-assessed proximal airway remodeling and air trapping in asthmatic patients might provide new insights into underlying disease mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore novel, quantitative, CT-determined asthma phenotypes. METHODS: Sixty-five asthmatic patients and 30 healthy subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic characterization and quantitative CT analysis. Factor and cluster analysis techniques were used to determine 3 novel, quantitative, CT-based asthma phenotypes. RESULTS: Patients with severe and mild-to-moderate asthma demonstrated smaller mean right upper lobe apical segmental bronchus (RB1) lumen volume (LV) in comparison with healthy control subjects (272.3 mm(3) [SD, 112.6 mm(3)], 259.0 mm(3) [SD, 53.3 mm(3)], 366.4 mm(3) [SD, 195.3 mm(3)], respectively; P = .007) but no difference in RB1 wall volume (WV). Air trapping measured based on mean lung density expiratory/inspiratory ratio was greater in patients with severe and mild-to-moderate asthma compared with that seen in healthy control subjects (0.861 [SD, 0.05)], 0.866 [SD, 0.07], and 0.830 [SD, 0.06], respectively; P = .04). The fractal dimension of the segmented airway tree was less in asthmatic patients compared with that seen in control subjects (P = .007). Three novel, quantitative, CT-based asthma clusters were identified, all of which demonstrated air trapping. Cluster 1 demonstrates increased RB1 WV and RB1 LV but decreased RB1 percentage WV. On the contrary, cluster 3 subjects have the smallest RB1 WV and LV values but the highest RB1 percentage WV values. There is a lack of proximal airway remodeling in cluster 2 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative CT analysis provides a new perspective in asthma phenotyping, which might prove useful in patient selection for novel therapies.

Haldar P, Brightling CE, Singapuri A, Hargadon B, Gupta S, Monteiro W, Bradding P, Green RH, Wardlaw AJ, Ortega H, Pavord ID. 2014. Outcomes after cessation of mepolizumab therapy in severe eosinophilic asthma: A 12-month follow-up analysis Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133 (3), pp. 921-923. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 69 (3), pp. i-i. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. A tale of two letters. Thorax, 69 (3), pp. 291. | Read more

Bjermer L, Alving K, Diamant Z, Magnussen H, Pavord I, Piacentini G, Price D, Roche N, Sastre J, Thomas M, Usmani O. 2014. Current evidence and future research needs for FeNO measurement in respiratory diseases. Respir Med, 108 (6), pp. 830-841. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although not yet widely implemented, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has emerged in recent years as a potentially useful biomarker for the assessment of airway inflammation both in undiagnosed patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms and in those with established airway disease. Research to date essentially suggests that FeNO measurement facilitates the identification of patients exhibiting T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated airway inflammation, and effectively those in whom anti-inflammatory therapy, particularly inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is beneficial. In some studies, FeNO-guided management of patients with established airway disease is associated with lower exacerbation rates, improvements in adherence to anti-inflammatory therapy, and the ability to predict risk of future exacerbations or decline in lung function. Despite these data, concerns regarding the applicability and utility of FeNO in clinical practice still remain. This article reviews the current evidence, both supportive and critical of FeNO measurement, in the diagnosis and management of asthma and other inflammatory airway diseases. It additionally provides suggestions regarding the practical application of FeNO measurement: how it could be integrated into routine clinical practice, how its utility could be assessed and its true value to both clinicians and patients could be established. Although some unanswered questions remain, current evidence suggests that FeNO is potentially a valuable tool for improving the personalised management of inflammatory airway diseases.

Haldar P, Brightling CE, Singapuri A, Hargadon B, Gupta S, Monteiro W, Bradding P, Green RH, Wardlaw AJ, Ortega H, Pavord ID. 2014. Outcomes after cessation of mepolizumab therapy in severe eosinophilic asthma: a 12-month follow-up analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 133 (3), pp. 921-923. | Read more

Pavord I, Lassen C, Casale T, Beeh K-M. 2014. Exhaled Nitric Oxide And The Response To Cyt003-Qbg10 In Patients With Persistent Allergic Asthma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 189

Bush A, Pavord I. 2014. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 69 (10), pp. i-i. | Read more

Barker BL, McKenna S, Mistry V, Pancholi M, Patel H, Haldar K, Barer MR, Pavord ID, Steiner MC, Brightling CE, Bafadhel M. 2014. Systemic and pulmonary inflammation is independent of skeletal muscle changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 9 pp. 975-981. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Nutritional depletion is an important manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which has been related to systemic inflammation. It remains unclear to what degree airway inflammation contributes to the presence or progression of nutritional depletion. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway inflammation and lung bacterial colonization are related to nutritional status or predict progressive weight loss and muscle atrophy in patients with COPD. METHODS: Body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, indices of airway inflammation, and bacterial colonization were measured in 234 COPD patients. Systemic inflammation was assessed from serum C reactive protein (CRP) and circulating total and differential leukocyte counts. Nutritional depletion was defined as a body mass index (BMI) less than 21 kg/m(2) and/or fat-free mass index (FFMI) less than 15 or 17 kg/m(2) in women and men, respectively. FFMI was calculated as the fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for body surface area. Measurements were repeated in 94 patients after a median 16-month follow-up. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationships of weight change and FFM change with indices of bacterial colonization and airway and systemic inflammation. RESULTS: Nutritional depletion occurred in 37% of patients. Lung function was worsened in patients with nutritional depletion compared to those without (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 1.17 L versus 1.41 L, mean difference 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.38, P<0.01). There were no differences in airway inflammation and bacterial colonization in patients with and without nutritional depletion. At baseline, BMI correlated positively with serum CRP (rs=0.14, P=0.04). Change in weight and change in FFM over time could not be predicted from baseline patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: Nutritional depletion and progressive muscle atrophy are not related to airway inflammation or bacterial colonization. Overspill of pulmonary inflammation is not a key driver of muscle atrophy in COPD.

Barnes PJ, Casale TB, Dahl R, Pavord ID, Wechsler ME. 2014. The Asthma Control Questionnaire as a clinical trial endpoint: Past experience and recommendations for future use Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 69 (9), pp. 1119-1140. | Show Abstract | Read more

The goal of asthma treatment is to control the disease according to guidelines issued by bodies such as the Global Initiative for Asthma. Effective control is dependent upon evaluation of symptoms, initiation of appropriate treatment and minimization of the progressive adverse effects of the disease and its therapies. Although individual outcome measures have been shown to correlate with asthma control, composite endpoints are preferred to enable more accurate and robust monitoring of the health of the individual patient. A number of validated instruments are utilized to capture these component endpoints; however, there is no consensus on the optimal instrument for use in clinical trials. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) has been shown to be a valid, reliable instrument that allows accurate and reproducible assessment of asthma control that compares favourably with other commonly used instruments. This analysis provides a summary of the use of ACQ in phase II, III and IV asthma trials. Comparisons between the ACQ and other instruments are also presented. Our analysis suggests that the ACQ is a valid and robust measure for use as a primary or secondary endpoint in future clinical trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Newby C, Agbetile J, Hargadon B, Monteiro W, Green R, Pavord I, Brightling C, Siddiqui S. 2014. Lung function decline and variable airway inflammatory pattern: Longitudinal analysis of severe asthma Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 134 (2), | Show Abstract | Read more

Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation measured by using induced sputum is an important treatment stratification tool in patients with severe asthma. In addition, sputum eosinophilia has been shown to be associated with severe exacerbations and airflow limitation. Objectives We sought to identify whether eosinophilic inflammation in sputum is associated with FEV1decrease in patients with severe asthma and whether we could identify subgroups of decrease behavior based on the variation of eosinophilic airway inflammation over time. Methods Ninety-seven patients with severe asthma from the Glenfield Asthma Cohort were followed up with scheduled 3-month visits; the median duration of follow-up and number of visits was 6 years (interquartile range, 5.6-7.6 years) and 2.7 visits per year. Induced sputum was analyzed for eosinophilic inflammation at scheduled visits. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify variables associated with lung function and overall decrease. In addition, using individual patients' mean and SD sputum eosinophil percentages over time, a 2-step cluster analysis was performed to identify patient clusters with different rates of decrease. Results FEV1decrease was -25.7 mL/y in the overall population. Postbronchodilator FEV1was also dependent on exacerbations, age of onset, height, age, sex, and log10sputum eosinophil percentages (P <.001). Three decrease patient clusters were identified: (1) noneosinophilic with low variation (mean decrease, -14.0 mL/y), (2) eosinophilic with high variation (mean decrease, -40.9 mL/y), and (3) hypereosinophilic with low variation (mean decrease in lung function, -19.2 mL/y). Conclusion The amplitude of sputum eosinophilia was associated with postbronchodilator FEV1in asthmatic patients. In contrast, high variability rather than the amplitude at baseline or over time of sputum eosinophils was associated with accelerated FEV1decrease. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

Ghebre MA, Bafadhel M, Desai D, Cohen SE, Newbold P, Rapley L, Woods J, Rugman P, Pavord ID, Newby C et al. 2015. Biological clustering supports both "Dutch" and "British" hypotheses of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 135 (1), pp. 63-72. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine, in terms of their sputum cellular and mediator profiles, the extent to which they represent distinct or overlapping conditions supporting either the "British" or "Dutch" hypotheses of airway disease pathogenesis. METHODS: We compared the clinical and physiological characteristics and sputum mediators between 86 subjects with severe asthma and 75 with moderate-to-severe COPD. Biological subgroups were determined using factor and cluster analyses on 18 sputum cytokines. The subgroups were validated on independent severe asthma (n = 166) and COPD (n = 58) cohorts. Two techniques were used to assign the validation subjects to subgroups: linear discriminant analysis, or the best identified discriminator (single cytokine) in combination with subject disease status (asthma or COPD). RESULTS: Discriminant analysis distinguished severe asthma from COPD completely using a combination of clinical and biological variables. Factor and cluster analyses of the sputum cytokine profiles revealed 3 biological clusters: cluster 1: asthma predominant, eosinophilic, high TH2 cytokines; cluster 2: asthma and COPD overlap, neutrophilic; cluster 3: COPD predominant, mixed eosinophilic and neutrophilic. Validation subjects were classified into 3 subgroups using discriminant analysis, or disease status with a binary assessment of sputum IL-1β expression. Sputum cellular and cytokine profiles of the validation subgroups were similar to the subgroups from the test study. CONCLUSIONS: Sputum cytokine profiling can determine distinct and overlapping groups of subjects with asthma and COPD, supporting both the British and Dutch hypotheses. These findings may contribute to improved patient classification to enable stratified medicine.

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Willson J, Bateman ED, Pavord I, Lloyd A, Krivasi T, Esser D. 2014. Cost effectiveness of tiotropium in patients with asthma poorly controlled on inhaled glucocorticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 12 (4), pp. 447-459. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background: A considerable proportion of patients with asthma remain uncontrolled or symptomatic despite treatment with a high dose of inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium Respimat® added to usual care improves lung function, asthma control, and the frequency of non-severe and severe exacerbations, in a population of adult asthma patients who are uncontrolled despite treatment with ICS/LABA. Objective: This study estimated the cost effectiveness of tiotropium therapy as add-on to usual care in asthma patients that are uncontrolled despite treatment with ICS/LABA combination from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS). Methods: A Markov model was developed which considers levels of asthma control and exacerbations. The model analysed cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); sensitivity and scenario analyses were also conducted to test the robustness of the base case outcomes. All costs are given at 2012 prices. Results: The model found that in this category of asthma with unmet need, add-on tiotropium therapy generated an incremental 0.24 QALYs and £5,238 costs over a lifetime horizon, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £21,906 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis suggested that findings were most dependent on the costs of managing uncontrolled asthma and the cost of treatment with tiotropium. Conclusion: In this modelled analysis of two clinical trials, tiotropium was found to be cost effective when added to usual care in patients who remain uncontrolled despite treatment with high-dose ICS/LABA. Further research should investigate the long-term treatment effectiveness of tiotropium. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Barnes PJ, Casale TB, Dahl R, Pavord ID, Wechsler ME. 2014. The Asthma Control Questionnaire as a clinical trial endpoint: past experience and recommendations for future use. Allergy, 69 (9), pp. 1119-1140. | Show Abstract | Read more

The goal of asthma treatment is to control the disease according to guidelines issued by bodies such as the Global Initiative for Asthma. Effective control is dependent upon evaluation of symptoms, initiation of appropriate treatment and minimization of the progressive adverse effects of the disease and its therapies. Although individual outcome measures have been shown to correlate with asthma control, composite endpoints are preferred to enable more accurate and robust monitoring of the health of the individual patient. A number of validated instruments are utilized to capture these component endpoints; however, there is no consensus on the optimal instrument for use in clinical trials. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) has been shown to be a valid, reliable instrument that allows accurate and reproducible assessment of asthma control that compares favourably with other commonly used instruments. This analysis provides a summary of the use of ACQ in phase II, III and IV asthma trials. Comparisons between the ACQ and other instruments are also presented. Our analysis suggests that the ACQ is a valid and robust measure for use as a primary or secondary endpoint in future clinical trials.

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36

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Agbetile J, Bourne M, Fairs A, Hargadon B, Desai D, Broad C, Morley J, Bradding P, Brightling CE, Green RH et al. 2014. Effectiveness of voriconazole in the treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus-associated asthma (EVITA3 study) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 134 (1), pp. 33-39. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background IgE sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus and a positive sputum fungal culture result are common in patients with refractory asthma. It is not clear whether these patients would benefit from antifungal treatment. Objectives We sought to determine whether a 3-month course of voriconazole improved asthma-related outcomes in patients with asthma who are IgE sensitized to A fumigatus. Methods Asthmatic patients who were IgE sensitized to A fumigatus with a history of at least 2 severe exacerbations in the previous 12 months were treated for 3 months with 200 mg of voriconazole twice daily, followed by observation for 9 months, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design. Primary outcomes were improvement in quality of life at the end of the treatment period and a reduction in the number of severe exacerbations over the 12 months of the study. Results Sixty-five patients were randomized. Fifty-nine patients started treatment (32 receiving voriconazole and 27 receiving placebo) and were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Fifty-six patients took the full 3 months of medication. Between the voriconazole and placebo groups, there were no significant differences in the number of severe exacerbations (1.16 vs 1.41 per patient per year, respectively; mean difference, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.19-0.31), quality of life (change in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score, 0.68 vs 0.88; mean difference between groups, 0.2; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.11), or any of our secondary outcome measures. Conclusion We were unable to show a beneficial effect of 3 months of treatment with voriconazole in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma who were IgE sensitized to A fumigatus on either the rate of severe exacerbations, quality of life, or other markers of asthma control. © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

Gonem S, Scadding A, Soares M, Singapuri A, Gustafsson P, Ohri C, Range S, Brightling CE, Pavord I, Horsley A, Siddiqui S. 2014. Lung clearance index in adults with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respir Res, 15 (1), pp. 59. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI) is a measure of abnormal ventilation distribution derived from the multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) technique. We aimed to determine the clinical utility of LCI in non-CF bronchiectasis, and to assess two novel MBW parameters that distinguish between increases in LCI due to specific ventilation inequality (LCIvent) and increased respiratory dead space (LCIds). METHODS: Forty-three patients with non-CF bronchiectasis and 18 healthy control subjects underwent MBW using the sulphur hexafluoride wash-in technique, and data from 40 adults with CF were re-analysed. LCIvent and LCIds were calculated using a theoretical two-compartment lung model, and represent the proportional increase in LCI above its ideal value due to specific ventilation inequality and increased respiratory dead space, respectively. RESULTS: LCI was significantly raised in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis compared to healthy controls (9.99 versus 7.28, p < 0.01), and discriminated well between these two groups (area under receiver operating curve = 0.90, versus 0.83 for forced expiratory volume in one second [% predicted]). LCI, LCIvent and LCIds were repeatable (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.75), and correlated significantly with measures of spirometric airflow obstruction. CONCLUSION: LCI is repeatable, discriminatory, and is associated with spirometric airflow obstruction in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. LCIvent and LCIds are a practical and repeatable alternative to phase III slope analysis and may allow a further level of mechanistic information to be extracted from the MBW test in patients with severe ventilation heterogeneity.

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Vanfleteren LEGW, Kocks JWH, Stone IS, Breyer-Kohansal R, Greulich T, Lacedonia D, Buhl R, Fabbri LM, Pavord ID, Barnes N et al. 2014. Moving from the Oslerian paradigm to the postgenomic era: Are asthma and COPD outdated terms? Thorax, 69 (1), pp. 72-79. | Show Abstract | Read more

In the majority of cases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two clearly distinct disease entities. However, in some patients there may be significant overlap between the two conditions. This constitutes an important area of concern because these patients are generally excluded from randomised controlled trials (mostly because of smoking history in the case of asthma or because of significant bronchodilator reversibility in the case of COPD). As a result, their pathobiology, prognosis and response to therapy are largely unknown. This may lead to suboptimal management and can limit the development of more personalised therapeutic options. Emerging genetic and molecular information coupled with new bioinformatics capabilities provide novel information that can pave the way towards a new taxonomy of airway diseases. In this paper we question the current value of the terms 'asthma' and 'COPD' as still useful diagnostic labels; discuss the scientific and clinical progress made over the past few years towards unravelling the complexity of airway diseases, from the definition of clinical phenotypes and endotypes to a better understanding of cellular and molecular networks as key pathogenic elements of human diseases (so-called systems medicine); and summarise a number of ongoing studies with the potential to move the field towards a new taxonomy of airways diseases and, hopefully, a more personalised approach to medicine, in which the focus will shift from the current goal of treating diseases as best as possible to the so-called P4 medicine, a new type of medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory.

Pavord ID, Bush A. 2014. Thorax: the prostate years. Thorax, 69 (1), pp. 3-4. | Read more

Siva R, Bafadhel M, Monteiro W, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2014. Effect of levofloxacin on neutrophilic airway inflammation in stable COPD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 9 pp. 179-186. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Airway inflammation persists after smoking cessation in established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), suggesting that other factors drive the airway inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that high levels of bacterial colonization are associated with increased levels of neutrophilic airway inflammation in stable COPD by examining the cross-sectional relationship between these measurements and by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of levofloxacin in patients with stable COPD. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 500 mg daily or placebo for 7 days and underwent sputum induction for a differential cell count and quantitative bacterial analysis at baseline and at days 7, 14, and 28. RESULTS: Sputum percentage neutrophil count correlated with airway bacterial load at baseline (r=0.56; P=0.003). Levofloxacin reduced bacterial load compared with placebo by 4.9-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.4-25.7; P=0.02) at day 7 but had no effect at any point on any marker of neutrophilic airway inflammation. In patients with a baseline bacterial load of more than 10(6) cfu/mL, levofloxacin treatment was associated with a 26.5% (95% confidence interval, 1.8%-51.3%; P=0.04) greater reduction in the percentage neutrophil count compared with placebo at day 7. Change in percentage neutrophil count correlated significantly with baseline airway bacterial load and change in airway bacterial load. CONCLUSION: In stable COPD, levofloxacin treatment causes a short-term reduction in bacterial load. This is associated with a reduction in neutrophilic airway inflammation in patients with high bacterial loads. Further studies are required to investigate whether this effect is clinically advantageous.

Custovic A, Johnston SL, Pavord I, Gaga M, Fabbri L, Bel EH, Le Souëf P, Lötvall J, Demoly P, Akdis CA et al. 2013. EAACI position statement on asthma exacerbations and severe asthma. Allergy, 68 (12), pp. 1520-1531. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma exacerbations and severe asthma are linked with high morbidity, significant mortality and high treatment costs. Recurrent asthma exacerbations cause a decline in lung function and, in childhood, are linked to development of persistent asthma. This position paper, from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, highlights the shortcomings of current treatment guidelines for patients suffering from frequent asthma exacerbations and those with difficult-to-treat asthma and severe treatment-resistant asthma. It reviews current evidence that supports a call for increased awareness of (i) the seriousness of asthma exacerbations and (ii) the need for novel treatment strategies in specific forms of severe treatment-resistant asthma. There is strong evidence linking asthma exacerbations with viral airway infection and underlying deficiencies in innate immunity and evidence of a synergism between viral infection and allergic mechanisms in increasing risk of exacerbations. Nonadherence to prescribed medication has been identified as a common clinical problem amongst adults and children with difficult-to-control asthma. Appropriate diagnosis, assessment of adherence and other potentially modifiable factors (such as passive or active smoking, ongoing allergen exposure, psychosocial factors) have to be a priority in clinical assessment of all patients with difficult-to-control asthma. Further studies with improved designs and new diagnostic tools are needed to properly characterize (i) the pathophysiology and risk of asthma exacerbations, and (ii) the clinical and pathophysiological heterogeneity of severe asthma.

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Wechsler ME, Laviolette M, Rubin AS, Fiterman J, Lapa E Silva JR, Shah PL, Fiss E, Olivenstein R, Thomson NC, Niven RM et al. 2013. Bronchial thermoplasty: Long-term safety and effectiveness in patients with severe persistent asthma Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 132 (6), | Show Abstract | Read more

Background Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma. Objective We sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of BT in asthmatic patients 5 years after therapy. Methods BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350414) were evaluated annually for 5 years to assess the long-term safety of BT and the durability of its treatment effect. Outcomes assessed after BT included severe exacerbations, adverse events, health care use, spirometric data, and high-resolution computed tomographic scans. Results One hundred sixty-two (85.3%) of 190 BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 trial completed 5 years of follow-up. The proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations and emergency department (ED) visits and the rates of events in each of years 1 to 5 remained low and were less than those observed in the 12 months before BT treatment (average 5-year reduction in proportions: 44% for exacerbations and 78% for ED visits). Respiratory adverse events and respiratory-related hospitalizations remained unchanged in years 2 through 5 compared with the first year after BT. Prebronchodilator FEV1values remained stable between years 1 and 5 after BT, despite a 18% reduction in average daily inhaled corticosteroid dose. High-resolution computed tomographic scans from baseline to 5 years after BT showed no structural abnormalities that could be attributed to BT. Conclusions These data demonstrate the 5-year durability of the benefits of BT with regard to both asthma control (based on maintained reduction in severe exacerbations and ED visits for respiratory symptoms) and safety. BT has become an important addition to our treatment armamentarium and should be considered for patients with severe persistent asthma who remain symptomatic despite taking inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Pavord ID. 2013. Eosinophilic phenotypes of airway disease. Ann Am Thorac Soc, 10 Suppl (Supplement), pp. S143-S149. | Show Abstract | Read more

Our understanding of the clinical implications of eosinophilic airway inflammation has increased significantly over the last 20 years, aided by the development of noninvasive means to assess it. This pattern of airway inflammation can occur in a diverse range of airway diseases. It is associated with a positive response to corticosteroids and a high risk of preventable exacerbations. Our new understanding of the role of eosinophilic airway inflammation has paved the way for the clinical development of a number of more specific inhibitors that may become new treatment options. Different definitions, ideas of disease, and adoption of biomarkers that are not well known are necessary to fully realize the potential of these treatments.

Agbetile J, Bourne M, Fairs A, Hargadon B, Desai D, Broad C, Morley J, Bradding P, Brightling CE, Green RH et al. 2014. Effectiveness of voriconazole in the treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus-associated asthma (EVITA3 study). J Allergy Clin Immunol, 134 (1), pp. 33-39. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: IgE sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus and a positive sputum fungal culture result are common in patients with refractory asthma. It is not clear whether these patients would benefit from antifungal treatment. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether a 3-month course of voriconazole improved asthma-related outcomes in patients with asthma who are IgE sensitized to A fumigatus. METHODS: Asthmatic patients who were IgE sensitized to A fumigatus with a history of at least 2 severe exacerbations in the previous 12 months were treated for 3 months with 200 mg of voriconazole twice daily, followed by observation for 9 months, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design. Primary outcomes were improvement in quality of life at the end of the treatment period and a reduction in the number of severe exacerbations over the 12 months of the study. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were randomized. Fifty-nine patients started treatment (32 receiving voriconazole and 27 receiving placebo) and were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Fifty-six patients took the full 3 months of medication. Between the voriconazole and placebo groups, there were no significant differences in the number of severe exacerbations (1.16 vs 1.41 per patient per year, respectively; mean difference, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.19-0.31), quality of life (change in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score, 0.68 vs 0.88; mean difference between groups, 0.2; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.11), or any of our secondary outcome measures. CONCLUSION: We were unable to show a beneficial effect of 3 months of treatment with voriconazole in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma who were IgE sensitized to A fumigatus on either the rate of severe exacerbations, quality of life, or other markers of asthma control.

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Pavord ID, Thomson NC, Niven RM, Corris PA, Chung KF, Cox G, Armstrong B, Shargill NS, Laviolette M. 2013. Safety of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe refractory asthma Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 111 (5), pp. 402-407. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background: Patients with severe refractory asthma treated with bronchial thermoplasty (BT), a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle, were followed up for 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure. Objectives: To assess long-term safety of BT for 5 years. Methods: Patients with asthma aged 18 to 65 years requiring high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) (>750 μg/d of fluticasone propionate or equivalent) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) (at least 100 μg/d of salmeterol or equivalent), with or without oral prednisone (≤30 mg/d), leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, or other asthma controller medications were enrolled in the Research in Severe Asthma (RISA) Trial. Patients had a prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 50% or more of predicted, demonstrated methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness, had uncontrolled symptoms despite taking maintenance medication, abstained from smoking for 1 year or greater, and had a smoking history of less than 10 pack-years. Results: Fourteen patients (of the 15 who received active treatment in the RISA Trial) participated in the long-term follow-up study for 5 years. The rate of respiratory adverse events (AEs per patient per year) was 1.4, 2.4, 1.7, and 2.4, respectively, in years 2 to 5 after BT. There was a decrease in hospitalizations and emergency department visits for respiratory symptoms in each of years 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 compared with the year before BT treatment. Measures of lung function showed no deterioration for 5 years. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that BT is safe for 5 years after BT in patients with severe refractory asthma. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00401986. © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2013. Highlights from this issue Thorax, 68 (11), pp. i-i. | Read more

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Godlee F, Malone R, Timmis A, Otto C, Bush A, Pavord I, Groves T. 2013. Journal policy on research funded by the tobacco industry BMJ, 347 (oct15 7), pp. f5193-f5193. | Read more

Godlee F, Malone R, Timmis A, Otto C, Bush A, Pavord I, Groves T. 2014. Journal policy on research funded by the tobacco industry. Heart, 100 (1), pp. 2-3. | Read more

Godlee F, Malone R, Timmis A, Otto C, Bush A, Pavord I, Groves T. 2013. Journal policy on research funded by the tobacco industry. Thorax, 68 (12), pp. 1090-1091. | Read more

Berair R, Pavord ID. 2013. Rationale and clinical results of inhibiting interleukin-5 for the treatment of severe asthma Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 13 (5), pp. 469-476. | Show Abstract | Read more

Severe asthma is responsible for considerable morbidity and a high proportion of the healthcare costs attributable to asthma. Management is not straightforward as the clinical, pathological and physiological features are heterogeneous and the relationships between these features are poorly understood. In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding this heterogeneity and eosinophilic asthma has emerged as a potentially clinically important phenotype because treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-5 is effective. This has required a change in our understanding of the role of eosinophilic airway inflammation in airways disease and the developments of reliable biomarkers of eosinophilic airway inflammation. We will review these developments and describe the clinical experience so far with treatment with monoclonal antibiotics against IL-5. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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Pavord ID, Bafadhel M. 2013. Exhaled nitric oxide and blood eosinophilia: Independent markers of preventable risk Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 132 (4), pp. 828-829. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2013. Highlights from this issue THORAX, 68 (9), pp. i-i. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord I. 2013. Eight o'clock ROCK! Thorax, 68 (9), pp. 802. | Read more

Blakey JD, Woolnough K, Fellows J, Walker S, Thomas M, Pavord ID. 2013. Assessing the risk of attack in the management of asthma: A review and proposal for revision of the current control-centred paradigm Primary Care Respiratory Journal, 22 (3), pp. 344-352. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma guidelines focus on day-to-day control of symptoms. However, asthma attacks remain common. They continue to cause mortality and considerable morbidity, and are a major financial burden to the UK National Health Service (NHS) and the wider community. Asthma attacks have chronic consequences, being associated with loss of lung function and significant psychological morbidity. In this article we argue that addressing daily symptom control is only one aspect of asthma treatment, and that there should be a more explicit focus on reducing the risk of asthma attacks. Management of future risk by general practitioners is already central to other conditions such as ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal impairment. We therefore propose a revised approach that separately considers the related domains of daily control and future risk of asthma attack. We believe this approach will have advantages over the current 'stepwise' approach to asthma management. It should encourage individualised treatment, including non-pharmacological measures, and thus may lead to more efficacious and less harmful management strategies. We speculate that this type of approach has the potential to reduce morbidity and healthcare costs related to asthma attacks. © 2013 Primary Care Respiratory Society UK. All rights reserved.

Wechsler ME, Laviolette M, Rubin AS, Fiterman J, Lapa e Silva JR, Shah PL, Fiss E, Olivenstein R, Thomson NC, Niven RM et al. 2013. Bronchial thermoplasty: Long-term safety and effectiveness in patients with severe persistent asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 132 (6), pp. 1295-1302. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of BT in asthmatic patients 5 years after therapy. METHODS: BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01350414) were evaluated annually for 5 years to assess the long-term safety of BT and the durability of its treatment effect. Outcomes assessed after BT included severe exacerbations, adverse events, health care use, spirometric data, and high-resolution computed tomographic scans. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-two (85.3%) of 190 BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 trial completed 5 years of follow-up. The proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations and emergency department (ED) visits and the rates of events in each of years 1 to 5 remained low and were less than those observed in the 12 months before BT treatment (average 5-year reduction in proportions: 44% for exacerbations and 78% for ED visits). Respiratory adverse events and respiratory-related hospitalizations remained unchanged in years 2 through 5 compared with the first year after BT. Prebronchodilator FEV₁ values remained stable between years 1 and 5 after BT, despite a 18% reduction in average daily inhaled corticosteroid dose. High-resolution computed tomographic scans from baseline to 5 years after BT showed no structural abnormalities that could be attributed to BT. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the 5-year durability of the benefits of BT with regard to both asthma control (based on maintained reduction in severe exacerbations and ED visits for respiratory symptoms) and safety. BT has become an important addition to our treatment armamentarium and should be considered for patients with severe persistent asthma who remain symptomatic despite taking inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β₂-agonists.

Blakey JD, Woolnough K, Fellows J, Walker S, Thomas M, Pavord ID. 2013. Assessing the risk of attack in the management of asthma: a review and proposal for revision of the current control-centred paradigm. Prim Care Respir J, 22 (3), pp. 344-352. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma guidelines focus on day-to-day control of symptoms. However, asthma attacks remain common. They continue to cause mortality and considerable morbidity, and are a major financial burden to the UK National Health Service (NHS) and the wider community. Asthma attacks have chronic consequences, being associated with loss of lung function and significant psychological morbidity. In this article we argue that addressing daily symptom control is only one aspect of asthma treatment, and that there should be a more explicit focus on reducing the risk of asthma attacks. Management of future risk by general practitioners is already central to other conditions such as ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal impairment. We therefore propose a revised approach that separately considers the related domains of daily control and future risk of asthma attack. We believe this approach will have advantages over the current 'stepwise' approach to asthma management. It should encourage individualised treatment, including non-pharmacological measures, and thus may lead to more efficacious and less harmful management strategies. We speculate that this type of approach has the potential to reduce morbidity and healthcare costs related to asthma attacks.

Quint JK, Bush A, Pavord I. 2013. Keeping 'a chest' of the literature. Thorax, 68 (7), pp. 610. | Read more

Vanfleteren LEGW, Kocks JWH, Stone IS, Breyer-Kohansal R, Greulich T, Lacedonia D, Buhl R, Fabbri LM, Pavord ID, Barnes N et al. 2014. Moving from the Oslerian paradigm to the post-genomic era: are asthma and COPD outdated terms? Thorax, 69 (1), pp. 72-79. | Show Abstract | Read more

In the majority of cases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two clearly distinct disease entities. However, in some patients there may be significant overlap between the two conditions. This constitutes an important area of concern because these patients are generally excluded from randomised controlled trials (mostly because of smoking history in the case of asthma or because of significant bronchodilator reversibility in the case of COPD). As a result, their pathobiology, prognosis and response to therapy are largely unknown. This may lead to suboptimal management and can limit the development of more personalised therapeutic options. Emerging genetic and molecular information coupled with new bioinformatics capabilities provide novel information that can pave the way towards a new taxonomy of airway diseases. In this paper we question the current value of the terms 'asthma' and 'COPD' as still useful diagnostic labels; discuss the scientific and clinical progress made over the past few years towards unravelling the complexity of airway diseases, from the definition of clinical phenotypes and endotypes to a better understanding of cellular and molecular networks as key pathogenic elements of human diseases (so-called systems medicine); and summarise a number of ongoing studies with the potential to move the field towards a new taxonomy of airways diseases and, hopefully, a more personalised approach to medicine, in which the focus will shift from the current goal of treating diseases as best as possible to the so-called P4 medicine, a new type of medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory.

Bruton A, Kirby S, Arden-Close E, Taylor L, Webley F, George S, Yardley L, Price D, Moore M, Little P et al. 2013. The BREATHE study: Breathing REtraining for Asthma--Trial of Home Exercises. a protocol summary of a randomised controlled trial. Prim Care Respir J, 22 (2), pp. PS1-PS7. | Read more

Lee KK, Matos S, Evans DH, White P, Pavord ID, Birring SS. 2013. A longitudinal assessment of acute cough. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 187 (9), pp. 991-997. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Cough can be assessed with visual analog scales (VAS), health status measures, and 24-hour cough frequency monitors (CF(24)). Evidence for their measurement properties in acute cough caused by upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and longitudinal data is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess cough longitudinally in URTI with subjective and objective outcome measures and determine sample size for future studies. METHODS: Thirty-three previously healthy subjects with URTI completed cough VAS, Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ-acute), and CF(24) monitoring (Leicester Cough Monitor) on three occasions, 4 days apart. Changes in subjects' condition were assessed with a global rating of change questionnaire. The potential for baseline first-hour cough frequency (CF(1)), VAS, and LCQ to identify low CF(24) was assessed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean ± SD duration of cough at visit 1 was 4.1 ± 2.5 days. Geometric mean ± log SD baseline CF(24) and median (interquartile range) cough bouts were high (14.9 ± 0.4 coughs/h and 85 [39-195] bouts/24 h). Health status was severely impaired. There was a significant reduction in CF(24) and VAS, and improvement in LCQ, from visits 1-3. At visit 3, CF(24) remained above normal limits in 52% of subjects. The smallest changes in CF(24), LCQ, and VAS that subjects perceived important were 54%, 2- and 17-mm change from baseline, respectively. The sample sizes required for parallel group studies to detect these changes are 27, 51, and 25 subjects per group, respectively. CF(1) (<20.5 coughs/h) was predictive of low CF(24). CONCLUSIONS: CF(24), VAS, and LCQ are responsive outcome tools for the assessment of acute cough. The smallest change in cough frequency perceived important by subjects is 54%. The sample sizes required for future studies are modest and achievable.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2013. President elect kidnapped. Tsar very much. Thorax, 68 (5), pp. 409. | Read more

Nolte H, Pavord I, Backer V, Spector S, Shekar T, Gates D, Nair P, Hargreave F. 2013. Dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of inhaled mometasone furoate/formoterol in subjects with asthma. Respir Med, 107 (5), pp. 656-664. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: A well-controlled study in patients with allergic asthma was warranted to assess dose-dependency between fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and sputum eosinophils to a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid plus a long-acting β2-agonist. We sought to characterize the dose-dependency of mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F) using FeNO and sputum eosinophil percentage as surrogates of airway inflammation in subjects with allergic asthma. METHODS: Following a 2-week, open-label run-in, 93 subjects (≥12 y) using only short-acting beta agonist reliever medication as needed, were randomized to twice daily (BID) placebo; MF/F 100/10 μg, 200/10 μg, or 400/10 μg (via pressurized metered-dose inhaler [MDI]); MF-MDI 200 μg; or MF 200 μg via dry powder inhaler (DPI) during a 2-week, double-blind treatment period. RESULTS: All active treatments demonstrated significant percentage reductions from baseline in FeNO compared with placebo at all time points (P ≤ 0.034). At endpoint, mean MF/F treatment group FeNO reductions ranged from -35.3% to -61.4%. Sputum eosinophil percentage reductions from baseline were significant compared with placebo for the MF/F 200/10 μg, MF/F 400/10 μg, and MF-DPI 200 μg groups at endpoint (P ≤ 0.023). Escalating MF/F doses significantly reduced both FeNO (P ≤ 0.001) and sputum eosinophil (P ≤ 0.022) levels in a dose-dependent manner at all time points. All treatments were well tolerated; no serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: All 3 MF/F doses demonstrated pronounced, clinically meaningful, dose-dependent reductions in FeNO, with reduced sputum eosinophil levels for MF/F 200/10 μg and MF/F 400/10 μg. These findings suggest both inflammatory markers may be useful in assessing corticosteroid responsiveness in asthma patients, and perhaps identifying the same asthma subphenotype. Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00635882.

Desai D, Newby C, Symon FA, Haldar P, Shah S, Gupta S, Bafadhel M, Singapuri A, Siddiqui S, Woods J et al. 2013. Elevated sputum interleukin-5 and submucosal eosinophilia in obese individuals with severe asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 188 (6), pp. 657-663. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: The relationship between airway inflammation and obesity in severe asthma is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the relationship between sputum mediator profiles and the distribution of eosinophilic inflammation and obesity in people with severe asthma. METHODS: Clinical parameters and eight mediators in sputum were assessed in 131 subjects with severe asthma from a single center categorized into lean, overweight, and obese groups defined by their body mass index. In an independent group of people with severe asthma (n = 45) and healthy control subjects (n = 19) eosinophilic inflammation was enumerated in bronchial submucosa, blood, and sputum and related to their body mass index. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sputum IL-5 geometric mean (95% confidence interval) (pg/ml) was elevated in the obese (1.8 [1.2-2.6]) compared with overweight (1.1 [0.8-1.3]; P = 0.025) and lean (0.9 [0.6-1.2]; P = 0.018) subjects with asthma and was correlated with body mass index (r = 0.29; P < 0.001). There was no relationship among body mass index, the sputum cell count, or other sputum mediators. In the bronchoscopy group the submucosal eosinophil number in the subjects with asthma was correlated with body mass index (Spearman rank correlation, rs = 0.38; P = 0.013) and the median (interquartile range) number of submucosal eosinophils was increased in obese (19.4 [11.8-31.2]) (cells per square millimeter) versus lean subjects (8.2 [5.4-14.6]) (P = 0.006). There was no significant association between sputum or peripheral blood eosinophil counts and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Sputum IL-5 and submucosal eosinophils, but not sputum eosinophils, are elevated in obese people with severe asthma. Whether specific antieosinophilic therapy is beneficial, or improved diet and lifestyle in obese asthma has antiinflammatory effects beyond weight reduction, requires further study.

Pavord ID. 2013. Complex airway disease: an approach to assessment and management. Lancet Respir Med, 1 (1), pp. 84-90. | Show Abstract | Read more

Research into new treatments for airway disease focuses on severe disease because morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs are substantial and the unmet need is greatest. One reason why outcomes are poor in these patients could be that the clinical expression of disease is heterogeneous and difficult to classify. As a result, guideline-based management algorithms fail. Additionally, difficulties with disease classification and misconceptions about the relation between different aspects of severe airway disease have hindered new drug development. A potential solution is to use a new approach to assess severe airway disease, which moves the diagnostic focus from categorisation of patients to identification and characterisation of the main drivers of disease. This approach will help rather than hinder identification of clinically important phenotypes of disease and will facilitate the development of new phenotype-specific treatment options.

Yousaf N, Montinero W, Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2013. The long term outcome of patients with unexplained chronic cough. Respir Med, 107 (3), pp. 408-412. | Show Abstract | Read more

INTRODUCTION: Up to 40% of patients seen in a cough clinic have unexplained chronic cough. The long term outcome of these patients is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with unexplained chronic cough. METHODS: We have performed a longitudinal study of symptoms, airway inflammation and spirometry in a cohort of patients with unexplained chronic cough diagnosed over 7 years ago. Cough was assessed using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). At the first and final visit cough reflex sensitivity was assessed as the concentration of inhaled capsaicin at which the volunteer coughed 2 (C2) and 5 times (C5). RESULTS: We identified 42 patients (32 females) with unexplained chronic cough who had been assessed at least 7 years previously and agreed to a further assessment. The mean (SD) duration of cough was 11.5 (4.5) years at the time of their final assessment. Nine patients (21%) had organ specific autoimmune disease and twenty (48%) had a peripheral blood lymphopaenia. Six (14%) patients had complete resolution of symptoms and 11 (26%) had a significant >10 mm improvement in their cough VAS during follow up. Longitudinal spirometry data was available in 30 patients. The median rate of FEV(1) decline was 44 ml/year and four (13%) patients developed a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity of less than 0.7. FEV(1) decline was similar in patients with persistent cough and those whose cough improved. No other independent predictors of FEV(1) decline were identified. There were no independent predictors of improvement in cough. CONCLUSIONS: Cough persists over time in the majority of patients with unexplained chronic cough. Patients have an increased rate of decline in FEV(1) and a significant minority develop fixed airflow obstruction.

Yousaf N, Monteiro W, Matos S, Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2013. Cough frequency in health and disease. Eur Respir J, 41 (1), pp. 241-243. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord ID. 2013. Thorax: the Cappuccino years. Thorax, 68 (1), pp. 1-4. | Read more

Bush A, Pavord ID. 2013. Omalizumab: NICE to USE you, to LOSE you NICE. Thorax, 68 (1), pp. 7-8. | Read more

Siva R, Birring SS, Berry M, Rowbottom A, Pavord ID. 2013. Peptic ulceration, Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respirology, 18 (4), pp. 728-731. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We have suggested that chronic inflammation of other foregut derivatives might be associated with airway inflammation and amplification of the response to inhaled stimuli such as cigarette smoke leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One of the commonest causes of chronic foregut inflammation is gastritis secondary to Helicobacter Pylori infection. We tested the hypothesis that peptic ulceration and H. Pylori seropositivity are associated with COPD independently of other shared risk factors. METHODS: We reviewed primary care medical records and performed full lung function tests on 329 miners seen over 2 years as part of a compensation scheme. We also performed H. Pylori serology in patients with varying degrees of severity of COPD compared with a matched control population. RESULTS: The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease in the groups classed as normal, chronic bronchitis, mild, moderate and severe COPD was 3.2%, 16.2%, 21.4%, 42.4% and 56.2%, respectively. There was a strong and independent relationship between the presence of peptic ulcer disease and percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-13.3%; 95% confidence interval: 6.7-19.9; P < 0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio (-5.06%; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-8.2; P < 0.001). Positive H. pylori serology was present in 54.7% of 58 patients with COPD and 23.5% of 17 controls (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a relationship between peptic ulcer disease and COPD that is more that just a shared susceptibility to different environmental stimuli.

Straumann A, Haldar P, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ, Busse WW, Molfino NA, Kolbeck R, Shin MK, Bochner BS, Cools J. 2013. Antieosinophil Therapeutics pp. 577-605. | Read more

Pavord ID, Thomson NC, Niven RM, Corris PA, Chung KF, Cox G, Armstrong B, Shargill NS, Laviolette M, Research in Severe Asthma Trial Study Group. 2013. Safety of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe refractory asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 111 (5), pp. 402-407. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe refractory asthma treated with bronchial thermoplasty (BT), a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle, were followed up for 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure. OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term safety of BT for 5 years. METHODS: Patients with asthma aged 18 to 65 years requiring high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) (>750 μg/d of fluticasone propionate or equivalent) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) (at least 100 μg/d of salmeterol or equivalent), with or without oral prednisone (≤30 mg/d), leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, or other asthma controller medications were enrolled in the Research in Severe Asthma (RISA) Trial. Patients had a prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 50% or more of predicted, demonstrated methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness, had uncontrolled symptoms despite taking maintenance medication, abstained from smoking for 1 year or greater, and had a smoking history of less than 10 pack-years. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (of the 15 who received active treatment in the RISA Trial) participated in the long-term follow-up study for 5 years. The rate of respiratory adverse events (AEs per patient per year) was 1.4, 2.4, 1.7, and 2.4, respectively, in years 2 to 5 after BT. There was a decrease in hospitalizations and emergency department visits for respiratory symptoms in each of years 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 compared with the year before BT treatment. Measures of lung function showed no deterioration for 5 years. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that BT is safe for 5 years after BT in patients with severe refractory asthma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00401986.

Berair R, Pavord ID. 2013. Rationale and clinical results of inhibiting interleukin-5 for the treatment of severe asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 13 (5), pp. 469-476. | Show Abstract | Read more

Severe asthma is responsible for considerable morbidity and a high proportion of the healthcare costs attributable to asthma. Management is not straightforward as the clinical, pathological and physiological features are heterogeneous and the relationships between these features are poorly understood. In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding this heterogeneity and eosinophilic asthma has emerged as a potentially clinically important phenotype because treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-5 is effective. This has required a change in our understanding of the role of eosinophilic airway inflammation in airways disease and the developments of reliable biomarkers of eosinophilic airway inflammation. We will review these developments and describe the clinical experience so far with treatment with monoclonal antibiotics against IL-5.

Godlee F, Malone R, Timmis A, Otto C, Bush A, Pavord I, Groves T. 2013. Journal policy on research funded by the tobacco industry. BMJ, 347 pp. f5193. | Read more

Pavord ID, Bafadhel M. 2013. Exhaled nitric oxide and blood eosinophilia: independent markers of preventable risk. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 132 (4), pp. 828-829. | Read more

Gonem S, Raj V, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID, Green R, Siddiqui S. 2012. Phenotyping airways disease: an A to E approach. Clin Exp Allergy, 42 (12), pp. 1664-1683. | Show Abstract | Read more

The airway diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous conditions with overlapping pathophysiological and clinical features. It has previously been proposed that this heterogeneity may be characterized in terms of five relatively independent domains labelled from A to E, namely airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchitis, cough reflex hypersensitivity, damage to the airways and surrounding lung parenchyma, and extrapulmonary factors. Airway hyperresponsiveness occurs in both asthma and COPD, accounting for variable day to day symptoms, although the mechanisms most likely differ between the two conditions. Bronchitis, or airway inflammation, may be predominantly eosinophilic or neutrophilic, with different treatments required for each. Cough reflex hypersensitivity is thought to underlie the chronic dry cough out of proportion to other symptoms that can occur in association with airways disease. Structural changes associated with airway disease (damage) include bronchial wall thickening, airway smooth muscle hypertrophy, bronchiectasis and emphysema. Finally, a variety of extrapulmonary factors may impact upon airway disease, including rhinosinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity and dysfunctional breathing. This article discusses the A to E concept in detail and describes how this framework may be used to assess and treat patients with airway diseases in the clinic.

Lee KK, Savani A, Matos S, Evans DH, Pavord ID, Birring SS. 2012. Four-hour cough frequency monitoring in chronic cough. Chest, 142 (5), pp. 1237-1243. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The recent development of automated cough monitors has enabled objective assessment of cough frequency. A study was undertaken to determine whether short-duration recordings( < 6 h) accurately reflect 24-h cough frequency and to investigate their responsiveness. METHODS: One hundred adults with chronic cough underwent 24-h cough frequency monitoring with the Leicester Cough Monitor and completed cough visual analog scales (VASs) and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Cough recordings were analyzed using customized software to derive cough frequencies from 1 to 6 h and 24-h recordings. Responsiveness was assessed with repeat assessments following therapeutic trials. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) 24-h cough frequency was 11.5 (5.8-26.6) coughs/h. Four hours was considered the shortest recording duration that represented 24-h cough frequency( ρ= 0.9, P ≤ .001). Median 4-h cough frequency was 16.6 (7.3-36.8) coughs/h. Both 4-h and 24-h cough frequency correlated moderately with cough VAS ( ρ= 0.49, P ≤ .01 and ρ= 0.44, P ≤ .01)and LCQ ( ρ = - 0.48, P ≤ .01; ρ = - 0.50, P ≤ .01). Four-hour cough frequency was responsive to improvements in cough severity following trials of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Four-hour cough frequency correlates highly with 24-h cough frequency recordings and relates equally well with subjective measures in chronic cough. Short-duration cough monitoring could be a practical tool to validate the presence of cough and assess response to trials of therapy in the clinic setting.

Shaw D, Green R, Berry M, Mellor S, Hargadon B, Shelley M, McKenna S, Thomas M, Pavord I. 2012. A cross-sectional study of patterns of airway dysfunction, symptoms and morbidity in primary care asthma. Prim Care Respir J, 21 (3), pp. 283-287. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Most patients with asthma are managed exclusively in primary care. Little is known about the patterns of airway dysfunction in these patients and how these relate to other aspects of the disease. AIMS: We set out to assess this in a cross-sectional study of 262 patients. METHODS: Symptoms, spirometry, airway responsiveness, reversibility, and airway inflammation were all assessed. Exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids in the preceding year were enumerated. RESULTS: Patients had heterogeneous patterns of airway dysfunction. Those with a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/ forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7 had more exacerbations in the previous year (2.2 vs. 0.8; mean difference 1.4; 95% CI 0.4 to 2.4; p=0.007). Patients with normal results had less inflammation (proportion with a sputum eosinophil count of >1.9%, 20% vs. 48%, χ²=14.8, df=3; p<0.001) and fewer exacerbations (0.5 vs. 1.4; mean difference -0.9; 95% CI -1.4 to -0.4; p=0.001) but similar symptom scores (6.2 vs. 6.9; p=0.2) compared with patients with any abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a diagnosis of asthma have mixed patterns of physiological impairment; many have no airflow obstruction or airway hyper-responsiveness. The physiological characterisation of asthma is not related to symptoms and is of little value in predicting exacerbations or eosinophilic airway inflammation.

Martin N, Ruddick A, Arthur GK, Wan H, Woodman L, Brightling CE, Jones DJL, Pavord ID, Bradding P. 2012. Primary human airway epithelial cell-dependent inhibition of human lung mast cell degranulation. PLoS One, 7 (8), pp. e43545. | Show Abstract | Read more

INTRODUCTION: Chronic mast cell activation is a characteristic feature of asthma. BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells (AEC) profoundly inhibit both constitutive and IgE-dependent human lung mast cell (HLMC) histamine release. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of HLMC degranulation by primary AEC from healthy and asthmatic subjects, and investigate further the inhibitory mechanism. METHODS: HLMC were co-cultured with both BEAS-2B and primary AEC grown as monolayers or air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures. RESULTS: Both constitutive and IgE-dependent HLMC histamine release were attenuated by BEAS-2B, primary AEC monolayers and ALI cultures. This occurred in the absence of HLMC-AEC contact indicating the presence of a soluble factor. Unlike healthy ALI AEC, asthmatic ALI-AEC did not significantly reduce constitutive histamine release. AEC inhibitory activity was transferable in primary AEC monolayer supernatant, but less active than with Transwell co-culture, suggesting that the inhibitory factor was labile. The AEC inhibitory effects were attenuated by both AEC wounding and pertussis toxin, indicating the involvement of a G(0)/G(i) receptor coupled mechanism. Solid phase extraction of lipids (<10 kDa) removed the AEC inhibitory activity. The lipid derivatives resolving D1 and D2 and lipoxin A(4) attenuated HLMC histamine release in a dose-dependent fashion but were not detectable in co-culture supernatants. CONCLUSIONS: Primary AEC suppress HLMC constitutive and IgE-dependent histamine secretion through the release of a soluble, labile lipid mediator(s) that signals through the G(0)/G(i) receptor coupled mechanism. Manipulation of this interaction may have a significant therapeutic role in asthma.

Pavord ID, Korn S, Howarth P, Bleecker ER, Buhl R, Keene ON, Ortega H, Chanez P. 2012. Mepolizumab for severe eosinophilic asthma (DREAM): a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 380 (9842), pp. 651-659. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Some patients with severe asthma have recurrent asthma exacerbations associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation. Early studies suggest that inhibition of eosinophilic airway inflammation with mepolizumab-a monoclonal antibody against interleukin 5-is associated with a reduced risk of exacerbations. We aimed to establish efficacy, safety, and patient characteristics associated with the response to mepolizumab. METHODS: We undertook a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 81 centres in 13 countries between Nov 9, 2009, and Dec 5, 2011. Eligible patients were aged 12-74 years, had a history of recurrent severe asthma exacerbations, and had signs of eosinophilic inflammation. They were randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive one of three doses of intravenous mepolizumab (75 mg, 250 mg, or 750 mg) or matched placebo (100 mL 0·9% NaCl) with a central telephone-based system and computer-generated randomly permuted block schedule stratified by whether treatment with oral corticosteroids was required. Patients received 13 infusions at 4-week intervals. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant asthma exacerbations, which were defined as validated episodes of acute asthma requiring treatment with oral corticosteroids, admission, or a visit to an emergency department. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were masked to treatment assignment. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01000506. FINDINGS: 621 patients were randomised: 159 were assigned to placebo, 154 to 75 mg mepolizumab, 152 to 250 mg mepolizumab, and 156 to 750 mg mepolizumab. 776 exacerbations were deemed to be clinically significant. The rate of clinically significant exacerbations was 2·40 per patient per year in the placebo group, 1·24 in the 75 mg mepolizumab group (48% reduction, 95% CI 31-61%; p<0·0001), 1·46 in the 250 mg mepolizumab group (39% reduction, 19-54%; p=0·0005), and 1·15 in the 750 mg mepolizumab group (52% reduction, 36-64%; p<0·0001). Three patients died during the study, but the deaths were not deemed to be related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Mepolizumab is an effective and well tolerated treatment that reduces the risk of asthma exacerbations in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline.

Martin N, Lindley MR, Hargadon B, Monteiro WR, Pavord ID. 2012. Airway dysfunction and inflammation in pool- and non-pool-based elite athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 44 (8), pp. 1433-1439. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE: This study sought to determine and compare the levels of airway dysfunction and inflammation in a large cohort of symptomatic international athletes from pool- and non-pool-based sporting backgrounds. In total, 118 athletes were recruited. METHODS: All subjects had symptoms of exercise asthma and were steroid naïve. They completed baseline spirometry, a symptom score, exhaled nitric oxide, a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test, and a postchallenge induced sputum and urine test. RESULTS: Pool-based athletes had better lung function (FEV1 = 110% vs 102% predicted, mean difference = 8.200 ± 2.339, P = 0.0006 and FVC = 5.64 vs 4.75 L, mean difference = 0.8855 ± 0.1951, P < 0.0001) and more marked airways hyper-reactivity (AHR) (percent drop in FEV1 after EVH = 18.14 vs 11.47, mean difference = 6.67, 95% confidence interval = 2.89-10.53, P = 0.0009). More pool-based athletes had a positive EVH test (72% pool vs 39% nonpool), but there was no difference between groups with respect to eosinophilic inflammation (sputum eosinophil percentage: pool = 2.07, nonpool = 2.28, P = 0.77; exhaled nitric oxide: pool = 32.54, nonpool = 35.77, P = 0.60). Athletes with a positive EVH test had less neutrophilic inflammation (P = 0.01) and more epithelial cells (P = 0.03) in their sputum. CONCLUSIONS: Pool-based endurance athletes have greater evidence of AHR than non-pool-based athletes but no evidence of greater eosinophilic airway inflammation. Athletes who test positive on EVH are more likely to be eosinophilic and have higher levels of epithelial cells in their sputum.

Murphy AC, Proeschal A, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord I, Bradding P, Green RH. 2012. The relationship between clinical outcomes and medication adherence in difficult-to-control asthma. Thorax, 67 (8), pp. 751-753. | Show Abstract | Read more

Medication non-adherence and the clinical implications in difficult-to-control asthma were audited. Prescription issue data from 115 patients identified sub-optimal adherence (<80%) in 65% of patients on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or combined ICS/long-acting β2 agonist (LABA). In those using separate ICS and LABA, adherence to LABA (50%) was significantly better than to ICS (14.3%). Patients with sub-optimal ICS adherence had reduced FEV(1) and higher sputum eosinophil counts. Adherence ratio was an independent predictor of previous ventilation for acute severe asthma (p=0.008). The majority of patients with difficult-to-control asthma are non-adherent with their asthma medication. Non-adherence is correlated with poor clinical outcomes.

Green RH, Pavord I. 2012. Stability of inflammatory phenotypes in asthma. Thorax, 67 (8), pp. 665-667. | Read more

Bafadhel M, McKenna S, Terry S, Mistry V, Pancholi M, Venge P, Lomas DA, Barer MR, Johnston SL, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2012. Blood eosinophils to direct corticosteroid treatment of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 186 (1), pp. 48-55. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and responses to treatment are heterogeneous. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the usefulness of blood eosinophils to direct corticosteroid therapy during exacerbations. METHODS: Subjects with COPD exacerbations were entered into a randomized biomarker-directed double-blind corticosteroid versus standard therapy study. Subjects in the standard arm received prednisolone for 2 weeks, whereas in the biomarker-directed arm, prednisolone or matching placebo was given according to the blood eosinophil count biomarker. Both study groups received antibiotics. Blood eosinophils were measured in the biomarker-directed and standard therapy arms to define biomarker-positive and -negative exacerbations (blood eosinophil count > and ≤ 2%, respectively). The primary outcome was to determine noninferiority in health status using the chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ) and in the proportion of exacerbations associated with a treatment failure between subjects allocated to the biomarker-directed and standard therapy arms. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 86 and 80 exacerbations in the biomarker-directed and standard treatment groups, respectively. In the biomarker-directed group, 49% of the exacerbations were not treated with prednisolone. CRQ improvement after treatment in the standard and biomarker-directed therapy groups was similar (0.8 vs. 1.1; mean difference, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.6; P = 0.05). There was a greater improvement in CRQ in biomarker-negative exacerbations given placebo compared with those given prednisolone (mean difference, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.90; P = 0.04). In biomarker-negative exacerbations, treatment failures occurred in 15% given prednisolone and 2% of those given placebo (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The peripheral blood eosinophil count is a promising biomarker to direct corticosteroid therapy during COPD exacerbations, but larger studies are required.

Pavord ID, Green RH, Haldar P. 2012. Diagnosis and Management of Asthma in Adults pp. 501-520. | Read more

Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2012. Cough pp. 242-249. | Read more

Agbetile J, Fairs A, Desai D, Hargadon B, Bourne M, Mutalithas K, Edwards R, Morley JP, Monteiro WR, Kulkarni NS et al. 2012. Isolation of filamentous fungi from sputum in asthma is associated with reduced post-bronchodilator FEV1. Clin Exp Allergy, 42 (5), pp. 782-791. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Fungal sensitization is common in severe asthma, but the clinical relevance of this and the relationship with airway colonization by fungi remain unclear. The range of fungi that may colonize the airways in asthma is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive analysis on the range of filamentous fungi isolated in sputum from people with asthma and report the relationship with their clinico-immunological features of their disease. METHODS: We recruited 126 subjects with a diagnosis of asthma, 94% with moderate-severe disease, and 18 healthy volunteers. At a single stable visit, subjects underwent spirometry; sputum fungal culture and a sputum cell differential count; skin prick testing to both common aeroallergens and an extended fungal panel; specific IgE to Aspergillus fumigatus. Fungi were identified by morphology and species identity was confirmed by sequencing. Four patients had allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of asthma subjects were IgE-sensitized to one fungal allergen and 22% to ≥ 2. Twenty-seven different taxa of filamentous fungi were isolated from 54% of their sputa, more than one species being detected in 17%. This compared with 3 (17%) healthy controls culturing any fungus (P < 0.01). Aspergillus species were most frequently cultured in isolation followed by Penicillium species. Post-bronchodilator FEV (1) (% predicted) in the subjects with asthma was 71(± 25) in those with a positive fungal culture vs. 83 (± 25) in those culture-negative, (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Numerous thermotolerant fungi other than A. fumigatus can be cultured from sputum of people with moderate-to-severe asthma; a positive culture is associated with an impaired post-bronchodilator FEV (1) , which might be partly responsible for the development of fixed airflow obstruction in asthma. Sensitization to these fungi is also common.

Haldar P, Pavord ID. 2012. Diagnosis and management of adult asthma Medicine, 40 (5), pp. 243-251. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is a disorder of the airways that is characterized by typical symptoms arising from a complex interplay between chronic inflammation and disordered airway function. Worldwide disease prevalence continues to rise steadily and the condition contributes to significant morbidity and preventable mortality. The goals of treatment in asthma are to achieve control of symptoms and to prevent exacerbations. Important non-pharmacological measures include patient education, avoidance of triggers and smoking cessation. Pharmacological management involves the stepwise titration of β-agonist bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids according to symptoms. Although satisfactory control of asthma is achieved in primary care for a large proportion of patients, between 5 and 10%, with so-called 'refractory asthma', remain poorly controlled and contribute disproportionately to asthma-related morbidity and mortality. The reasons for this are complex and multifactorial and many patients with refractory asthma require referral to specialist centres. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pavord ID, Gibson PG. 2012. Inflammometry: the current state of play. Thorax, 67 (3), pp. 191-192. | Read more

Thomas M, Pavord I. 2012. Single inhaler maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART) in general practice asthma management: where are we? Prim Care Respir J, 21 (1), pp. 8-10. | Read more

Pavord ID. 2012. Asthma phenotypes. Semin Respir Crit Care Med, 33 (6), pp. 645-652. | Show Abstract | Read more

The identification of phenotypes of asthma has a long history, but previous classifications have not identified clinically important differences in pathology, natural history, or treatment response. Progress has accelerated recently, fueled by the development of new techniques to assess airway disease, particularly noninvasive techniques to assess airway inflammation. This article discusses evidence that a simple subdivision of patients into eosinophilic and noneosinophilic asthma is clinically important because it identifies groups with markedly different responses to corticosteroids and other drugs that manipulate the Th-2 (T-helper) pathway. All classification systems suffer from potential bias given that different disease variables are subjectively weighted. There has been increasing interest in the application of mathematical techniques such as factor analysis and cluster analysis to organize and group large amounts of interrelated data in an unbiased way. This article discusses attempts to do this in asthma and speculates on the clinical implications of this new information.

Barnes N, Pavord I, Chuchalin A, Bell J, Hunter M, Lewis T, Parker D, Payton M, Collins LP, Pettipher R et al. 2012. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the CRTH2 antagonist OC000459 in moderate persistent asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 42 (1), pp. 38-48. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: CRTH2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates the activation of Th2 lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils in response to prostaglandin D(2) and may be involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and dysfunction in asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a potent and selective CRTH2 antagonist, OC000459, on the lung function, symptoms and eosinophilic airway inflammation in a double-blind, parallel group trial in steroid-free subjects with moderate persistent asthma. METHODS: Adult subjects were randomized to oral OC000459 200 mg twice daily (N=65) or a placebo (N=67) for 28 days. The primary end-point was the change from baseline in pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1) ); eosinophilic airway inflammation was assessed by induced sputum differential eosinophil count. The trial was registered on the clinicaltrials.gov database (Identifier NCT01057927). RESULTS: Data were analysed for both the Full Analysis (FA) population and the Per Protocol (PP) population (55 treated with OC000459 and 52 with placebo), which excluded non-compliant subjects. In the FA population, the mean change in FEV(1) was 7.1% on OC000459 compared with 4.3% on placebo (not significant); in the PP population, the mean changes were 9.2% and 1.8%, respectively (P=0.037). Improvement in quality of life was apparent in both FA and PP populations [difference from the placebo in AQLQ(S) total score of 0.29, P=0.0113 and 0.37, P=0.0022, respectively]. OC000459 also improved the night-time symptom scores (mean reduction of 0.36 vs. 0.11, P=0.008, FA population; 0.37 vs. 0.12, P=0.022, PP population). The geometric mean sputum eosinophil count reduced from 2.1% to 0.7% (P=0.03) after OC000459, but this effect was not significant when compared with the change on placebo (P=0.37). Adverse events on OC000459 were comparable to those on placebo; respiratory infections were notably less common during OC000459 than the placebo treatment. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study provides the first clinical evidence that CRTH2 receptors contribute to airflow limitation, symptoms and eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. OC000459 shows promise as a novel oral treatment for asthma and related disorders.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2012. Thorax: the teenage years. Thorax, 67 (1), pp. 1-2. | Read more

Patel AS, Watkin G, Willig B, Mutalithas K, Bellas H, Garrod R, Pavord ID, Birring SS. 2011. Improvement in health status following cough-suppression physiotherapy for patients with chronic cough. Chron Respir Dis, 8 (4), pp. 253-258. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cough-suppression physiotherapy is a novel self-help therapy for chronic cough. We evaluated the effectiveness of cough physiotherapy in a pilot prospective observational study. We assessed cough-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and subjectively reported cough frequency and sleep disturbance in 23 patients with chronic cough refractory to medical therapy, before and after outpatient-based cough-suppression physiotherapy. Cough-suppression physiotherapy consisted of education, counselling, cough control, breathing retraining, and vocal hygiene. There was a significant improvement in cough-specific HRQOL after cough physiotherapy; mean (standard error of mean [SEM]) LCQ total score before 12.4 (0.9) versus after 15.1 (0.9); 95% confidence interval of difference -4.1 to -1.3; p < 0.001. The improvement in cough-specific HRQOL was greater than the LCQ minimal clinically important difference of 1.3. A significant improvement was seen in all LCQ domains: physical (p = 0.001), psychological (p < 0.001) and social (p < 0.04). There was a significant reduction in cough frequency scores (p = 0.002) and sleep disturbance scores (p = 0.02). Our findings suggest cough-suppression physiotherapy may lead to a clinically significant improvement in cough-specific HRQOL in patients with chronic cough.

Bafadhel M, McKenna S, Terry S, Mistry V, Reid C, Haldar P, McCormick M, Haldar K, Kebadze T, Duvoix A et al. 2011. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: identification of biologic clusters and their biomarkers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 184 (6), pp. 662-671. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous with respect to inflammation and etiology. OBJECTIVES: Investigate biomarker expression in COPD exacerbations to identify biologic clusters and determine biomarkers that recognize clinical COPD exacerbation phenotypes, namely those associated with bacteria, viruses, or eosinophilic airway inflammation. METHODS: Patients with COPD were observed for 1 year at stable and exacerbation visits. Biomarkers were measured in sputum and serum. Viruses and selected bacteria were assessed in sputum by polymerase chain reaction and routine diagnostic bacterial culture. Biologic phenotypes were explored using unbiased cluster analysis and biomarkers that differentiated clinical exacerbation phenotypes were investigated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 145 patients (101 men and 44 women) entered the study. A total of 182 exacerbations were captured from 86 patients. Four distinct biologic exacerbation clusters were identified. These were bacterial-, viral-, or eosinophilic-predominant, and a fourth associated with limited changes in the inflammatory profile termed “pauciinflammatory.” Of all exacerbations, 55%, 29%, and 28% were associated with bacteria, virus, or a sputum eosinophilia. The biomarkers that best identified these clinical phenotypes were sputum IL-1β, 0.89 (area under receiver operating characteristic curve) (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.95); serum CXCL10, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.70–0.96); and percentage peripheral eosinophils, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78–0.93), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneity of the biologic response of COPD exacerbations can be defined. Sputum IL-1β, serum CXCL10, and peripheral eosinophils are biomarkers of bacteria-, virus-, or eosinophil-associated exacerbations of COPD. Whether phenotype-specific biomarkers can be applied to direct therapy warrants further investigation.

Arrigoni FI, Matarin M, Thompson PJ, Michaelides M, McClements ME, Redmond E, Clarke L, Ellins E, Mohamed S, Pavord I et al. 2011. An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4 (vol 19, pg 1018, 2011) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 19 (9), pp. 1018-1018. | Read more

Bafadhel M, Umar I, Gupta S, Raj JV, Vara DD, Entwisle JJ, Pavord ID, Brightling CE, Siddiqui S. 2011. The role of CT scanning in multidimensional phenotyping of COPD. Chest, 140 (3), pp. 634-642. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: COPD is a heterogeneous disease characterized by airflow obstruction and diagnosed by lung function. CT imaging is emerging as an important, noninvasive tool in phenotyping COPD. However, the use of CT imaging in defining the disease heterogeneity above lung function is not fully known. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with COPD (58 men, 17 women) were studied with CT imaging and with measures of airway inflammation. Airway physiology and health status were also determined. RESULTS: The presence of emphysema (EM), bronchiectasis (BE), and bronchial wall thickening (BWT) was found in 67%, 27%, and 27% of subjects, respectively. The presence of EM was associated with lower lung function (mean difference % FEV(1), -20%; 95% CI, -28 to -11; P < .001). There was no difference in airway inflammation, exacerbation frequency, or bacterial load in patients with EM alone or with BE and/or BWT ± EM. The diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume ratio was the most sensitive and specific parameter in identifying EM (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.96). Physiologic cluster analysis identified three clusters, two of which were EM predominant and the third characterized by a heterogeneous combination of EM and BE. CONCLUSIONS: The application of CT imaging can be useful as a tool in the multidimensional approach to phenotyping patients with COPD.

Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2011. COPD: an autoimmune disease? Eur Respir J, 38 (2), pp. 484. | Read more

Yousaf N, Lee KK, Jayaraman B, Pavord ID, Birring SS. 2011. The assessment of quality of life in acute cough with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ-acute). Cough, 7 (1), pp. 4. | Show Abstract | Read more

INTRODUCTION: Acute cough has a significant impact on physical and psychosocial health and is associated with an impaired quality of life (QOL). The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a validated cough-related health status questionnaire designed for patients with chronic cough. The purpose of this study was to validate the LCQ for the assessment of health related QOL in patients with acute cough and determine the clinical minimal important difference (MID). METHODS: 10 subjects with cough due to acute upper respiratory tract infection underwent focused interviews to investigate the face validity of the LCQ. The LCQ was also evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. 30 subjects completed the revised LCQ-acute and a cough visual analogue score (VAS: 0-100 mm) within one week of onset of cough and again <2 weeks later and at resolution of cough. The concurrent validity, internal reliability, repeatability and responsiveness of the LCQ-acute were also assessed. Patients also completed a Global Rating of Change Questionnaire that assessed the change in cough severity between visits. The MID was calculated as the change in LCQ-acute score for patients responding to GRCQ category representing the smallest change in health status that patients found worthwhile. RESULTS: Health status was severely impaired at baseline affecting all domains; median (interquartile range) total LCQ-acute score 13.0 (3.4). All subjects found the LCQ-acute questionnaire acceptable for assessing their cough. Internal reliability of the LCQ-acute was good for all domains and total score, Cronbach's α coefficients >0.9. There was a significant correlation between LCQ-acute and VAS (ρ = -0.48, p = 0.007). The LCQ-acute and its domains were highly responsive to change; effect sizes 1.7-2.3. The MID for total LCQ and VAS were 2.5 and 13 mm respectively. CONCLUSION: The LCQ-acute is a brief, simple and valid instrument to assess cough specific health related QOL in patients with acute cough. It is a highly responsive tool suggesting that it will be particularly useful to assess the effect of antitussive therapy.

Castro M, Rubin A, Laviolette M, Hanania NA, Armstrong B, Cox G, AIR2 Trial Study Group. 2011. Persistence of effectiveness of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 107 (1), pp. 65-70. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the treatment of severe persistent asthma out to at least 1 year. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the reduction in airway smooth muscle after bronchial thermoplasty persists out to at least 3 years. OBJECTIVES: To examine the persistence of effectiveness of BT 2 years posttreatment in subjects with severe asthma. METHODS: Subjects participating in the long-term safety follow-up phase of the Asthma Intervention Research 2 (AIR2) Trial were evaluated by comparing the proportion of subjects who experienced exacerbations, adverse events, or healthcare utilization during the first year (year 1) after BT treatment with the proportion of subjects who experienced the same during the subsequent 12 months (year 2). RESULTS: Severe exacerbations, respiratory adverse events, emergency department visits for respiratory symptoms, and hospitalizations for respiratory symptoms (proportion of subjects experiencing and rates of events), and stability of pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), were comparable between years 1 and 2. The proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations in year 2 after BT was 23.0%, compared with 30.9% in year 1. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in the proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations after BT is maintained for at least 2 years. Bronchial thermoplasty provides beneficial long-term effects on asthma outcomes in patients with severe asthma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00231114.

Pavord ID, Bush A. 2011. Anti-IgE for Asthma in Inner-City Children NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364 (26), pp. 2556-2557. | Read more

Pavord ID, Bush A. 2011. Anti-IgE for asthma in inner-city children. N Engl J Med, 364 (26), pp. 2556-2557. | Read more

Geraci C, Longo G. 2011. Anti-IgE for Asthma in Inner-City Children NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 364 (26), pp. 2557-2557.

Holgate ST, Noonan M, Chanez P, Busse W, Dupont L, Pavord I, Hakulinen A, Paolozzi L, Wajdula J, Zang C et al. 2011. Efficacy and safety of etanercept in moderate-to-severe asthma: a randomised, controlled trial. Eur Respir J, 37 (6), pp. 1352-1359. | Show Abstract | Read more

Increased tumour necrosis factor-α levels have been observed in bronchial biopsies and induced sputum from subjects with severe asthma. We investigated etanercept (ETN) as a therapeutic option for treating moderate-to-severe persistent asthma. In this 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, subjects (n=132) with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma received subcutaneous injections of 25 mg ETN or placebo twice weekly, and were evaluated at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. The primary end-point was the change from baseline to week 12 in pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)% predicted. Secondary end-points included morning peak expiratory flow, FEV1% pred, Asthma Control Questionnaire (5-item version), asthma exacerbations, provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% decrease in FEV1, and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. No significant differences were observed between ETN and placebo for any of the efficacy end-points. ETN treatment was well tolerated, with no unexpected safety findings observed during the study. Clinical efficacy of ETN was not shown in subjects with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma over 12 weeks. However, ETN treatment was a well-tolerated therapy. Studies in specific subsets of patients with asthma with longer-term follow-up may be needed to fully evaluate the clinical efficacy of ETN in this population.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2011. Following Nero: fiddle while Rome burns, or is there a better way? Thorax, 66 (5), pp. 367. | Read more

Wardlaw A, Fairs A, Agbetile J, Pavord I, Pashley C. 2011. ABPA or AFAA: That Is the Question AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 183 (9), pp. 1281-1282. | Read more

Thomson NC, Rubin AS, Niven RM, Corris PA, Siersted HC, Olivenstein R, Pavord ID, McCormack D, Laviolette M, Shargill NS et al. 2011. Long-term (5 year) safety of bronchial thermoplasty: Asthma Intervention Research (AIR) trial. BMC Pulm Med, 11 (1), pp. 8. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the Asthma Intervention Research Trial were on inhaled corticosteroids ≥200 μg beclomethasone or equivalent + long-acting-beta2-agonists and demonstrated worsening of asthma on long-acting-β2-agonist withdrawal. Following initial evaluation at 1 year, subjects were invited to participate in a 4 year safety study. Adverse events (AEs) and spirometry data were used to assess long-term safety out to 5 years post-BT. RESULTS: 45 of 52 treated and 24 of 49 control group subjects participated in long-term follow-up of 5 years and 3 years respectively. The rate of respiratory adverse events (AEs/subject) was stable in years 2 to 5 following BT (1.2, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively,). There was no increase in hospitalizations or emergency room visits for respiratory symptoms in Years 2, 3, 4, and 5 compared to Year 1. The FVC and FEV1 values showed no deterioration over the 5 year period in the BT group. Similar results were obtained for the Control group. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of clinical complications (based on AE reporting) and the maintenance of stable lung function (no deterioration of FVC and FEV1) over a 5-year period post-BT in this group of patients with moderate to severe asthma support the long-term safety of the procedure out to 5 years.

Bush A, Pavord I. 2011. New year resolutions. Thorax, 66 (2), pp. 91-92. | Read more

Arrigoni FI, Matarin M, Thompson PJ, Michaelides M, McClements ME, Redmond E, Clarke L, Ellins E, Mohamed S, Pavord I et al. 2011. Extended extraocular phenotype of PROM1 mutation in kindreds with known autosomal dominant macular dystrophy. Eur J Hum Genet, 19 (2), pp. 131-137. | Show Abstract | Read more

Mutations in prominin 1 (PROM1) have been shown to result in retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration and cone-rod dystrophy. Because of the putative role of PROM1 in hippocampal neurogenesis, we examined two kindreds with the same R373C PROM1 missense mutation using our established paradigm to study brain structure and function. As the protein encoded by PROM1, known as CD133, is used to identify stem/progenitor cells that can be found in peripheral blood and reflect endothelial reparatory mechanisms, other parameters were subsequently examined that included measures of vascular function, endothelial function and angiogenic capacity. We found that aspects of endothelial function assayed ex vivo were abnormal in patients with the R373C PROM1 mutation, with impaired adhesion capacity and higher levels of cellular damage. We also noted renal infections, haematuria and recurrent miscarriages possibly reflecting consequences of abnormal tubular modelling. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Soler Artigas M, Wain LV, Repapi E, Obeidat M, Sayers I, Burton PR, Johnson T, Zhao JH, Albrecht E, Dominiczak AF et al. 2011. Effect of five genetic variants associated with lung function on the risk of chronic obstructive lung disease, and their joint effects on lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 184 (7), pp. 786-795. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Genomic loci are associated with FEV1 or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC in population samples, but their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been proven, nor have their combined effects on lung function and COPD been studied. OBJECTIVES: To test association with COPD of variants at five loci (TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4) and to evaluate joint effects on lung function and COPD of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variants at the previously reported locus near HHIP. METHODS: By sampling from 12 population-based studies (n = 31,422), we obtained genotype data on 3,284 COPD case subjects and 17,538 control subjects for sentinel SNPs in TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4. In 24,648 individuals (including 2,890 COPD case subjects and 13,862 control subjects), we additionally obtained genotypes for rs12504628 near HHIP. Each allele associated with lung function decline at these six SNPs contributed to a risk score. We studied the association of the risk score to lung function and COPD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Association with COPD was significant for three loci (TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4) and the previously reported HHIP locus, and suggestive and directionally consistent for AGER and TSHD4. Compared with the baseline group (7 risk alleles), carrying 10-12 risk alleles was associated with a reduction in FEV1 (β = -72.21 ml, P = 3.90 × 10(-4)) and FEV1/FVC (β = -1.53%, P = 6.35 × 10(-6)), and with COPD (odds ratio = 1.63, P = 1.46 × 10(-5)). CONCLUSIONS: Variants in TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4 are associated with COPD. Our highest risk score category was associated with a 1.6-fold higher COPD risk than the population average score.

Arrigoni FI, Matarin M, Thompson PJ, Michaelides M, McClements ME, Redmond E, Clarke L, Ellins E, Mohamed S, Pavord I et al. 2011. Extended extraocular phenotype of PROM1 mutation in kindreds with known autosomal dominant macular dystrophy. European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 19 (9), pp. 1018-1018. | Read more

Fairs A, Agbetile J, Hargadon B, Bourne M, Monteiro WR, Brightling CE, Bradding P, Green RH, Mutalithas K, Desai D et al. 2010. IgE sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with reduced lung function in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 182 (11), pp. 1362-1368. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: The importance of Aspergillus fumigatus sensitization and colonization of the airways in patients with asthma is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To define the relationship between the clinical and laboratory features of A. fumigatus-associated asthma. METHODS: We studied 79 patients with asthma (89% classed as GINA 4 or 5) classified into 3 groups according to A. fumigatus sensitization: (1) IgE-sensitized (immediate cutaneous reactivity > 3 mm and/or IgE > 0.35 kU/L); (2) IgG-only-sensitized (IgG > 40 mg/L); and (3) nonsensitized. These were compared with 14 healthy control subjects. Sputum culture was focused toward detection of A. fumigatus and compared with clinical assessment data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A. fumigatus was cultured from 63% of IgE-sensitized patients with asthma (n = 40), 39% of IgG-only-sensitized patients with asthma (n = 13), 31% of nonsensitized patients with asthma (n = 26) and 7% of healthy control subjects (n = 14). Patients sensitized to A. fumigatus compared with nonsensitized patients with asthma had lower lung function (postbronchodilator FEV₁ % predicted, mean [SEM]: 68 [±5]% versus 88 [±5]%; P < 0.05), more bronchiectasis (68% versus 35%; P < 0.05), and more sputum neutrophils (median [interquartile range]: 80.9 [50.1-94.1]% versus 49.5 [21.2-71.4]%; P < 0.01). In a multilinear regression model, A. fumigatus-IgE sensitization and sputum neutrophil differential cell count were important predictors of lung function (P = 0.016), supported by culture of A. fumigatus (P = 0.046) and eosinophil differential cell count (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: A. fumigatus detection in sputum is associated with A. fumigatus-IgE sensitization, neutrophilic airway inflammation, and reduced lung function. This supports the concept that development of fixed airflow obstruction in asthma is consequent upon the damaging effects of airway colonization with A. fumigatus.

Yousaf N, Monteiro W, Parker D, Matos S, Birring S, Pavord ID. 2010. Long-term low-dose erythromycin in patients with unexplained chronic cough: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Thorax, 65 (12), pp. 1107-1110. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS: Unexplained chronic cough is a common condition with no satisfactory treatments. Previous work has suggested that cough may be linked to neutrophilic airway inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that long-term low-dose erythromycin reduces the induced sputum neutrophil count and 24 h cough frequency in patients with unexplained chronic cough. METHODS: 30 patients with an unexplained chronic cough lasting more than 8 weeks were randomly assigned to take 250 mg erythromycin once daily (n=15) or placebo (n=15) for 12 weeks in a double-blind parallel group study. Cough frequency, cough reflex sensitivity and cough severity were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in 24 h cough frequency at 12 weeks. RESULTS: There was no difference in the change in cough frequency between the erythromycin and placebo groups at 12 weeks (mean difference in fold change 1.1; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.5; p=0.585) or at other times. There was a statistically significant between-treatment difference in the change in sputum neutrophils at 12 weeks (−10.2% vs +6.6% with erythromycin and placebo; mean difference 16.8%; 95% CI 1.6 to 32.1; p=0.03) but not at other times. There was no difference in the change in other measures of cough between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with low-dose erythromycin for 12 weeks reduces the induced sputum neutrophil count but not cough frequency or severity in patients with unexplained chronic cough.

Pavord ID, Bush A. 2010. On the shoulders of (real) giants. Thorax, 65 (11), pp. 943-944. | Read more

Gupta S, Siddiqui S, Haldar P, Entwisle JJ, Mawby D, Wardlaw AJ, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Green RH, Brightling CE. 2010. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution computed tomography scans in severe asthma subphenotypes. Thorax, 65 (9), pp. 775-781. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous condition. Airway remodelling is a feature of severe asthma and can be determined by the assessment of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. The aim of this study was to assess whether airway remodelling is restricted to specific subphenotypes of severe asthma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of HRCT scans from subjects who had attended a single-centre severe asthma clinic between 2003 and 2008. The right upper lobe apical segmental bronchus (RB1) dimensions were measured and the clinical and sputum inflammatory characteristics associated with RB1 geometry were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Longitudinal sputum data were available and were described as area under the time curve (AUC). Comparisons were made in RB1 geometry across subjects in four subphenotypes determined by cluster analysis, smokers and non-smokers, and subjects with and without persistent airflow obstruction. RESULTS: Ninety-nine subjects with severe asthma and 16 healthy controls were recruited. In the subjects with severe asthma the RB1 percentage wall area (%WA) was increased (p=0.009) and lumen area (LA)/body surface area (BSA) was decreased (p=0.008) compared with controls but was not different across the four subphenotypes. Airway geometry was not different between smokers and non-smokers and RB1 %WA was increased in those with persistent airflow obstruction. RB1 %WA in severe asthma was best associated with airflow limitation and persistent neutrophilic airway inflammation (model R(2)=0.27, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Airway remodelling of proximal airways occurs in severe asthma and is associated with impaired lung function and neutrophilic airway inflammation.

Barnes PJ, Dweik RA, Gelb AF, Gibson PG, George SC, Grasemann H, Pavord ID, Ratjen F, Silkoff PE, Taylor DR, Zamel N. 2010. Exhaled nitric oxide in pulmonary diseases: a comprehensive review. Chest, 138 (3), pp. 682-692. | Show Abstract | Read more

The upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) by inflammatory cytokines and mediators in central and peripheral airway sites can be monitored easily in exhaled air. It is now possible to estimate the predominant site of increased fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO) and its potential pathologic and physiologic role in various pulmonary diseases. In asthma, increased FeNO reflects eosinophilic-mediated inflammatory pathways moderately well in central and/or peripheral airway sites and implies increased inhaled and systemic corticosteroid responsiveness. Recently, five randomized controlled algorithm asthma trials reported only equivocal benefits of adding measurements of FeNO to usual clinical guideline management including spirometry; however, significant design issues may exist. Overall, FeNO measurement at a single expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/s may be an important adjunct for diagnosis and management in selected cases of asthma. This may supplement standard clinical asthma care guidelines, including spirometry, providing a noninvasive window into predominantly large-airway-presumed eosinophilic inflammation. In COPD, large/central airway maximal NO flux and peripheral/small airway/alveolar NO concentration may be normal and the role of FeNO monitoring is less clear and therefore less established than in asthma. Furthermore, concurrent smoking reduces FeNO. Monitoring FeNO in pulmonary hypertension and cystic fibrosis has opened up a window to the role NO may play in their pathogenesis and possible clinical benefits in the management of these diseases.

Mutalithas K, Guillen C, Raport C, Kolbeck R, Soler D, Brightling CE, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 2010. Expression of CCR8 is increased in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 40 (8), pp. 1175-1185. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Chemokines and their receptors could play key roles in the recruitment of T cells to the asthmatic lung. CCR8 is preferentially expressed on T-helper type 2 cells, and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of human asthma. OBJECTIVE: Determine the expression of CCR8 on T cells in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial mucosa from asthmatics and normal subjects. METHODS: CCR8 expression in blood and BAL from asthma and normal subjects was studied using flow cytometry. CCR8 expression on IFN-gamma+ and IL-4+/IL-13+ blood and BAL T cells was studied following stimulation with Phorbol-Myristate-Acetate and Calcium Ionophore. Paraffin-embedded bronchial biopsies were used to study CCR8 in bronchial epithelium. RESULTS: The percentage of CD3+ cells expressing CCR8 in the blood was higher in asthmatics (4.7+/-0.4%) compared with normal subjects (3.0+/-0.4%; P<0.01). There was an approximately sixfold enrichment of CCR8 on IL-4+/IL-13+ cells compared with IFN-gamma+ T cells (P<0.001) in both asthmatic and normal subjects in both blood and BAL. Significantly more BAL T cells expressed CCR8 in asthmatic (8.6+/-0.8%) compared with normal subjects (3.9+/-0.7%) (P<0.01). In paired blood-BAL samples from asthmatics, significantly more CCR8+CD3+ T cells were present in BAL (9.0+/-0.9%) than in blood (5.6+/-0.9%; P<0.05). There were more CCR8-positive cells in bronchial biopsies from asthmatic (93+/-11 cells/mm2) compared with normal subjects (30+/-16 cells/mm2) (P<0.05). The ligand CCL1 was increased in the BAL of asthmatics compared with normal subjects (35+/-6 vs. 12.9+/-7 pg/mL; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: There may be a role for CCR8 in the recruitment of T cells to the lung in asthmatics.

Martin N, Pavord ID. 2010. Asthma in Elite Athletes Clinical Pulmonary Medicine, 17 (4), pp. 155-161. | Show Abstract | Read more

There is a high prevalence of asthma among elite performance athletes, particularly those who train and compete with high ventilation rates in austere environments, such as cross country skiers and swimmers. How best to assess, diagnose, and treat asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes remains controversial. The underlying high cardiorespiratory fitness levels of athletes make the diagnostic process more complex as do a variety of both common and rare alternative diagnoses that must be considered. To add to this, the pathophysiology of EIB in athletes is believed to differ significantly from the exercise-induced asthma seen in clinical patients, with less allergic inflammation and less steroid responsive airways pathology. This review aims to examine the underlying differences in EIB and exercise-induced asthma, to discuss diagnostic testing, and to look at the evidence that suggests how we should direct management and therapy. This discussion raises a number of questions about the diagnosis and treatment of airways symptoms in athletes, and it also suggests how future research should be targeted to answer these questions. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mutalithas K, Guillen C, Day C, Brightling CE, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 2010. CRTH2 expression on T cells in asthma. Clin Exp Immunol, 161 (1), pp. 34-40. | Show Abstract | Read more

Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is the major prostanoid found within the airway of asthmatics immediately following allergen challenge. PGD2 has been shown to have chemokinetic effects on eosinophils and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in vitro. This occurs through the interaction of PGD2 with the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 lymphocytes (CRTH2). The expression of CRTH2 has been shown to be highly selective for Th2 cells. Using flow cytometry we have studied the expression of CRTH2 on T cells in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in asthmatics and normal subjects. CRTH2 expression was confined to a small percentage of blood T cells in asthmatics (1.8%+/-0.2) and normal (1.6%+/-0.2) subjects. CRTH2 was enriched significantly on interleukin (IL)-4+/IL-13+ T cells compared to interferon (IFN)-gamma+ T cells (P<0.001). There was a small population of CRTH2+ T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of asthmatics (2.3%+/-0.6) and normal subjects (0.3%+/-0.1), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). There were similar amounts of PGD2 in the BAL of asthma and normal subjects. Within paired blood-BAL samples from the same subject there was no increase in CRTH2+ T cells in the BAL compared to blood in asthmatics. Enrichment of CRTH2 on IL-4+ and IL-13+ T cells compared to IFN-gamma+ T cells was also seen in BAL from asthmatics (P<0.001). CRTH2 is expressed preferentially by IL-4+/IL-13+ T cells compared to IFN-gamma+ T cells. However, given their small numbers they are unlikely to have a significant involvement in the pathogenesis of asthma. CRTH2 antagonism may not diminish T cell accumulation in the asthmatic lung.

Kulkarni NS, Hollins F, Sutcliffe A, Saunders R, Shah S, Siddiqui S, Gupta S, Haldar P, Green R, Pavord I et al. 2010. Eosinophil protein in airway macrophages: a novel biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation in patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 126 (1), pp. 61-9.e3. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Noneosinophilic asthma is common across asthma severities. However, in patients with moderate-to-severe disease, the absence of sputum eosinophilia cannot distinguish between asthmatic subjects with eosinophilic inflammation controlled by corticosteroids versus those in whom eosinophilic inflammation is not a component of the disease. OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop a method to quantify eosinophil proteins in airway macrophages as a novel biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. METHODS: Eosinophil proteins in airway macrophages were assessed by means of flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and cytoplasmic hue change after ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. Airway macrophage median percentage of red-hued area in stained sputum cytospin preparations was assessed by means of image analysis from (1) subjects with mild-to-severe asthma, subjects with nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, and healthy control subjects; (2) subjects with eosinophilic severe asthma after treatment with prednisolone; and (3) subject with noneosinophilic asthma before corticosteroid withdrawal. RESULTS: Eosinophil proteins were detected in airway macrophages, and cytoplasmic red hue increased after ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. Airway macrophage percentage redhued area was increased in subjects with moderate-to-severe asthma compared with that seen in subjects with mild asthma and healthy control subjects, was similar in those with or without a sputum eosinophilia, and was increased after corticosteroid therapy. In asthmatic subjects without sputum eosinophilia, the airway macrophage percentage red-hued area was increased in subjects who did versus those who did not have sputum eosinophilia after corticosteroid withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophil proteins can be reliably measured in airway macrophages. In combination with sputum eosinophilia, the macrophage eosinophil protein content might further define the asthma phenotype and provide an additional tool to direct therapy.

Pavord ID, Haldar P, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ. 2010. Mepolizumab in refractory eosinophilic asthma. Thorax, 65 (4), pp. 370. | Read more

Castro M, Rubin AS, Laviolette M, Fiterman J, De Andrade Lima M, Shah PL, Fiss E, Olivenstein R, Thomson NC, Niven RM et al. 2010. Effectiveness and safety of bronchial thermoplasty in the treatment of severe asthma: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 181 (2), pp. 116-124. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure in which controlled thermal energy is applied to the airway wall to decrease smooth muscle. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of BT versus a sham procedure in subjects with severe asthma who remain symptomatic despite treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta(2)-agonists. METHODS: A total of 288 adult subjects (Intent-to-Treat [ITT]) randomized to BT or sham control underwent three bronchoscopy procedures. Primary outcome was the difference in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores from baseline to average of 6, 9, and 12 months (integrated AQLQ). Adverse events and health care use were collected to assess safety. Statistical design and analysis of the primary endpoint was Bayesian. Target posterior probability of superiority (PPS) of BT over sham was 95%, except for the primary endpoint (96.4%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The improvement from baseline in the integrated AQLQ score was superior in the BT group compared with sham (BT, 1.35 +/- 1.10; sham, 1.16 +/- 1.23 [PPS, 96.0% ITT and 97.9% per protocol]). Seventy-nine percent of BT and 64% of sham subjects achieved changes in AQLQ of 0.5 or greater (PPS, 99.6%). Six percent more BT subjects were hospitalized in the treatment period (up to 6 wk after BT). In the posttreatment period (6-52 wk after BT), the BT group experienced fewer severe exacerbations, emergency department (ED) visits, and days missed from work/school compared with the sham group (PPS, 95.5, 99.9, and 99.3%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: BT in subjects with severe asthma improves asthma-specific quality of life with a reduction in severe exacerbations and healthcare use in the posttreatment period. Clinical trial registered with www.clinialtrials.gov (NCT00231114).

Bafadhel M, Singapuri A, Terry S, Hargadon B, Monteiro W, Green RH, Bradding PH, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2010. Body mass and fat mass in refractory asthma: an observational 1 year follow-up study. J Allergy (Cairo), 2010 pp. 251758. | Show Abstract | Read more

Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ), body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r = 0.9, P < .001). FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r = 0.3, P = .01). After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV(1) change (r = -0.3, P = .03), but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 2010. The A to E of airway disease. Clin Exp Allergy, 40 (1), pp. 62-67. | Show Abstract | Read more

The terms asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have evolved from their original very specific physiology-based definition to describe additional disease entities such as symptoms, airway inflammation and airway structure. We argue that as a result there is widespread confusion about what the terms mean. This has become a significant hurdle to optimal disease management and drug development. We propose that these disease labels should be replaced with a new alphabetical assessment tool for characterizing airway disease, which provides a checklist of five relatively independent factors potentially responsible for morbidity in patients with airway disease: Airway hyperresponsiveness, Bronchitis, Cough reflex hypersensitivity, Damage to the airway and surrounding lung and Extrapulmonary factors. We speculate that the use of this system to characterize airway disease will improve outcomes by promoting better targeting of new and existing treatments.

Repapi E, Sayers I, Wain LV, Burton PR, Johnson T, Obeidat M, Zhao JH, Ramasamy A, Zhai G, Vitart V et al. 2010. Genome-wide association study identifies five loci associated with lung function. Nat Genet, 42 (1), pp. 36-44. | Show Abstract | Read more

Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SpiroMeta consortium (n = 20,288 individuals of European ancestry). We conducted a meta-analysis of top signals with data from direct genotyping (n < or = 32,184 additional individuals) and in silico summary association data from the CHARGE Consortium (n = 21,209) and the Health 2000 survey (n < or = 883). We confirmed the reported locus at 4q31 and identified associations with FEV(1) or FEV(1)/FVC and common variants at five additional loci: 2q35 in TNS1 (P = 1.11 x 10(-12)), 4q24 in GSTCD (2.18 x 10(-23)), 5q33 in HTR4 (P = 4.29 x 10(-9)), 6p21 in AGER (P = 3.07 x 10(-15)) and 15q23 in THSD4 (P = 7.24 x 10(-15)). mRNA analyses showed expression of TNS1, GSTCD, AGER, HTR4 and THSD4 in human lung tissue. These associations offer mechanistic insight into pulmonary function regulation and indicate potential targets for interventions to alleviate respiratory disease.

Pavord ID. 2009. Asthma control, airway responsiveness and airway inflammation. Clin Exp Allergy, 39 (12), pp. 1780-1782. | Read more

Gupta S, Siddiqui S, Haldar P, Raj JV, Entwisle JJ, Wardlaw AJ, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Green RH, Brightling CE. 2009. Qualitative analysis of high-resolution CT scans in severe asthma. Chest, 136 (6), pp. 1521-1528. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: High-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning is part of the management of severe asthma, but its application varies between centers. We sought to describe the HRCT scan abnormalities of a large severe asthma cohort and to determine the utility of clinical features to direct the use of HRCT scanning in this group of patients. METHODS: Subjects attending our Difficult Asthma Clinic (DAC) between February 2000 and November 2006 (n = 463) were extensively re-characterized and 185 underwent HRCT scan. The HRCT scans were analyzed qualitatively and the interobserver variability was assessed. Using logistic regression we defined clinical parameters that were associated with bronchiectasis (BE) and bronchial wall thickening (BWT) alone or in combination. RESULTS: HRCT scan abnormalities were present in 80% of subjects and often coexisted with BWT (62%), BE (40%), and emphysema (8%). The interobserver agreement for BE (kappa = 0.76) and BWT (kappa = 0.63) was substantial. DAC patients who underwent HRCT scanning compared with those who did not were older, had longer disease duration, had poorer lung function, were receiving higher doses of corticosteroids, and had increased neutrophilic airway inflammation. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting BE clinically were 74% and 45%, respectively. FEV(1)/FVC ratio emerged as an important predictor for both BE and BWT but had poor discriminatory utility for subjects who did not have airway structural changes (FEV(1)/FVC ratio, >or= 75%; sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 65%). CONCLUSION: HRCT scan abnormalities are common in patients with severe asthma. Nonradiologic assessments fail to reliably predict important bronchial wall changes; therefore, CT scan acquisition may be required in all patients with severe asthma.

Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2009. Assessment of gender differences in health status with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Thorax, 64 (11), pp. 1008-1009. | Read more

Thomas M, Pavord ID. 2009. Role of breathing exercises in hyperventilating subjects Reply THORAX, 64 (9), pp. 824-824. | Read more

Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ, Haldar P. 2009. Anti-Interleukin-5 Therapy and Severe Asthma REPLY NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 360 (24), pp. 2577-2577.

Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ, Haldar P. 2009. Dr. Pavord and colleagues reply New England Journal of Medicine, 360 (24), pp. 2577.

Pavord ID, Jeffery PK, Qiu Y, Zhu J, Parker D, Carlsheimer A, Naya I, Barnes NC. 2009. Airway inflammation in patients with asthma with high-fixed or low-fixed plus as-needed budesonide/formoterol. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 123 (5), pp. 1083-1089.e7. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy maintains asthma control and reduces exacerbation frequency compared with higher fixed-dose combination regimens. Its effects on eosinophilic airway inflammation and structure are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the effects of budesonide/formoterol 200/6 microg twice daily plus as-needed with budesonide/formoterol 800/12 microg twice daily on airway eosinophils and remodeling. METHODS: This 52-week, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind study of 127 asthma patients who were symptomatic despite therapy compared (1) the change between induced sputum percent eosinophils at baseline and the geometric mean of 4 on-treatment values and (2) the change in endobronchial biopsy eosinophil counts pre- and post-treatment. RESULTS: Mean daily doses of budesonide/formoterol were 604/18 microg in the maintenance and reliever therapy group and 1,600/24 microg in the high fixed-dose group. In the former, the geometric mean percent sputum eosinophils remained unchanged (1.6% to 1.9%), whereas biopsy specimen subepithelial eosinophils increased (6.2 to 12.3 cells/mm(2)). Sputum and biopsy eosinophil counts decreased with high fixed-dose treatment (2.2% to 1.2% and 7.7 to 4.8 cells/mm(2), respectively), resulting in significant treatment differences of 0.7% (ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8; P = .0038) and 7.5 cells/mm(2) (ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.3; P < .001), respectively. There were no between-treatment differences in reticular basement membrane thickness, exhaled nitric oxide, exacerbation frequency, or FEV(1). CONCLUSION: Compared with fixed-dose combination treatment containing a 4-fold higher maintenance dose of budesonide, budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy is associated with higher eosinophil counts, but these remain within the range associated with stable clinical control.

Haldar P, Brightling CE, Hargadon B, Gupta S, Monteiro W, Sousa A, Marshall RP, Bradding P, Green RH, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2009. Mepolizumab and exacerbations of refractory eosinophilic asthma. N Engl J Med, 360 (10), pp. 973-984. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and with considerable use of health care resources. Preventing exacerbations remains an important goal of therapy. There is evidence that eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is associated with the risk of exacerbations. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 61 subjects who had refractory eosinophilic asthma and a history of recurrent severe exacerbations. Subjects received infusions of either mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody (29 subjects), or placebo (32) at monthly intervals for 1 year. The primary outcome measure was the number of severe exacerbations per subject during the 50-week treatment phase. Secondary outcomes included a change in asthma symptoms, scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ, in which scores range from 1 to 7, with lower values indicating more severe impairment and a change of 0.5 unit considered to be clinically important), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) after use of a bronchodilator, airway hyperresponsiveness, and eosinophil counts in the blood and sputum. RESULTS: Mepolizumab was associated with significantly fewer severe exacerbations than placebo over the course of 50 weeks (2.0 vs. 3.4 mean exacerbations per subject; relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.92; P=0.02) and with a significant improvement in the score on the AQLQ (mean increase from baseline, 0.55 vs. 0.19; mean difference between groups, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.62; P=0.02). Mepolizumab significantly lowered eosinophil counts in the blood (P<0.001) and sputum (P=0.002). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to symptoms, FEV(1) after bronchodilator use, or airway hyperresponsiveness. The only serious adverse events reported were hospitalizations for acute severe asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Mepolizumab therapy reduces exacerbations and improves AQLQ scores in patients with refractory eosinophilic asthma. The results of our study suggest that eosinophils have a role as important effector cells in the pathogenesis of severe exacerbations of asthma in this patient population. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN75169762.)

Pavord ID, Shaw DE. 2009. Measurement of Markers of Inflammation in Induced Sputum and Exhaled Air 2 pp. 1368-1380. | Show Abstract | Read more

Induced sputum is safe in both children (Venge et al. 1977) and adults (Gibson et al. 2002; Green et al. 2002a), repeatable, inexpensive, and provides a clinically relevant marker of airway inflammation in the assessment and treatment of asthma. It can also be used to measure a variety of cells, effector mediators, cellular markers, and cytokines and its use has led to new insights into the pathophysiology and management of asthma and other airways disease. FENO is a reasonably reliable marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation that can be measured simply and noninvasively. The clinical value of measuring FENO has not been explored extensively but it could be a valuable tool for diagnosis and monitoring of corticosteroid-responsive airways disease in primary care. © 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

Martin N, Pavord ID. 2009. Bronchial thermoplasty for the treatment of asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 9 (1), pp. 88-95. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is an increasingly prevalent disease, particularly in industrialized countries. With modern treatment, many patients can expect good asthma control; however, a significant minority continue to have excessive symptoms. Bronchial thermoplasty is a novel approach to treating asthma in which the hypertrophied airway smooth muscle present in the asthmatic airway is specifically targeted and depleted using thermal energy. In this article, we review the early animal and human development of the technique, summarize the randomized trials carried out in patients to date, discuss proposed mechanisms of action, and suggest directions for future work.

Fullerton D, Britton JR, Lewis SA, Pavord ID, McKeever TM, Fogarty AW. 2009. Helicobacter pylori and lung function, asthma, atopy and allergic disease--a population-based cross-sectional study in adults. Int J Epidemiol, 38 (2), pp. 419-426. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Exposure to microbes may result in the polarization of the immune system and a decrease in the risk of asthma and associated allergic disease, whilst exposure to Helicobacter pylori has been hypothesized to increase the risk of obstructive airways disease. We tested the hypotheses that exposure to H. pylori reduces the risk of asthma and allergic disease and is associated with a decrease in lung function. METHODS: Data were collected on allergic disease symptoms, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), bronchial reactivity, allergen skin sensitization, serum IgE and H. pylori serological status in 2437 randomly selected adults. RESULTS: Individuals with serological evidence of exposure to H. pylori had lower lung function, FEV1 being lower by 53 ml (95% CI 1-106) and FVC 83 ml (95% CI 20-145) lower in the cross-sectional analysis. These differences ceased to be statistically significant after adjustment for height or socio-economic status. There was no association between H. pylori serological status and measures of asthma or atopy in the cross-sectional analysis, and there was no significant association between H. pylori serological status and decline in FEV1 and FVC over 9 years. CONCLUSION: Although H. pylori exposure may be associated with lower cross-sectional FEV1 and FVC, this association was not independent of height or socio-economic status. There was no association between H. pylori exposure and either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), measures of allergic disease or decline in lung function.

Bafadhel M, Saha S, Siva R, McCormick M, Monteiro W, Rugman P, Dodson P, Pavord ID, Newbold P, Brightling CE. 2009. Sputum IL-5 concentration is associated with a sputum eosinophilia and attenuated by corticosteroid therapy in COPD. Respiration, 78 (3), pp. 256-262. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominately neutrophilic, but some subjects demonstrate eosinophilic airway inflammation. Whether these inflammatory phenotypes have differential cytokine and chemokine expression is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sputum concentrations of cytokines and chemokines and their response to oral corticosteroid therapy in COPD subjects with or without a sputum eosinophilia. METHODS: Cytokine and chemokine concentrations were measured using the meso-scale device platform. To assess validity, recovery of exogenous spikes was examined. The concentrations of the validated mediators were measured in COPD sputum from subjects with or without a sputum eosinophilia. In a subgroup with a sputum eosinophilia, the response to oral prednisolone 10 mg for 1 month was examined. RESULTS: The recovery in sputum of exogenous spiked mediators was >80% in 11/26 cytokines and chemokines. In supernatants from eosinophilic (n = 39) versus non-eosinophilic (n = 59) sputa, the geometric mean (95% CI) concentration was increased for IL-5 [9.0 (4.5-18) pg/ml vs. 3.6 (2.7-6.3) pg/ml, p = 0.03]. IL-5 alone was correlated with sputum eosinophil counts (r = 0.33, p = 0.001), and was attenuated following treatment with prednisolone [n = 9; mean difference 2.3 pg/ml (0.2-4.3), p = 0.032]. CONCLUSION: We have validated the use of the meso-scale device platform for cytokine and chemokine measurements in the sputum supernatants in COPD. Sputum IL-5 was associated with a sputum eosinophilia and was attenuated following oral corticosteroid therapy. Whether this cytokine is important in the pathogenesis of COPD in a subgroup of patients warrants further investigation.

Pavord ID, Martin N. 2009. Will exhaled nitric oxide monitoring become routine in managing asthma? Expert Rev Respir Med, 3 (2), pp. 107-111. | Show Abstract | Read more

In this editorial, we outline the rationale for a new approach to the assessment of airway disease based on measurement of airway inflammation using noninvasive markers (inflammometry). Our focus is on measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)), as this technique is simple and affordable, and is applicable in a wide variety of clinical settings. Studies have shown that raised FE(NO) is a useful marker of corticosteroid-responsive airway disease; low FE(NO) may identify patients who can safely reduce or withdraw corticosteroids. However, the optimum use of FE(NO) in clinical practice remains to be established.

Pavord ID, Kharitonov SA. 2009. Non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation pp. 543-557. | Show Abstract | Read more

This chapter reviews the methodology and validation of induced sputum and FENOand outlines other more experimental approaches to the assessment of airway inflammation. There has been an explosion of interest in the assessment of airway inflammation using non-invasive means and there are now a large number of different techniques to assess airway inflammation, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Two techniques are particularly well developed and are already widely used in clinical trials and impacting on clinical practice: induced sputum, where a sputum differential and total cell count is used to determine the characteristics and intensity of the lower airway inflammatory response; and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), where the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air is used to provide information about the presence of eosinophilic, corticosteroid responsive airway inflammation. The different strengths and weaknesses of the techniques suggests that they may find different roles, with FENObeing used mainly in primary care to facilitate diagnosis and to titrate corticosteroid therapy and induced sputum used in secondary and tertiary care, where more detailed information on the type of lower airway inflammation is necessary. The chapter finishes by discussing how the widespread application of induced sputum to large and heterogeneous populations of patients with airway disease has furthered our understanding of the complex relationship between airway inflammation and the clinical expression of airway disease and opened the way to a new approach to the management of airway disease based on assessment of airway inflammation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Pavord ID, Yousaf N, Birring SS. 2009. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers. Lancet, 374 (9706), pp. 1964. | Read more

Reddel HK, Taylor DR, Bateman ED, Boulet L-P, Boushey HA, Busse WW, Casale TB, Chanez P, Enright PL, Gibson PG et al. 2009. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: asthma control and exacerbations: standardizing endpoints for clinical asthma trials and clinical practice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 180 (1), pp. 59-99. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The assessment of asthma control is pivotal to the evaluation of treatment response in individuals and in clinical trials. Previously, asthma control, severity, and exacerbations were defined and assessed in many different ways. PURPOSE: The Task Force was established to provide recommendations about standardization of outcomes relating to asthma control, severity, and exacerbations in clinical trials and clinical practice, for adults and children aged 6 years or older. METHODS: A narrative literature review was conducted to evaluate the measurement properties and strengths/weaknesses of outcome measures relevant to asthma control and exacerbations. The review focused on diary variables, physiologic measurements, composite scores, biomarkers, quality of life questionnaires, and indirect measures. RESULTS: The Task Force developed new definitions for asthma control, severity, and exacerbations, based on current treatment principles and clinical and research relevance. In view of current knowledge about the multiple domains of asthma and asthma control, no single outcome measure can adequately assess asthma control. Its assessment in clinical trials and in clinical practice should include components relevant to both of the goals of asthma treatment, namely achievement of best possible clinical control and reduction of future risk of adverse outcomes. Recommendations are provided for the assessment of asthma control in clinical trials and clinical practice, both at baseline and in the assessment of treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force recommendations provide a basis for a multicomponent assessment of asthma by clinicians, researchers, and other relevant groups in the design, conduct, and evaluation of clinical trials, and in clinical practice.

Thomas M, McKinley RK, Mellor S, Watkin G, Holloway E, Scullion J, Shaw DE, Wardlaw A, Price D, Pavord I. 2009. Breathing exercises for asthma: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax, 64 (1), pp. 55-61. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The effect of breathing modification techniques on asthma symptoms and objective disease control is uncertain. METHODS: A prospective, parallel group, single-blind, randomised controlled trial comparing breathing training with asthma education (to control for non-specific effects of clinician attention) was performed. Subjects with asthma with impaired health status managed in primary care were randomised to receive three sessions of either physiotherapist-supervised breathing training (n = 94) or asthma nurse-delivered asthma education (n = 89). The main outcome was Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score, with secondary outcomes including spirometry, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide, induced sputum eosinophil count and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) and hyperventilation (Nijmegen) questionnaire scores. RESULTS: One month after the intervention there were similar improvements in AQLQ scores from baseline in both groups but at 6 months there was a significant between-group difference favouring breathing training (0.38 units, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.68). At the 6-month assessment there were significant between-group differences favouring breathing training in HAD anxiety (1.1, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.9), HAD depression (0.8, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.4) and Nijmegen (3.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 5.4) scores, with trends to improved ACQ (0.2, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.4). No significant between-group differences were seen at 1 month. Breathing training was not associated with significant changes in airways physiology, inflammation or hyper-responsiveness. CONCLUSION: Breathing training resulted in improvements in asthma-specific health status and other patient-centred measures but not in asthma pathophysiology. Such exercises may help patients whose quality of life is impaired by asthma, but they are unlikely to reduce the need for anti-inflammatory medication.

Taylor DR, Pavord ID. 2008. Biomarkers in the assessment and management of airways diseases. Postgrad Med J, 84 (998), pp. 628-634. | Show Abstract | Read more

A plethora of biomarkers are becoming available in the field of respiratory medicine, but their application in clinical practice has been limited. This is changing. There is increasing scope for biomarkers to be used to define pathological as well as treatment responder phenotypes in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In some situations, conventional diagnostic labelling is being superseded by this approach and clinical outcomes are improved. Biomarkers are potentially very important in the development and assessment of new therapeutic agents, particularly for the treatment of severe asthma. They also have a potential role in monitoring disease activity and predicting future clinical outcomes for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Current evidence in relation to these issues is explored in this review.

Saha S, Mistry V, Siva R, Parker D, May R, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2008. Induced sputum and bronchial mucosal expression of interleukin-13 is not increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Allergy, 63 (9), pp. 1239-1243. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The Th2 cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to examine IL-13 expression in COPD subjects in induced sputum and bronchus specimens. We hypothesized that inflammatory cells expressing IL-13 localize to the airway smooth muscle bundle and bronchial glands. METHODS: Interleukin-13 was measured in sputum samples from subjects with COPD (n = 34) across a range of severity (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2-4) and controls (n = 14) using ELISA. IL-13+ cells and inflammatory cells were enumerated within surgically resected proximal airway using immunohistochemical techniques from subjects with COPD (n = 10), smoking (n = 10) and nonsmoking controls (n = 8). RESULTS: Sputum IL-13 was measurable in only 6/34 subjects with COPD and was not found in the smoking or nonsmoking control subjects. In subjects with COPD and controls there was a paucity of IL-13+ cells. The distribution of inflammatory cells within different airway compartments was similar in COPD and controls except for an increase in CD3(+) lymphocytes within bronchial glands in COPD (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support a role for IL-13 in COPD. However, the tissue localization of inflammatory cells to airway compartments, particularly the increase of T cells in glands in COPD may be important in disease.

Pavord ID, Shaw D. 2008. The use of exhaled nitric oxide in the management of asthma. J Asthma, 45 (7), pp. 523-531. | Show Abstract | Read more

It has recently become clear that airways disease associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, but not other patterns of inflammation, is closely associated with favourable short-and long-term responses to corticosteroid therapy, irrespective of the clinical context in which it occurs. Moreover, a raised exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) is a reasonable marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, which has a number of advantages as a diagnostic and monitoring tool. In this review we outline essential background information on the use of FE(NO) in clinical practice and discuss some recent work evaluating the clinical value of this technique.

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Haldar P, Pavord ID, Shaw DE, Berry MA, Thomas M, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AI, Green RH. 2008. Cluster analysis and clinical asthma phenotypes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 178 (3), pp. 218-224. | Read more

Mutalithas K, Watkin G, Willig B, Wardlaw A, Pavord ID, Birring SS. 2008. Improvement in health status following bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in patients with bronchiectasis. Respir Med, 102 (8), pp. 1140-1144. | Show Abstract | Read more

Chronic productive cough is a common symptom in patients with bronchiectasis that is associated with a reduction in health-related quality of life (QOL). Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy (BHPT) is widely prescribed for patients with bronchiectasis, although the evidence for its efficacy is limited. We set out to prospectively evaluate the impact of BHPT on health-related QOL in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. We assessed cough symptoms (0-100mm visual analogue scale; VAS) and cough-related QOL in 53 patients with stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis at baseline and >4 weeks after outpatient-based BHPT. Cough specific health status was assessed with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ; total score range 3-21, higher scores representing better QOL). All patients with bronchiectasis complained of cough as the major symptom and had mean (SEM) FEV(1) of 2.1 (0.1)L. Cough-related health status was reduced at baseline; mean (SEM) LCQ score 14.3 (0.6). There were significant improvements in cough symptoms (mean cough VAS before 43.3 (3.6) vs after 27.5 (3.1); mean difference 15.8; 95% CI of difference 9.6-22; p<0.0001) and cough-related health status after BHPT (mean LCQ total score before 14.2 vs after 17.3; mean difference 3.1; 95% confidence interval of difference 2.4-3.9; p<0.001). A significant improvement was seen in all LCQ health-related domains (physical, psychological and social; all p<0.001). Our findings suggest that bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy can lead to a significant improvement in cough-related quality of life.

Haldar P, Pavord ID, Shaw DE, Berry MA, Thomas M, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Green RH. 2008. Cluster analysis and clinical asthma phenotypes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 178 (3), pp. 218-224. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Heterogeneity in asthma expression is multidimensional, including variability in clinical, physiologic, and pathologic parameters. Classification requires consideration of these disparate domains in a unified model. OBJECTIVES: To explore the application of a multivariate mathematical technique, k-means cluster analysis, for identifying distinct phenotypic groups. METHODS: We performed k-means cluster analysis in three independent asthma populations. Clusters of a population managed in primary care (n = 184) with predominantly mild to moderate disease, were compared with a refractory asthma population managed in secondary care (n = 187). We then compared differences in asthma outcomes (exacerbation frequency and change in corticosteroid dose at 12 mo) between clusters in a third population of 68 subjects with predominantly refractory asthma, clustered at entry into a randomized trial comparing a strategy of minimizing eosinophilic inflammation (inflammation-guided strategy) with standard care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two clusters (early-onset atopic and obese, noneosinophilic) were common to both asthma populations. Two clusters characterized by marked discordance between symptom expression and eosinophilic airway inflammation (early-onset symptom predominant and late-onset inflammation predominant) were specific to refractory asthma. Inflammation-guided management was superior for both discordant subgroups leading to a reduction in exacerbation frequency in the inflammation-predominant cluster (3.53 [SD, 1.18] vs. 0.38 [SD, 0.13] exacerbation/patient/yr, P = 0.002) and a dose reduction of inhaled corticosteroid in the symptom-predominant cluster (mean difference, 1,829 mug beclomethasone equivalent/d [95% confidence interval, 307-3,349 mug]; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis offers a novel multidimensional approach for identifying asthma phenotypes that exhibit differences in clinical response to treatment algorithms.

Siddiqui S, Mistry V, Doe C, Roach K, Morgan A, Wardlaw A, Pavord I, Bradding P, Brightling C. 2008. Airway hyperresponsiveness is dissociated from airway wall structural remodeling. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 122 (2), pp. 335-341.e3. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) has emerged as a useful tool to study the structural and inflammatory mechanisms of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma. We have previously shown that vascular remodeling and reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening are present in EB. However, it is not known whether other features of structural remodeling including increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, matrix deposition, and glandular hyperplasia are also present in EB. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether structural remodeling occurs in EB and is associated with AHR and airflow limitation. METHODS: Forty-two patients with asthma, 21 patients with EB, and 19 healthy volunteers were recruited. ASM area, RBM thickness, collagen 3 deposition, glandular area, mast cells, and granulocytes were assessed in bronchial biopsy samples. RESULTS: Nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a significant increase in ASM mass and RBM thickness compared with healthy subjects. In contrast, we did not observe any significant differences in collagen 3 deposition in the lamina propria and ASM or the % area of glands in the lamina propria. Univariate analysis demonstrated that mast cell numbers in the ASM were the only feature of remodeling associated with AHR (beta = -0.51; P = .004). Stepwise linear regression revealed that a combination of mast cell numbers in the ASM (beta = -0.43) and disease duration (beta = -0.25; model-adjusted R(2) = 0.26; P = .027) best modeled AHR. CONCLUSION: Mast cell localization to the ASM bundle, but not structural remodeling of the airway wall, is associated with AHR in asthma.

Berry MA, Pavord ID. 2008. Antagonism of tumour necrosis factor alpha in refractory asthma. Thorax, 63 (7), pp. 571-572. | Read more

Green RH, Pavord ID. 2008. Use of long-acting beta2 agonists in arginine-16 homozygous patients with asthma. Thorax, 63 (6), pp. 568-569. | Read more

Birring SS, Fleming T, Matos S, Raj AA, Evans DH, Pavord ID. 2008. The Leicester Cough Monitor: preliminary validation of an automated cough detection system in chronic cough. Eur Respir J, 31 (5), pp. 1013-1018. | Show Abstract | Read more

Chronic cough is a common condition that presents to both primary and secondary care. Assessment and management are hampered by the absence of well-validated outcome measures. The present study comprises the validation of the Leicester Cough Monitor (LCM), an automated sound-based ambulatory cough monitor. Cough frequency was measured with the LCM and compared with coughs and other sounds counted manually over 2 h of a 6-h recording by two observers in nine patients with chronic cough in order to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the LCM. Automated cough frequency was also compared with manual counts from one observer in 15 patients with chronic cough and eight healthy subjects. All subjects underwent 6-h recordings. A subgroup consisting of six control and five patients with stable chronic cough underwent repeat automated measurements > or = 3 months apart. A further 50 patients with chronic cough underwent 24-h automated cough monitoring. The LCM had a sensitivity and specificity of 91 and 99%, respectively, for detecting cough and a false-positive rate of 2.5 events x h(-1). Mean+/-SEM automated cough counts x patient x h(-1) was 48+/-9 in patients with chronic cough and 2+/-1 in the control group (mean difference 46 counts x patient x h(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI) 20-71). The automated cough counts were repeatable (intra-subject SD 11.4 coughs x patient x h(-1); intra-class correlation coefficient 0.9). The cough frequency in patients undergoing 24-h automated monitoring was 19 coughs x patient x h(-1); daytime (08:00-22:00 h) cough frequency was significantly greater than overnight cough frequency (25 versus 10 coughs x patient x h(-1); mean difference 15 coughs x patient x h(-1), 95% CI 8-22). The Leicester Cough Monitor is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess 24-h cough frequency in patients with cough. It should be a useful tool to assess patients with cough in clinical trials and longitudinal studies.

Raj AA, Birring SS, Green R, Grant A, de Caestecker J, Pavord ID. 2008. Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with airways disease. Respir Med, 102 (5), pp. 780-785. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Case reports and case series have suggested an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and airways disease, but there are no data demonstrating a higher prevalence of IBD among patients with airways disease. Furthermore, no consistent radiological, pulmonary or pathological abnormalities have been demonstrated in patients with both conditions. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of IBD among patients with airways disease and to evaluate clinical and pathophysiological features. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of outpatients with airways disease over a 10-year period. RESULTS: IBD was four times more prevalent among patients with airways disease compared with published local IBD prevalence [Odds Ratio 4.26, 95% CI 1.48, 11.71, p=0.006; Crohn's disease OR 5.96, 95% CI 1.94, 18.31, p=0.002 and ulcerative colitis OR 4.21, 95% CI 1.71, 10.41, p=0.001]. IBD was more frequent in all types of airways disease except asthma; the association was particularly strong for conditions associated with productive cough. All except 1 patient had established IBD before the onset of respiratory symptoms. There were no obvious radiological differences between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease cases. There was a trend for a higher lymphocyte count (despite a tendency to lower blood lymphocyte count) but lower sputum neutrophil count in patients with Crohn's disease compared with ulcerative colitis. There were no significant differences in physiological measurements of pulmonary function between the two types of IBD. CONCLUSION: Our findings support an association between airways disease and inflammatory bowel disease, particularly non-asthmatic airways disease with productive cough.

British Thoracic Society Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. 2008. British Guideline on the Management of Asthma. Thorax, 63 Suppl 4 (Supplement 4), pp. iv1-121. | Read more

Haldar P, Pavord ID. 2008. Diagnosis and management of adult asthma Medicine, 36 (4), pp. 201-208. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is a disorder of the airways that is characterized by typical symptoms arising from a complex interplay between chronic inflammation and disordered airway function. Worldwide disease prevalence continues to rise steadily and the condition contributes to significant morbidity and preventable mortality. The goals of treatment in asthma are to achieve control of symptoms and to prevent exacerbations. Important non-pharmacological measures include patient education, avoidance of triggers and smoking cessation. Pharmacological management involves the stepwise titration of β-agonist bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids according to symptoms. Although satisfactory control of asthma is achieved in primary care for a large proportion of patients, between 5 and 10% with so-called 'refractory asthma' remain poorly controlled and contribute disproportionately to asthma-related morbidity and mortality. The reasons for this are complex and multifactorial, and many patients with refractory asthma require referral to specialist centres. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Saha SK, Berry MA, Parker D, Siddiqui S, Morgan A, May R, Monk P, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2008. Increased sputum and bronchial biopsy IL-13 expression in severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 121 (3), pp. 685-691. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The importance of IL-13 in the asthma paradigm is supported by increased expression in human subjects, particularly in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma. However, the role of IL-13 in severe asthma needs to be further defined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess IL-13 expression in sputum and bronchial biopsy specimens from subjects with mild-to-severe asthma. METHODS: Sputum IL-13 concentrations were measured in 32 control subjects, 34 subjects with mild asthma, 21 subjects with moderate asthma, and 26 subjects with severe asthma. Enumeration of mast cells, eosinophils, and IL-13+ cells in the bronchial submucosa and airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle was performed in 7 control subjects, 14 subjects with mild asthma, 7 subjects with moderate asthma, and 7 subjects with severe asthma. RESULTS: The proportion of subjects with measurable IL-13 in the sputum was increased in the mild asthma group (15/34) and severe asthma group (10/26) compared with that seen in the control group (4/32; P = .004). IL-13+ cells were increased within the submucosa in all asthma severity groups compared with control subjects (P = .006). The number of IL-13+ cells were increased within the ASM bundle in the severe asthma group compared with that seen in the other groups (P < .05). Asthma control questionnaire scores positively correlated with sputum IL-13 concentrations (R(s) = 0.35, P = .04) and mast cells in the ASM bundle (R(s) = 0.7, P = .007). IL-13+ cells within the submucosa and ASM correlated with sputum eosinophilia (R(s) = 0.4, P < or = .05). CONCLUSIONS: IL-13 overexpression in sputum and bronchial biopsy specimens is a feature of severe asthma.

Pavord ID, Shaw DE, Gibson PG, Taylor DR. 2008. Inflammometry to assess airway diseases. Lancet, 372 (9643), pp. 1017-1019. | Read more

Taylor DR, Bateman ED, Boulet L-P, Boushey HA, Busse WW, Casale TB, Chanez P, Enright PL, Gibson PG, de Jongste JC et al. 2008. A new perspective on concepts of asthma severity and control. Eur Respir J, 32 (3), pp. 545-554. | Show Abstract | Read more

Concepts of asthma severity and control are important in the evaluation of patients and their response to treatment but the terminology is not standardised and the terms are often used interchangeably. This review, arising from the work of an American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Task Force, identifies the need for separate concepts of control and severity, describes their evolution in asthma guidelines and provides a framework for understanding the relationship between current concepts of asthma phenotype, severity and control. "Asthma control" refers to the extent to which the manifestations of asthma have been reduced or removed by treatment. Its assessment should incorporate the dual components of current clinical control (e.g. symptoms, reliever use and lung function) and future risk (e.g. exacerbations and lung function decline). The most clinically useful concept of asthma severity is based on the intensity of treatment required to achieve good asthma control, i.e. severity is assessed during treatment. Severe asthma is defined as the requirement for (not necessarily just prescription or use of) high-intensity treatment. Asthma severity may be influenced by the underlying disease activity and by the patient's phenotype, both of which may be further described using pathological and physiological markers. These markers can also act as surrogate measures for future risk.

Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2008. Cough pp. 285-291. | Read more

Chung KF, Pavord ID. 2008. Prevalence, pathogenesis, and causes of chronic cough. Lancet, 371 (9621), pp. 1364-1374. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cough is a reflex action of the respiratory tract that is used to clear the upper airways. Chronic cough lasting for more than 8 weeks is common in the community. The causes include cigarette smoking, exposure to cigarette smoke, and exposure to environmental pollution, especially particulates. Diseases causing chronic cough include asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, postnasal drip syndrome or rhinosinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. Doctors should always work towards a clear diagnosis, considering common and rare illnesses. In some patients, no cause is identified, leading to the diagnosis of idiopathic cough. Chronic cough is often associated with an increased response to tussive agents such as capsaicin. Plastic changes in intrinsic and synaptic excitability in the brainstem, spine, or airway nerves can enhance the cough reflex, and can persist in the absence of the initiating cough event. Structural and inflammatory airway mucosal changes in non-asthmatic chronic cough could represent the cause or the traumatic response to repetitive coughing. Effective control of cough requires not only controlling the disease causing the cough but also desensitisation of cough pathways.

Pavord ID, Chung KF. 2008. Management of chronic cough. Lancet, 371 (9621), pp. 1375-1384. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cough that remains unexplained after basic clinical assessment is a common reason for referral to secondary care. Much of the evidence about management of isolated chronic cough is derived from case series; this evidence suggests that isolated chronic cough is usually due to asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and upper airway conditions, and that it can be cured in most people by treatment of these conditions. However, there is increasing recognition that satisfactory control of chronic cough is not achieved in a substantial number of patients seen in secondary care. Moreover, there is a concern that perpetuation of the belief that chronic cough is solely due to the effects of comorbid conditions is inhibiting research into the pathophysiology of an abnormally heightened cough reflex, and jeopardising development of improved treatments. We advocate a change in emphasis, which makes a clear distinction between cough due to corticosteroid-responsive eosinophilic airway diseases and corticosteroid-resistant non-eosinophilic cough. We recommend that some factors with weak evidence of an association with cough are best viewed as potential aggravating factors of an intrinsic abnormality of the cough reflex, rather than the cause. We call for more research into the basic mechanisms and pharmacological control of an abnormally heightened cough reflex, and recommend ways to assess the effects of potentially antitussive treatments.

Pavord ID, Cox G, Thomson NC, Rubin AS, Corris PA, Niven RM, Chung KF, Laviolette M, RISA Trial Study Group. 2007. Safety and efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty in symptomatic, severe asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 176 (12), pp. 1185-1191. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is designed to reduce airway smooth muscle and improve asthma control. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of this procedure in subjects with symptomatic, severe asthma. METHODS: Adults who were symptomatic despite treatment with fluticasone or equivalent at more than 750 mug/day, a long-acting beta(2)-agonist, and other medications, which could include 30 mg or less of oral prednisolone/day, were randomized to BT or to a control group. After treatment, subjects entered a 16-week steroid stable phase (Weeks 6-22), a 14-week steroid wean phase (Weeks 22-36), and a 16-week reduced steroid phase (Weeks 36-52). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: BT resulted in a transient worsening of asthma symptoms. Seven hospitalizations for respiratory symptoms occurred in 4 of 15 BT subjects during the treatment period. Five hospitalizations were within 3 days of treatment. Two subjects had segmental collapse involving the most recently treated lobe; one required bronchoscopy and aspiration of a mucus plug. There were no hospitalizations during this period in the 17 control subjects. The rate of hospitalizations was similar in both groups in the post-treatment period. At 22 weeks, BT subjects had significant improvements versus control subjects in rescue medication use (-26.6 +/- 40.1 vs. -1.5 +/- 11.7 puffs/7 d, P < 0.05), prebronchodilator FEV(1)% predicted (14.9 +/- 17.4 vs. -0.94 +/- 22.3%, P = 0.04), and Asthma Control Questionnaire scores (-1.04 +/- 1.03 vs. -0.13 +/- 1.00, P = 0.02). Improvements in rescue medication use and Asthma Control Questionnaire scores remained significantly different from those of controls at 52 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: BT is associated with a short-term increase in asthma-related morbidity. However, there is preliminary evidence of long-lasting improvement in asthma control. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00214539).

Berry M, Morgan A, Shaw DE, Parker D, Green R, Brightling C, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2007. Pathological features and inhaled corticosteroid response of eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma. Thorax, 62 (12), pp. 1043-1049. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Non-eosinophilic asthma is a potentially important clinicopathological phenotype since there is evidence that it responds poorly to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. However, little is known about the underlying airway immunopathology and there are no data from placebo-controlled studies examining the effect of inhaled corticosteroids. METHODS: Airway immunopathology was investigated using induced sputum, bronchial biopsies, bronchial wash and bronchoalveolar lavage in 12 patients with symptomatic eosinophilic asthma, 11 patients with non-eosinophilic asthma and 10 healthy controls. The patients with non-eosinophilic asthma and 6 different patients with eosinophilic asthma entered a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which the effects of inhaled mometasone 400 microg once daily for 8 weeks on airway responsiveness and asthma quality of life were investigated. RESULTS: Patients with non-eosinophilic asthma had absence of eosinophils in the mucosa (median 4.4 cells/mm(2) vs 23 cells/mm(2) in eosinophilic asthma and 0 cells/mm(2) in normal controls; p = 0.03) and normal subepithelial layer thickness (5.8 microm vs 10.3 microm in eosinophilic asthma and 5.1 microm in controls, p = 0.002). Non-eosinophilic and eosinophilic asthma groups had increased mast cell numbers in the airway smooth muscle compared with normal controls (9 vs 8 vs 0 cells/mm(2), p = 0.016). Compared with placebo, 8 weeks of treatment with inhaled mometasone led to less improvement in methacholine PC(20) (0.5 vs 5.5 doubling concentrations, 95% CI of difference 1.1 to 9.1; p = 0.018) and asthma quality of life (0.2 vs 1.0 points, 95% CI of difference 0.27 to 1.43; p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Non-eosinophilic asthma represents a pathologically distinct disease phenotype which is characterised by the absence of airway eosinophilia, normal subepithelial layer thickness and a poor short-term response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids.

Shaw DE, Berry MA, Hargadon B, McKenna S, Shelley MJ, Green RH, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2007. Association between neutrophilic airway inflammation and airflow limitation in adults with asthma. Chest, 132 (6), pp. 1871-1875. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: There is debate about the mechanisms of persistent airflow limitation in patients with asthma. Chronic inflammation is assumed to be important, although there is limited and contradictory information about the relationship between airway inflammation and postbronchodilator FEV1. METHODS: We have assessed the cross-sectional relationship between prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV1 and measures of airway inflammation after allowing for the effects of potential confounding factors. Multivariate analysis was performed on data collected from 1,197 consecutive patients with asthma seen at the respiratory outpatient clinic at Glenfield Hospital between 1997 and 2004. Relationships between induced sputum total neutrophil and differential eosinophil cell counts, and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator lung function were examined. RESULTS: Sputum total neutrophil but not differential eosinophil count was associated with lower postbronchodilator FEV1. Both differential eosinophil and total neutrophil count were associated with lower prebronchodilator FEV1. These effects were independent after adjustment for age, smoking, ethnicity, asthma duration, and inhaled corticosteroid use. A 10-fold increase in neutrophil count was associated with a 92 mL reduction (95% confidence interval, 29 to 158; p = 0.007) in postbronchodilator FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: In this large heterogeneous population of adults with asthma, we have shown that prebronchodilator FEV1 is associated with neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation, whereas sputum total neutrophil counts alone are associated with postbronchodilator FEV1. This supports the hypothesis that neutrophilic airway inflammation has a role in the progression of persistent airflow limitation in asthma and raises the possibility that this progression and the development of COPD share a common mechanism.

Pavord ID. 2007. Monitoring of exhaled nitric oxide in primary care. Prim Care Respir J, 16 (6), pp. 331-334. | Read more

Siddiqui S, Sutcliffe A, Shikotra A, Woodman L, Doe C, McKenna S, Wardlaw A, Bradding P, Pavord I, Brightling C. 2007. Vascular remodeling is a feature of asthma and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120 (4), pp. 813-819. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Increased vascularity and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are recognized features of the asthmatic airway. The association of vascular remodeling with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess vascular remodeling and sputum VEGF concentration in subjects with asthma, subjects with nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (EB), and healthy controls. METHODS: In cohort 1, 19 patients with asthma (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] 1-2, n = 9; GINA 3-5, n = 10), 10 patients with EB, and 11 healthy matched controls were recruited. Expression of the endothelial marker EN4 was assessed in bronchial biopsy samples. Vessels were counted using the validated mean Chalkley count by a blind observer. For cohort 2, a second independent cohort of 31 patients with asthma (GINA 1-2, n = 11; GINA 3-5, n = 20), 14 patients with EB, and 15 matched controls was recruited. Induced sputum supernatant VEGF was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The mean chalkley count was significantly greater in GINA 3-5 asthma (5.2 [0.4]) and EB (4.8 [0.3]) compared with controls (3.5 [0.5]) and demonstrated a significant inverse correlation with the postbronchodilator FEV(1)% predicted in patients with asthma (R(2) = 0.28; P = .02). Sputum VEGF concentration was also increased in GINA 3-5 asthma (2365 [1361-4110] pg/g) and EB (4699 [2818-7834] pg/g) compared with controls (1094 [676-1774] pg/g) and was inversely related to postbronchodilator FEV(1)% predicted in asthma (R(2) = 0.2; P = .01). CONCLUSION: Vascular remodeling is a feature of asthma, and EB and is inversely associated with the postbronchodilator FEV(1) in asthma, suggesting that vascular remodeling is associated with airflow obstruction but not AHR. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Vascular remodeling is dissociated from AHR in asthma and associated with airflow limitation.

Gamble E, Grootendorst DC, Hattotuwa K, O'Shaughnessy T, Ram FSF, Qiu Y, Zhu J, Vignola AM, Kroegel C, Morell F et al. 2007. Airway mucosal inflammation in COPD is similar in smokers and ex-smokers: a pooled analysis. Eur Respir J, 30 (3), pp. 467-471. | Show Abstract | Read more

Bronchial biopsy specimens from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients demonstrate increased numbers of CD8+ T-lymphocytes, macrophages and, in some studies, neutrophils and eosinophils. Smoking cessation affects the rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) decline in COPD, but the effect on inflammation is uncertain. Bronchial biopsy inflammatory cell counts were compared in current and ex-smokers with COPD. A pooled analysis of subepithelial inflammatory cell count data from three bronchial biopsy studies that included COPD patients who were either current or ex-smokers was performed. Cell count data from 101 subjects, 65 current smokers and 36 ex-smokers, were analysed for the following cell types: CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, CD68+ (monocytes/macrophages), neutrophil elastase+ (neutrophils), EG2+ (eosinophils), mast cell tryptase+ and cells mRNA-positive for tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Current smokers and ex-smokers were similar in terms of lung function, as measured by FEV(1) (% predicted), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC. The results demonstrate that there were no significant differences between smokers and ex-smokers in the numbers of any of the inflammatory cell types or markers analysed. It is concluded that, in established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the bronchial mucosal inflammatory cell infiltrate is similar in ex-smokers and those that continue to smoke.

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Shaw DE, Berry MA, Thomas M, Green RH, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2007. The use of exhaled nitric oxide to guide asthma management - A randomized controlled trial AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 176 (3), pp. 231-237. | Read more

Barnes N, Laviolette M, Allen D, Flood-Page P, Hargreave F, Corris P, O'Connor BJ, Tate H, Parker D, Pavord I. 2007. Effects of montelukast compared to double dose budesonide on airway inflammation and asthma control. Respir Med, 101 (8), pp. 1652-1658. | Show Abstract | Read more

Many patients with asthma remain symptomatic with impaired airway function on inhaled steroids. This study investigates the relationship between the clinical effect seen in response to additional treatment and the effect on airway inflammatory indices. Seventy-five adult asthmatic patients, incompletely controlled on 800 mcg budesonide/day, were randomised following a 4 week run-in period, to a double-blind, multi-centre controlled clinical trial of doubling inhaled corticosteroid (budesonide 1600 mcg/day) or adding 10mg montelukast for 12 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at baseline and end of treatment and analysed for eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, leukotrienes C4, D4 and E4, IL-8, Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) and histamine. Sputum evidence of inflammation (2.0% eosinophils) was seen in only 29% of these patients and the percentage of eosinophils and other markers of airway inflammation did not change over the study period in either treatment group. There were significant improvements in am PEF (montelukast: 31.7 L/min, budesonide: 32.3 L/min) and quality of life with both treatments. We conclude that while both treatments showed similar improvements in lung function and quality of life, there was no evidence from these sputum markers measured that the effects were mediated via a reduction in airway inflammation or that the level of pre-treatment markers was associated with outcome.

Shaw DE, Berry MA, Thomas M, Green RH, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2007. The use of exhaled nitric oxide to guide asthma management: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 176 (3), pp. 231-237. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: Current asthma guidelines recommend adjusting antiinflammatory treatment on the basis of the results of lung function tests and symptom assessment, neither of which are closely associated with airway inflammation. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that titrating corticosteroid dose using the concentration of exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath (Fe(NO)) results in fewer asthma exacerbations and more efficient use of corticosteroids, when compared with traditional management. METHODS: One hundred eighteen participants with a primary care diagnosis of asthma were randomized to a single-blind trial of corticosteroid therapy based on either Fe(NO) measurements (n = 58) or British Thoracic Society guidelines (n = 60). Participants were assessed monthly for 4 months and then every 2 months for a further 8 months. The primary outcome was the number of severe asthma exacerbations. Analyses were by intention to treat. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The estimated mean (SD) exacerbation frequency was 0.33 per patient per year (0.69) in the Fe(NO) group and 0.42 (0.79) in the control group (mean difference, -21%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -57 to 43%; p = 0.43). Overall the Fe(NO) group used 11% more inhaled corticosteroid (95% CI, -17 to 42%; p = 0.40), although the final daily dose of inhaled corticosteroid was lower in the Fe(NO) group (557 vs. 895 microg; mean difference, 338 microg; 95% CI, -640 to -37; p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: An asthma treatment strategy based on the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide did not result in a large reduction in asthma exacerbations or in the total amount of inhaled corticosteroid therapy used over 12 mo, when compared with current asthma guidelines. Clinical trial registered with www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN08067387).

Matos S, Birring SS, Pavord ID, Evans DH. 2007. An automated system for 24-h monitoring of cough frequency: the leicester cough monitor. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 54 (8), pp. 1472-1479. | Show Abstract | Read more

The objective monitoring of cough for extended periods of time has long been recognized as an important step towards a better understanding of this symptom, and a better management of chronic cough patients. In this paper, we present a system for the automatic analysis of 24-h, continuous, ambulatory recordings of cough. The system uses audio recordings from a miniature microphone and the detection algorithm is based on statistical models of the time-spectral characteristics of cough sounds. We validated the system against manual counts obtained by a trained observer on 40 ambulatory recordings and our results show a median sensitivity value of 85.7%, median positive predictive value of 94.7% and median false positive rate of 0.8 events/h. An analysis application was developed, with a graphical user interface, allowing the use of the system in clinical settings by technical or medical staff. The result of the analysis of a recording session is presented as a concise, graphical-based report. The modular nature of the system interface facilitates its enhancement with the integration of further modules.

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Berry M, Brightling C, Pavord I, Wardlaw AJ. 2007. TNF-alpha in asthma CURRENT OPINION IN PHARMACOLOGY, 7 (3), pp. 279-282. | Read more

Berry M, Brightling C, Pavord I, Wardlaw A. 2007. TNF-alpha in asthma. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 7 (3), pp. 279-282. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although only 5-10% of patients with asthma are relatively unresponsive to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, refractory asthma represents an important condition, as these patients suffer considerable morbidity and mortality and consume a disproportionately large amount of health resource. Treatment options are limited and there is a large unmet clinical need for additional therapies. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in many aspects of the airway pathology in asthma, and which has recently been highlighted as potentially important in refractory asthma. The development of neutralising biological agents against TNF-alpha has allowed us to test the role of this cytokine in vivo. Preliminary studies have demonstrated an improvement in lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma quality-of-life, together with a reduction in exacerbation frequency, in patients treated with anti-TNF-alpha therapy.

Haldar P, Pavord ID. 2007. Noneosinophilic asthma: a distinct clinical and pathologic phenotype. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 119 (5), pp. 1043-1052. | Show Abstract | Read more

The use of induced sputum to assess airway inflammation in large and diverse populations with asthma has led to the recognition that significant numbers of patients do not have evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The absence of a sputum eosinophilia has been noted in patients across the range of asthma severity; it has also been reported in patients presenting with an asthma exacerbation. However, whether noneosinophilic asthma represents a pathologically distinct and clinically important asthma phenotype remains unclear. In this review, we present recent evidence suggesting that noneosinophilic asthma represents a stable phenotype associated with a distinct lower airway pathology and structure. We suggest that this lower airway inflammation develops in response to etiologic factors acting through the innate immune pathway and that elements of this immune response contribute to airway dysfunction. Finally, we argue that noneosinophilic asthma is associated with clinically important differences in natural history and treatment response. We particularly highlight evidence that noneosinophilic asthma is associated with a reduced short-term and long-term response to corticosteroid therapy.

Siva R, Green RH, Brightling CE, Shelley M, Hargadon B, McKenna S, Monteiro W, Berry M, Parker D, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2007. Eosinophilic airway inflammation and exacerbations of COPD: a randomised controlled trial. Eur Respir J, 29 (5), pp. 906-913. | Show Abstract | Read more

Evidence suggests that eosinophilic airway inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. The present authors tested the hypothesis that a management strategy that aims to reduce sputum eosinophil counts is associated with a reduction in exacerbations of COPD. A total of 82 patients with COPD were randomised into two groups. One group was treated according to traditional guidelines (British Thoracic Society (BTS) group) and the other (sputum group) was treated with the additional aim of minimising eosinophilic airway inflammation, assessed using the induced sputum eosinophil count. The primary outcome was exacerbations, which were categorised as mild, moderate or severe. The frequency of severe exacerbations per patient per year was 0.5 and 0.2 in the BTS and sputum groups, respectively (mean reduction 62%). The majority of this benefit was confined to patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation. There was no difference in the frequency of mild and moderate exacerbations. The average daily dose of inhaled or oral corticosteroids during the trial did not differ between the groups. Out of 42 patients in the sputum group, 17 required regular oral corticosteroids to minimise eosinophilic airway inflammation. A management strategy that aims to minimise eosinophilic airway inflammation, as well as symptoms, is associated with a reduction in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cox G, Thomson NC, Rubin AS, Niven RM, Corris PA, Siersted HC, Olivenstein R, Pavord ID, McCormack D, Chaudhuri R et al. 2007. Asthma control during the year after bronchial thermoplasty. N Engl J Med, 356 (13), pp. 1327-1337. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty is a bronchoscopic procedure to reduce the mass of airway smooth muscle and attenuate bronchoconstriction. We examined the effect of bronchial thermoplasty on the control of moderate or severe persistent asthma. METHODS: We randomly assigned 112 subjects who had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists (LABA) and in whom asthma control was impaired when the LABA were withdrawn to either bronchial thermoplasty or a control group. The primary outcome was the frequency of mild exacerbations, calculated during three scheduled 2-week periods of abstinence from LABA at 3, 6, and 12 months. Airflow, airway responsiveness, asthma symptoms, the number of symptom-free days, use of rescue medication, and scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were also assessed. RESULTS: The mean rate of mild exacerbations, as compared with baseline, was reduced in the bronchial-thermoplasty group but was unchanged in the control group (change in frequency per subject per week, -0.16+/-0.37 vs. 0.04+/-0.29; P=0.005). At 12 months, there were significantly greater improvements in the bronchial-thermoplasty group than in the control group in the morning peak expiratory flow (39.3+/-48.7 vs. 8.5+/-44.2 liters per minute), scores on the AQLQ (1.3+/-1.0 vs. 0.6+/-1.1) and ACQ (reduction, 1.2+/-1.0 vs. 0.5+/-1.0), the percentage of symptom-free days (40.6+/-39.7 vs. 17.0+/-37.9), and symptom scores (reduction, 1.9+/-2.1 vs. 0.7+/-2.5) while fewer puffs of rescue medication were required. Values for airway responsiveness and forced expiratory volume in 1 second did not differ significantly between the two groups. Adverse events immediately after treatment were more common in the bronchial-thermoplasty group than in the control group but were similar during the period from 6 weeks to 12 months after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchial thermoplasty in subjects with moderate or severe asthma results in an improvement in asthma control. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00214526 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).

Pavord ID. 2007. Non-eosinophilic asthma and the innate immune response. Thorax, 62 (3), pp. 193-194. | Read more

Birring SS, Ing AJ, Chan K, Cossa G, Matos S, Morgan MDL, Pavord ID. 2007. Obstructive sleep apnoea: a cause of chronic cough. Cough, 3 (1), pp. 7. | Show Abstract | Read more

Chronic cough is a common reason for presentation to both general practice and respiratory clinics. In up to 25% of cases, the cause remains unclear after extensive investigations. We report 4 patients presenting with an isolated chronic cough who were subsequently found to have obstructive sleep apnoea. The cough improved rapidly with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Further studies are required to investigate the prevalence of coexistence of these common conditions.

Pavord I, Woodcock A, Parker D, Rice L, SOLTA study group. 2007. Salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate versus fluticasone propionate plus montelukast: a randomised controlled trial investigating the effects on airway inflammation in asthma. Respir Res, 8 (1), pp. 67. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared treatment strategies in patients with asthma poorly controlled on low dose inhaled corticosteroids, and little is known about the effects of different treatments on airway inflammation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, we compared the effects of salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate (FP) (Seretide; SFC) and FP plus montelukast (FP/M) on sputum inflammatory markers, airway responsiveness, lung function, and symptoms in adult asthmatics. METHODS: Sixty-six subjects were randomised to SFC or FP/M for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was changes in neutrophil, eosinophil, macrophage, lymphocyte, and epithelial cell levels in induced sputum. Additional outcomes included the change in other sputum markers of airway inflammation, airway responsiveness, symptom control, and lung function. RESULTS: Both treatments had no significant effect on induced sputum inflammatory cells, although there was a trend for a reduction in sputum eosinophils. Both treatments significantly improved airway responsiveness, whereas SFC generally led to greater improvements in symptom control and lung function than FP/M. FP/M led to significantly greater reductions in sputum cysteinyl leukotrienes than SFC (treatment ratio 1.80; 95% CI 1.09, 2.94). CONCLUSION: Both treatments led to similar control of eosinophilic airway inflammation, although PEF and symptom control were better with SFC. STUDY NUMBER: SAM40030 (SOLTA).

Heffler E, Berry M, Pavord ID. 2007. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha: a promising therapeutic target for asthma? BioDrugs, 21 (6), pp. 345-349. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is a disease that encompasses a variety of features including airway smooth muscle abnormalities, airway inflammation, and structural changes in the airway. Historically, it has been classified depending on the severity of the disease, the frequency of symptoms, and the level of treatment required to control them. Severe or refractory asthma accounts for approximately 10% of the patient population with asthma and for about 30% of the healthcare costs of this disease. It is often associated with conditions that might lead to activation of innate immunity in the lung, and it has been suggested that some of the features of severe asthma might be due to upregulation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) pathway. In support of this, studies have shown that severe asthma is associated with an increased presence of TNFalpha within the airway and an increase in TNFalpha expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, TNFalpha has the ability to induce several of the pro-inflammatory changes associated with severe asthma. Interest in the role of TNFalpha in severe asthma has increased following reports that antagonism with etanercept or infliximab is associated with improvement in asthma control in patients with severe asthma. In this article, we discuss the biology, function, and clinical effects of TNFalpha with particular reference to severe asthma.

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Morice AH, McGarvey L, Pavord I, Cough BTS. 2006. Recommendations for the management of cough in adults THORAX, 61 pp. I1-I24. | Read more

Morice AH, McGarvey L, Pavord I, British Thoracic Society Cough Guideline Group. 2006. Recommendations for the management of cough in adults. Thorax, 61 Suppl 1 (suppl_1), pp. i1-24. | Read more

Woodman L, Sutcliffe A, Kaur D, Berry M, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2006. Chemokine concentrations and mast cell chemotactic activity in BAL fluid in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma, and in normal control subjects. Chest, 130 (2), pp. 371-378. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis share many immunopathologic features including increased numbers of eosinophils and mast cells in the superficial airway. The mast cell chemotactic activity of airway secretions has not been assessed in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the concentration of chemokines in bronchial wash samples and BAL fluid, and the mast cell chemotactic activity in BAL fluid from subjects with asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis, and from healthy control subjects. METHODS: We measured the concentrations of CCL11, CXCL8, and CXCL10 in bronchial wash samples and BAL fluid from 14 subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, 14 subjects with asthma, and 15 healthy control subjects. Mast cell chemotaxis to BAL fluid from these subjects was examined using the human mast cell line HMC-1. RESULTS: The bronchial wash sample and BAL fluid concentrations of CXCL10 and CXCL8 was increased in subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis compared to those in subjects with asthma and healthy control subjects (p < 0.05). The CCL11 concentration was below the limit of detection in most subjects. BAL fluid from subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis was chemotactic for mast cells (1.4-fold migration compared to a control, 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.9; p = 0.04) and was inhibited by blocking CXCR1 (45% inhibition; p = 0.002), CXCR3 (38% inhibition; p = 0.034), or both (65% inhibition; p = 0.01). BAL fluid from the subjects with asthma and healthy control subjects was not chemotactic for mast cells. Mast cell migration to BAL fluid was correlated with the concentration of CXCL8 (r = 0.42; p = 0.031) and CXCL10 (r = 0.52; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: In subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, CXCL8 and CXCL10 concentrations were elevated in airway secretions. These chemokines may play a key role in mast cell recruitment to the superficial airway in this condition.

Birring SS, Matos S, Patel RB, Prudon B, Evans DH, Pavord ID. 2006. Cough frequency, cough sensitivity and health status in patients with chronic cough. Respir Med, 100 (6), pp. 1105-1109. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the frequency of cough in health and in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: We measured cough frequency and its relationship with other markers of cough severity in 20 patients with chronic cough and 9 healthy subjects using the Leicester Cough Monitor (LCM), which is an automated ambulatory digital cough monitor that records sound only. All subjects had a 6-h recording and recordings were manually counted. A subgroup of 6 normals and 6 patients with a stable chronic cough had repeat measurements up to 6 months apart. RESULTS: Mean (sem) cough counts/hour were 43(8) in patients with chronic cough and 2(1) in normals (mean difference 41; 95% confidence interval 24-59; P<0.001). The cough counts were repeatable (within subject standard deviation: 23 coughs/hour; intraclass correlation coefficient 0.8). Cough counts correlated significantly with physical (r=-0.6, P=0.03), social (r=-0.7, P=0.01) and total Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) health status scores (r=-0.6, P=0.03) and cough sensitivity (concentration of capsaicin causing 5 coughs: r=0.9, P=0.008). CONCLUSION: We have shown that there are marked differences in cough frequency between patients with chronic cough and healthy subjects, that these measurements are repeatable, and that they correlate with cough-specific health status.

Green RH, Brightling CE, McKenna S, Hargadon B, Neale N, Parker D, Ruse C, Hall IP, Pavord ID. 2006. Comparison of asthma treatment given in addition to inhaled corticosteroids on airway inflammation and responsiveness. Eur Respir J, 27 (6), pp. 1144-1151. | Show Abstract | Read more

There is increasing evidence that the assessment of eosinophilic airway inflammation using induced sputum and measurement of airway hyperresponsiveness provides additional, clinically important information concerning asthma control. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of different treatments on these markers in patients with asthma and persistent symptoms, despite the use of low-dose inhaled corticosteroids. A double-blind four-way crossover study was performed, which compared a 1-month treatment with budesonide 400 mug b.i.d., additional formoterol, additional montelukast and placebo in 49 patients with uncontrolled asthma despite budesonide 100 mug b.i.d., with each treatment separated by a 4-week washout period. The change in sputum eosinophil count with formoterol (2.4 to 3.8% change, 0.6-fold reduction, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-0.9) differed significantly from placebo (2.8 to 2.5% change, 1.1-fold reduction, 95% CI 0.7-1.6) and high-dose budesonide (2.7 to 1.6% change, 1.6-fold reduction, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). The effects of montelukast did not differ from placebo. The changes in methacholine airway responsiveness were small and did not differ between treatments. High-dose budesonide had the broadest range of beneficial effects on other outcomes, including symptom scores, morning peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume in one second. In conclusion, treatment given in addition to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids results in modest benefits. Formoterol and high-dose budesonide have contrasting effects on eosinophilic airway inflammation.

Matos S, Birring SS, Pavord ID, Evans DH. 2006. Detection of cough signals in continuous audio recordings using hidden Markov models. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 53 (6), pp. 1078-1083. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cough is a common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The evaluation of its intensity and frequency of occurrence could provide valuable clinical information in the assessment of patients with chronic cough. In this paper we propose the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to automatically detect cough sounds from continuous ambulatory recordings. The recording system consists of a digital sound recorder and a microphone attached to the patient's chest. The recognition algorithm follows a keyword-spotting approach, with cough sounds representing the keywords. It was trained on 821 min selected from 10 ambulatory recordings, including 2473 manually labeled cough events, and tested on a database of nine recordings from separate patients with a total recording time of 3060 min and comprising 2155 cough events. The average detection rate was 82% at a false alarm rate of seven events/h, when considering only events above an energy threshold relative to each recording's average energy. These results suggest that HMMs can be applied to the detection of cough sounds from ambulatory patients. A postprocessing stage to perform a more detailed analysis on the detected events is under development, and could allow the rejection of some of the incorrectly detected events.

Berry MA, Pavord ID. 2006. Tumor necrosis factor alpha in refractory asthma - Reply NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 354 (19), pp. 2075-2075.

Berry MA, Pavord ID. 2006. The authors reply [12] New England Journal of Medicine, 354 (19), pp. 2075.

Shaw D, Pavord I. 2006. Non-Invasive Assessment of Airway Inflammation in Asthma: An Overview Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews, 2 (2), pp. 189-196. | Show Abstract | Read more

The goals of asthma management are the accurate diagnosis and effective control of symptoms, prevention of exacerbations and the achievement and preservation of best pulmonary function. Despite improvements in asthma care patients are still misdiagnosed or undertreated. The reason for this is simple, asthma is a heterogeneous disease, but in most primary and secondary care settings only one facet, variable airflow obstruction, is addressed. The two other main aspects of asthma, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, remain under-utilized in both diagnosis and treatment of asthma. Treatment algorithms based on airway hyperresponsiveness have been successfully used to reduce asthma exacerbations but at the expense of more corticosteroid use. Using a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation has also been shown to reduce exacerbations compared with a control group following current guidelines, but with similar steroid dose between both groups and with comparative symptom and quality of life measures. There are various non-invasive markers of airway inflammation (as opposed to bronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage). This article will concentrate on the use of the two most clinically important methods of assessing airway inflammation, namely induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide. It will evaluate the indications, practicalities and use for each method and discuss future areas for research. © 2006 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Pavord ID, Birring SS, Berry M, Green RH, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ. 2006. Multiple inflammatory hits and the pathogenesis of severe airway disease. Eur Respir J, 27 (5), pp. 884-888. | Show Abstract | Read more

Refractory or difficult-to-control asthma is associated with some clinical and pathological features normally associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), raising the possibility that there are similarities in their pathogenesis. It is suggested that the coexistence of two or more inflammatory stimuli to the airway (multiple hits) is a key factor leading to the development of more severe airway disease. Airway inflammation in response to chronic inflammatory conditions elsewhere may be a particularly important additional inflammatory stimulus. The "multiple hit" hypothesis for the origins of severe airway disease has important implications for treatment and prevention, since identification and removal of additional inflammatory stimuli may delay progression of the underlying airway disease.

Barnes NC, Qiu Y-S, Pavord ID, Parker D, Davis PA, Zhu J, Johnson M, Thomson NC, Jeffery PK, SCO30005 Study Group. 2006. Antiinflammatory effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate in chronic obstructive lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 173 (7), pp. 736-743. | Show Abstract | Read more

RATIONALE: No currently available treatment is reported to reduce the exaggerated airway wall inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that inhaled combined long-acting beta2-agonist (salmeterol) and corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate) will reduce inflammation. METHODS: Bronchial biopsies and induced sputum were taken from 140 current and former smokers (mean age, 64 yr) with moderate to severe disease, randomized in a 13-wk double-blind study to placebo (n = 73) or salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/500 microg (n = 67) twice daily. Biopsies were repeated at 12 wk and sputa at 8 and 13 wk. After adjustment for multiplicity, comparisons between active and placebo were made for median change from baseline in the numbers of biopsy CD8+ and CD68+ cells/mm2 and sputum neutrophils. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Combination therapy was associated with a reduction in biopsy CD8+ cells of -118 cells/mm2 (95% confidence interval [CI], -209 to -42; p = 0.02), a reduction of 36% over placebo (p = 0.001). CD68+ cells were unaffected by combination treatment. Sputum differential (but not total) neutrophils reduced progressively and, at Week 13, significantly with combination treatment (median treatment difference, 8.5%; 95% CI, 1.75%-15.25%; p = 0.04). The combination also significantly reduced biopsy CD45+ and CD4+ cells and cells expressing genes for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IFN-gamma and sputum total eosinophils (all p < or = 0.03). These antiinflammatory effects were accompanied by a 173-ml (95% CI, 104-242; p < 0.001) improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate has a broad spectrum of antiinflammatory effects in both current and former smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which may contribute to clinical efficacy.

Saha S, Siva R, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2006. COPD: an inhaled corticosteroid-resistant, oral corticosteroid-responsive condition. Eur Respir J, 27 (4), pp. 863-865. | Read more

Berry MA, Hargadon B, Shelley M, Parker D, Shaw DE, Green RH, Bradding P, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2006. Evidence of a role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in refractory asthma. N Engl J Med, 354 (7), pp. 697-708. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The development of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists has made it feasible to investigate the role of this cytokine in refractory asthma. METHODS: We measured markers of TNF-alpha activity on peripheral-blood monocytes in 10 patients with refractory asthma, 10 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, and 10 control subjects. We also investigated the effects of treatment with the soluble TNF-alpha receptor etanercept (25 mg twice weekly) in the patients with refractory asthma in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study. RESULTS: As compared with patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and controls, patients with refractory asthma had increased expression of membrane-bound TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha receptor 1, and TNF-alpha-converting enzyme by peripheral-blood monocytes. In the clinical trial, as compared with placebo, 10 weeks of treatment with etanercept was associated with a significant increase in the concentration of methacholine required to provoke a 20 percent decrease in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (mean difference in doubling concentration changes between etanercept and placebo, 3.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.07 to 7.0; P=0.05), an improvement in the asthma-related quality-of-life score (by 0.85 point; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.16 to 1.54 on a 7-point scale; P=0.02), and a 0.32-liter increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.08 to 0.55; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with refractory asthma have evidence of up-regulation of the TNF-alpha axis. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00276029.).

Gamble E, Qiu Y, Wang D, Zhu J, Vignola AM, Kroegel C, Morell F, Hansel TT, Pavord ID, Rabe KF et al. 2006. Variability of bronchial inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: implications for study design. Eur Respir J, 27 (2), pp. 293-299. | Show Abstract | Read more

There is variability in the distribution of inflammatory cells in bronchial tissue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Better strategies for biopsy sampling of the airway mucosa may improve the capacity to show a difference between study populations where variability in distribution exists. The current authors have examined sources of biological variability in the quantification of inflammatory cells in endobronchial biopsies using immunostained samples taken from 51 subjects with COPD, with a mean forced expiratory volume in one second of 1.71 L, 55% predicted. The distribution of variance contributed by different sources was similar for different inflammatory cell types. For CD8+ cells, a key inflammatory cell in COPD, the largest contribution to intra-subject variability (39%) was time (i.e. 10 weeks between biopsies of placebo-treated subjects), followed by airway generation (23%), biopsy (2.5%), zone (within section; 1.4%) and section (0.4%). Power calculations demonstrated that examining one section from one biopsy, from each of two airway generations, would require a sample size of 32 subjects per group to show a difference of one doubling or halving in CD8+ cells, compared with 47 subjects per group if only one airway generation was sampled. Therefore, biopsies from more than one airway generation should be examined in order to maximise statistical power to detect a difference between study groups.

Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2006. Idiopathic chronic cough and organ-specific autoimmune disease. Chest, 129 (1), pp. 213. | Read more

Morgan AJ, Guillen C, Symon FA, Huynh TT, Berry MA, Entwisle JJ, Briskin M, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 2005. Expression of CXCR6 and its ligand CXCL16 in the lung in health and disease. Clin Exp Allergy, 35 (12), pp. 1572-1580. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Chemokine receptors (CR) play an important role in T cell migration, but their contribution to lung trafficking is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that if a particular CR was involved in T cell homing its expression would be enriched on lung T cells compared with peripheral blood T cells (PBT). METHODS: We have measured the CR expression on BAL T cells from patients with sarcoid, other interstitial lung diseases (ILD), asthma and healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Of 14 CR studied in sarcoid, CXCR6 expression was the most markedly increased in the lung compared with the blood, a finding that was also seen in ILD patients. A striking although lesser increase was also seen in asthmatics and healthy controls. Analysis of expression of the CXCR6 ligand, CXCL16, by immunohistochemistry suggested that alveolar macrophages (AM) were the major source of CXCL16 in the lung. AM expressed mRNA for CXCL16 and released nanogram quantities after adhesion to plastic as shown by RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from all subjects contained large amounts of CXCL16. The full-length CXCL16 was the predominant isoform in AM lysates, supernatants and BAL. CONCLUSION: This data suggests that CXCR6 and CXCL16 may play a role in T cell recruitment to the lung.

Wardlaw AJ, Silverman M, Siva R, Pavord ID, Green R. 2005. Multi-dimensional phenotyping: towards a new taxonomy for airway disease. Clin Exp Allergy, 35 (10), pp. 1254-1262. | Show Abstract | Read more

All the real knowledge which we possess, depends on methods by which we distinguish the similar from the dissimilar. The greater the number of natural distinctions this method comprehends the clearer becomes our idea of things. The more numerous the objects which employ our attention the more difficult it becomes to form such a method and the more necessary. Classification is a fundamental part of medicine. Diseases are often categorized according to pre-20th century descriptions and concepts of disease based on symptoms, signs and functional abnormalities rather than on underlying pathogenesis. Where the aetiology of disease has been revealed (for example in the infectious diseases) a more precise classification has become possible, but in the chronic inflammatory diseases, and in the inflammatory airway diseases in particular, where pathogenesis has been stubbornly difficult to elucidate, we still use broad descriptive terms such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which defy precise definition because they encompass a wide spectrum of presentations and physiological and cellular abnormalities. It is our contention that these broad-brush terms have outlived their usefulness and that we should be looking to create a new taxonomy of airway disease-a taxonomy that more closely reflects the spectrum of phenotypes that are encompassed within the term airway inflammatory diseases, and that gives full recognition to late 20th and 21st century insights into the disordered physiology and cell biology that characterizes these conditions in the expectation that these will map more closely to both aetiology and response to treatment. Development of this taxonomy will require a much more complete and sophisticated correlation of the many variables that make up a condition than has been usual to employ in an approach that encompasses multi-dimensional phenotyping and uses complex statistical tools such as cluster analysis.

Pearson P, Britton J, McKeever T, Lewis SA, Weiss S, Pavord I, Fogarty A. 2005. Lung function and blood levels of copper, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin E in the general population. Eur J Clin Nutr, 59 (9), pp. 1043-1048. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Increased dietary intake of antioxidants has been associated with higher lung function, but few studies have used biological markers of antioxidant intake. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if antioxidant status, as measured by blood levels, influences lung function. DESIGN: Using a random subsample of 479 participants, aged 18-65 y old, from a larger cross-sectional observational study, the association of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) with plasma copper, vitamin C, vitamin E and serum selenium was assessed. RESULTS: An s.d. increase in blood copper level was associated with a difference in FEV1 of -48 ml (95% confidence intervals: -95, -2 ml, P = 0.04), vitamin C +49 ml (+4, +94, P = 0.03), vitamin E -15 ml (-62, +32, P = 0.53) and selenium +52 ml (+7, +96, P = 0.02). The sizes of association were not appreciably altered in a mutually adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of serum vitamin C and selenium appear to be associated with higher FEV1. The association between higher serum copper and lower FEV1 requires further study in view of the ubiquitous exposure to this mineral.

Morgan AJ, Symon FA, Berry MA, Pavord ID, Corrigan CJ, Wardlaw AJ. 2005. IL-4-expressing bronchoalveolar T cells from asthmatic and healthy subjects preferentially express CCR 3 and CCR 4. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 116 (3), pp. 594-600. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The concept of the polarization of chemokine receptor expression by T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells provides an attractive mechanism for their differential recruitment to tissue, which could be subject to disease-specific therapeutic intervention. The paradigm that T(H)1 cells preferentially express CXCR 3 and CCR 5 and T(H)2 cells preferentially express CCR 3, CCR 4, and CCR 8 has been well established in the setting of in vitro polarized cell lines; however, the situation in vivo appears less clear-cut. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether this pattern of polarization can be demonstrated in human lung tissue. METHODS: We used single-cell analysis to investigate the relationship between chemokine receptor expression and cytokine production on peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid T cells in patients with asthma, a putative T(H)2 disease, as well as in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: We have found in both asthmatic and control subjects that IL-4-expressing blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid T cells are significantly more likely to express the T(H)2 type 2 chemokine receptors CCR 3 and CCR 4, with 10-fold and 2-fold differences in expression, respectively, compared with IFN-gamma-expressing cells. CONCLUSION: We have provided evidence that polarization of T(H)2-type chemokine receptors on IL-4-expressing cells can be demonstrated in an in vivo setting and therefore that these cells might indeed be susceptible to differential patterns of recruitment as a result of expression of the relevant chemokines at inflammatory sites.

Berry MA, Shaw DE, Green RH, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2005. The use of exhaled nitric oxide concentration to identify eosinophilic airway inflammation: an observational study in adults with asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 35 (9), pp. 1175-1179. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Assessment of eosinophilic airway inflammation may be helpful in the management of asthma. Nitric oxide (NO) has potential advantages as a tool to monitor airway inflammation although little is known about the relationship between NO and eosinophilic airway inflammation and the factors which influence it. METHODS: We set out to define the relationship between exhaled NO and the sputum eosinophil count, identify the exhaled NO concentration that best identified a sputum eosinophil count >3% and investigate the impact of several potential confounding factors in 566 consecutive patients with varying severity of asthma. Finally we examined the ability of exhaled NO concentrations measured at differing exhalation flows to identify the presence of a sputum eosinophilia. RESULTS: We found a significant positive relationship between exhaled NO and sputum eosinophil count (R(2)=0.26, P<0.001) which was best described using a non-linear model. There were no clinically important confounding factors to this model. In non-smokers an exhaled NO concentration of >8.3 p.p.b. at 250 mL/s gave 71% sensitivity and 72% specificity for identifying a sputum eosinophil count of >3%. CONCLUSIONS: This value of exhaled NO would seem to be the best for identifying significant eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is applicable to a wide range of non-smoking patients with asthma; exhalation flow does not alter the ability of exhaled NO concentration to detect a sputum eosinophilia.

Kamath AV, Pavord ID, Ruparelia PR, Chilvers ER. 2005. Is the neutrophil the key effector cell in severe asthma? Thorax, 60 (7), pp. 529-530. | Read more

Berry M, Hargadon B, Morgan A, Shelley M, Richter J, Shaw D, Green RH, Brightling C, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2005. Alveolar nitric oxide in adults with asthma: evidence of distal lung inflammation in refractory asthma. Eur Respir J, 25 (6), pp. 986-991. | Show Abstract | Read more

Recent studies have suggested that alveolar nitric oxide (NO) concentration is a noninvasive test of distal lung inflammation. The current study determined whether alveolar NO concentration can be measured in patients with asthma of varying severity, tested the hypothesis that there is an association between alveolar NO and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophil count and determined whether refractory asthma is characterised by a raised alveolar NO concentration. Finally, the present authors assessed the effect of 2 weeks of prednisolone (30 mg q.d.) on alveolar NO concentration. Alveolar NO concentration was both measurable and repeatable in patients with refractory asthma. A positive correlation was found between alveolar NO concentration and BAL eosinophil count but not with bronchial wash or sputum eosinophil count. Alveolar NO concentration was increased in patients with refractory asthma (7.1 ppb) compared with mild-to-moderate asthma (3.4 ppb) and normal controls (3.4 ppb) and reduced by treatment with prednisolone. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that alveolar nitric oxide is a measure of distal airway inflammation and suggest that distal lung inflammation is present in refractory asthma.

Berry MA, Hargadon B, McKenna S, Shaw D, Green RH, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2005. Observational study of the natural history of eosinophilic bronchitis. Clin Exp Allergy, 35 (5), pp. 598-601. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is associated with a short-term improvement in cough and reduced sputum eosinophil count but the long-term outcome is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with and treated for eosinophilic bronchitis. METHODS: We have performed a longitudinal study of symptoms, eosinophilic airway inflammation, spirometry and airway hyper-responsiveness in all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic bronchitis over 7 years. RESULTS: We identified 52 patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and longitudinal data of greater than 1 year (mean 3.1 years) was available in 32 patients, all of whom were treated with inhaled steroids. Three (9%) patients developed symptoms consistent with asthma and a methacholine PC20<8 mg/mL on one or more occasion. Five (16%) patients developed fixed airflow obstruction defined by a persistent post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity<70%. One (3%) patient had complete resolution of symptoms and eosinophilic airway inflammation off treatment. The remaining patients had ongoing eosinophilic airway inflammation and/or continuing symptoms. Multiple linear regression identified smoking, female gender and area under the curve of sputum eosinophil count over time as the most important predictors of decline in FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: The most common outcome in eosinophilic bronchitis is continuing disease and complete resolution is rare. Asthma and fixed airflow obstruction developed in relatively few patients. The most important factors associated with a more rapid decline in FEV1 were female gender, smoking and prolonged eosinophilic airway inflammation.

Fabbri L, Peters SP, Pavord I, Wenzel SE, Lazarus SC, Macnee W, Lemaire F, Abraham E. 2005. Allergic rhinitis, asthma, airway biology, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in AJRCCM in 2004. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 171 (7), pp. 686-698. | Read more

Brightling CE, McKenna S, Hargadon B, Birring S, Green R, Siva R, Berry M, Parker D, Monteiro W, Pavord ID, Bradding P. 2005. Sputum eosinophilia and the short term response to inhaled mometasone in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax, 60 (3), pp. 193-198. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: An association between the sputum eosinophil count and the response to a 2 week course of prednisolone has previously been reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether the response to inhaled corticosteroids is related to the presence of eosinophilic inflammation is unclear. METHODS: A randomised, double blind, crossover trial of placebo and mometasone furoate (800 microg/day), each given for 6 weeks with a 4 week washout period, was performed in subjects with COPD treated with bronchodilator therapy only. Spirometric tests, symptom scores, chronic respiratory disease questionnaire (CRQ), and induced sputum were performed before and after each treatment phase. RESULTS: Ninety five patients were recruited of which 60 were randomised. Overall there were no treatment associated changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), total CRQ, or sputum characteristics. After stratification into tertiles by baseline eosinophil count, the net improvement in post-bronchodilator FEV(1) increased with mometasone compared with placebo progressively from the least to the most eosinophilic tertile. The mean change in post-bronchodilator FEV(1) with mometasone compared with placebo in the highest tertile was 0.11 l (95% CI 0.03 to 0.19). This improvement was not associated with a fall in the sputum eosinophil count. CONCLUSIONS: An increased sputum eosinophil count is related to an improvement in post-bronchodilator FEV(1) following treatment with inhaled mometasone in COPD, but the improvement is not associated with a reduction in the sputum eosinophil count.

Birring SS, Patel RB, Parker D, McKenna S, Hargadon B, Monteiro WR, Falconer Smith JF, Pavord ID. 2005. Airway function and markers of airway inflammation in patients with treated hypothyroidism. Thorax, 60 (3), pp. 249-253. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of an association between organ specific autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune thyroid disease and respiratory morbidity. A study was undertaken to determine whether patients with autoimmune thyroid disease have objective evidence of airway inflammation and dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty six non-smoking women with treated hypothyroidism and 19 non-smoking controls completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent full lung function tests, capsaicin cough reflex sensitivity measurement, methacholine challenge test, and sputum induction over two visits. RESULTS: Symptoms of cough (p = 0.01), dyspnoea (p = 0.01), sputum production (p = 0.004), and wheeze (p = 0.04) were reported more commonly in patients than controls. Patients with hypothyroidism had heightened cough reflex sensitivity compared with controls (geometric mean concentration of capsaicin causing five coughs: 40 v 108 mmol/l; mean difference 1.4 doubling doses; 95% confidence interval of difference 0.4 to 2.5; p = 0.008) and a significantly higher proportion of patients had airway hyperresponsiveness (methacholine provocative concentration (PC(20)) <8 mg/ml: 38% v 0%; p = 0.016). Patients with hypothyroidism also had a significantly higher induced sputum total neutrophil cell count (p = 0.01), total lymphocyte count (p = 0.02), and sputum supernatant interleukin-8 concentrations (p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Patients with treated hypothyroidism report more respiratory symptoms and have objective evidence of airway dysfunction and inflammation.

Pavord ID. 2005. Chronic cough: a rational approach to investigation and management. Eur Respir J, 25 (2), pp. 213-215. | Read more

Prudon B, Birring SS, Vara DD, Hall AP, Thompson JP, Pavord ID. 2005. Cough and glottic-stop reflex sensitivity in health and disease. Chest, 127 (2), pp. 550-557. | Show Abstract | Read more

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the normal ranges and repeatability of cough reflex sensitivity measurements, or the relationship of cough reflex sensitivity to other upper airway reflexes in subjects with chronic dry cough. We set out to define the normal range of cough reflex sensitivity and its repeatability in health and disease, and to assess its relationship to the glottic-stop reflex. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We measured capsaicin cough reflex sensitivity in 134 healthy subjects and 88 patients with respiratory disease, and assessed the repeatability over 2 weeks in a subgroup of individuals (healthy subjects, 15; chronic cough patients, 15). In another subgroup (healthy patients, 16; chronic cough patients, 14), we measured the sensitivity of the glottic-stop reflex (using inhaled ammonia). RESULTS: Capsaicin cough sensitivity varied widely in the population of healthy subjects, and there was considerable overlap of cough reflex sensitivity between healthy control subjects and patients with cough. The intraclass correlation coefficients for repeatability of cough sensitivity (concentration of capsaicin that causes two coughs, and concentration of capsaicin that causes five coughs) were 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. Patients with chronic cough had a significantly more sensitive glottic-stop reflex than healthy subjects (glottic-stop sensitivity threshold, 483 ppm vs 1,029 ppm, respectively; p = 0.01), and there was a significant positive correlation between glottic-stop and cough reflex sensitivity (r = 0.5; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We have shown a wide variation of cough reflex sensitivity in healthy subjects, although the measurement does have good 2-week repeatability. There was a reasonably close relationship between cough sensitivity and glottic-stop reflex sensitivity, indicating either that the cough reflex and the glottic-stop reflex share a common pathway or that subjects who have a chronic cough have a global abnormality of upper airway reflexes.

Birring SS, Parker D, McKenna S, Hargadon B, Brightling CE, Pavord ID, Bradding P. 2005. Sputum eosinophilia in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Inflamm Res, 54 (2), pp. 51-56. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Cough is a common symptom in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis that is difficult to treat and has a major impact on quality of life. We tested the hypothesis that the cough and increased cough reflex sensitivity seen in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be due to airway inflammation in a prospective, cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We measured the induced sputum inflammatory cell profile and cell-free supernatant inflammatory mediator concentrations in 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 17 healthy controls and 15 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. RESULTS: Both the geometric mean sputum differential eosinophil cell count and median eosinophilic-cationic-protein concentration were significantly higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than controls (2.1% vs 0.3%; p <0.001 and 1.1 mg/ml versus 0.2 mg/ml; p=0.03 respectively). There were no significant differences in sputum eosinophil counts and eosinophilic-cationic-protein concentrations between patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sputum leukotriene-B4 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (p=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.008) compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterised by the presence of active eosinophilic airway inflammation raising the possibility that airway inflammation may contribute to symptoms such as cough.

Bhandari M, Maskell TW, Pavord ID, Hubner PJ. 2005. Early amiodarone pulmonary toxicity simulating heart failure British Journal of Cardiology, 12 (1), pp. 61-63. | Show Abstract

We report a case of very early onset of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, which appeared 12 days after starting treatment.

Brightling CE, Green RH, Pavord ID. 2005. Biomarkers predicting response to corticosteroid therapy in asthma. Treat Respir Med, 4 (5), pp. 309-316. | Show Abstract | Read more

International guidelines on the management of asthma support the early introduction of corticosteroids to control symptoms and to improve lung function by reducing airway inflammation. However, not all individuals respond to corticosteroids to the same extent and it would be an advantage to be able to predict the response to corticosteroid treatment. Several biomarkers have been assessed following treatment with corticosteroids including measures of lung function, peripheral blood and sputum indices of inflammation, exhaled gases and breath condensates. The most widely examined measures in predicting a response to corticosteroids are airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and induced sputum. Of these, sputum eosinophilia has been demonstrated to be the best predictor of a short-term response to corticosteroids. More importantly, directing treatment at normalizing the sputum eosinophil count can substantially reduce severe exacerbations. The widespread utilization of sputum induction is hampered because the procedure is relatively labor intensive. The measurement of eNO is simpler, but incorporating the assessment of NO in an asthma management strategy has not led to a reduction in exacerbation rates. The challenge now is to either simplify the measurement of a sputum eosinophilia or to identify another inflammatory marker with a similar efficacy as the sputum eosinophil count in predicting both the short- and long-term responses to corticosteroids.

Wardlaw AJ, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2004. Mast cell localization within the airway smooth muscle: relationship to airway hyperresponsiveness and other asthma phenotypes Clinical <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&amp;"/> Experimental Allergy Reviews, 4 (s2), pp. 111-117. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is a condition characterized by variable airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation which is usually, but not invariably, eosinophilic. Current thoughts on the pathogenesis of asthma are focused on the idea that it is caused by an inappropriate response of the specific immune system to harmless antigens, particularly allergens such as cat dander and house dust mite, that result in Th2-mediated chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between inflammation and asthma is complex with no good correlation between the severity of inflammation, at least as measured by the number of eosinophils, and the severity of asthma. In addition there are a number of conditions such as eosinophilic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis in which there is a Th2-mediated inflammatory response, but no asthma as measured by variable airflow obstruction or AHR. When we compared the immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma the only difference we observed was that in asthma the airway smooth muscle (ASM) was infiltrated by mast cells, suggesting that the airways obstruction and AHR was due to an ASM mast cell myositis. This observation emphasizes that the features that characterize asthma, as opposed to bronchitis, are due to abnormalities in smooth muscle responsiveness which could be intrinsic or acquired and that inflammation is only relevant in that it leads to those abnormalities. It also emphasizes the importance of microlocalization as an organizing principle in physiological responses to airway inflammation. The factors controlling the compartmentalization of leucocyte subsets within the bronchial mucosa are therefore of paramount importance and are discussed.

Thomas RA, Green RH, Brightling CE, Birring SS, Parker D, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2004. The influence of age on induced sputum differential cell counts in normal subjects. Chest, 126 (6), pp. 1811-1814. | Show Abstract | Read more

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sputum induction is increasingly used as a research technique and as a clinical tool. In order to evaluate abnormal results, normal ranges need to be fully developed. Although a number of studies have described normal ranges, none have investigated the effect of the age of the subject on these results. This study was undertaken to assess whether there are age-related differences in sputum cell differential cell counts in a population of normal, healthy volunteers. STUDY DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Induced sputum samples were obtained from 66 healthy, nonsmoking subjects (24 men) with a mean age of 44 years (age range, 18 to 74 years). Differential cell counts were related to age. RESULTS: Sputum neutrophil counts were found to correlate significantly with the age of the volunteers (r = 0.58; p < 0.001). Macrophage counts showed a proportionate, inverse correlation with increasing age (p < 0.01), but no correlation was seen for any other cell type. On subanalysis according to age range, the mean neutrophil differential increased from 26.9% (SD, 19.8%) [17 patients] in the group of patients who were 0 to 29 years of age to 68.5% (SD, 20.6%) [11 patients] in the group of patients who were > 60 years of age. CONCLUSION: In our healthy volunteer population, the induced sputum differential neutrophil count increased significantly with age. These findings highlight the need for age matching in controlled studies.

Berry MA, Parker D, Neale N, Woodman L, Morgan A, Monk P, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID, Brightling CE. 2004. Sputum and bronchial submucosal IL-13 expression in asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 114 (5), pp. 1106-1109. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis is a condition characterized by the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthma, the T H 2-type cytokine IL-13 has been implicated in the development of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Whether the expression of IL-13 is different between these 2 conditions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether IL-13 expression is increased in asthma compared with eosinophilic bronchitis. METHODS: Sputum samples from subjects with mild asthma (n = 30) and eosinophilic bronchitis (n = 15) and normal controls (n = 16) were dialyzed, and IL-13 concentration was measured by ELISA. In a subgroup of these patients, IL-13 protein expression in bronchial biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The concentration of sputum IL-13 was higher in patients with mild asthma than in normal controls ( P = .03) and in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis ( P = .03). The median (interquartile range) number of IL-13 + cells/mm 2 submucosa was significantly higher in asthma 4 (8) than eosinophilic bronchitis 1.7 (1.9) and normal controls 0.5 (1.1; P = .004). Eighty-three percent of the cells expressing IL-13 in the submucosa were eosinophils, and 8% were mast cells. The median (interquartile range) proportion of eosinophils that expressed IL-13 was higher in the subjects with asthma, 16 (10)%, than those with eosinophilic bronchitis, 7 (3)% ( P = .02). CONCLUSION: The increased expression of IL-13 in asthma compared with eosinophilic bronchitis supports the concept that IL-13 may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of asthma.

Thomas AJ, Apiyasawat S, Spodick D. 2004. Electrocardiography in the Detection of Emphysema Chest, 126 (4), pp. 921S-921S. | Read more

Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2004. Location, location, location: microlocalisation of inflammatory cells and airway dysfunction. Thorax, 59 (9), pp. 734-735. | Read more

Birring SS, Pavord ID. 2004. Chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Thorax, 59 (7), pp. 633.

Birring SS, Murphy AC, Scullion JE, Brightling CE, Browning M, Pavord ID. 2004. Idiopathic chronic cough and organ-specific autoimmune diseases: a case-control study. Respir Med, 98 (3), pp. 242-246. | Show Abstract | Read more

The marked female predominance in cases of idiopathic chronic cough and its association with mild chronic lymphocytic airway inflammation suggests an underlying autoimmune process. We set out to test the hypothesis that idiopathic chronic cough is associated with other organ-specific autoimmune diseases in a case control study. Twenty-two patients with idiopathic chronic cough and 65 community-matched controls for age and sex who responded to a self-administered questionnaire were asked about the presence of autoimmune disease, other medical problems and drug history. All subjects were invited to have a blood test for an autoimmune screen. Thirteen out of 22 (59%) patients with idiopathic chronic cough and eight out of 65 (12%) age- and sex-matched controls reported organ-specific autoimmune disease (odds ratio 8.8; 95% confidence interval 2.4-31.8, P<0.001). Organ-specific autoantibodies were present in a significantly higher proportion of cases than controls (40% vs. 13%; P = 0.047). These findings suggest a relationship between idiopathic chronic cough and organ-specific autoimmunity.

Pavord ID, Siva R, Brightling CE. 2004. Prednisolone response in patients with COPD. Thorax, 59 (2), pp. 179. | Read more

Birring SS, Passant C, Patel RB, Prudon B, Murty GE, Pavord ID. 2004. Chronic tonsillar enlargement and cough: preliminary evidence of a novel and treatable cause of chronic cough. Eur Respir J, 23 (2), pp. 199-201. | Show Abstract | Read more

Tonsillar enlargement is sometimes seen in patients with otherwise unexplained chronic cough although its significance is unclear. In this study, the authors set out to test the hypothesis that cough symptoms and cough reflex sensitivity will improve after tonsillectomy in patients with otherwise unexplained chronic cough and enlarged tonsils. Eight consecutive patients with unexplained chronic cough and enlarged tonsils were recruited from 236 patients seen in a cough clinic between 2000 and 2001. Six patients with enlarged tonsils and no cough who were undergoing tonsillectomy for other reasons were recruited as a control group. All patients rated cough severity on a cough visual analogue score (0-100 mm) and had capsaicin cough reflex sensitivity measurement twice before and again 3 months after tonsillectomy. Patients with a chronic cough had heightened cough reflex sensitivity compared with the control group at baseline. There was a significant improvement in mean cough visual analogue score 3 months after tonsillectomy in patients with chronic cough (mean difference 30 mm; 95% confidence interval of difference 8-51 mm). The geometric mean concentration of capsaicin required to cause five coughs increased from 4 to 207 micromol L(-1) after tonsillectomy in patients with chronic cough (mean difference from baseline 5.6 doubling concentrations; 95% confidence interval of difference 3.1-8.2). There was no change in cough reflex sensitivity in control patients after tonsillectomy. These preliminary findings suggest for the first time a possible role for tonsillectomy in patients with enlarged tonsils in whom other causes of cough have been ruled out.

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Birring SS, Parker D, Brightling CE, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2004. Induced sputum inflammatory mediator concentrations in chronic cough AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 169 (1), pp. 15-19. | Read more

Brightling CE, Pavord ID, Flood-Page PT, Menzies-Gow AN, Kay AB, Robinson DS. 2004. Eosinophils in Asthma and Airway Hyperresponsiveness [3] (multiple letters) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 169 (1), pp. 131-133.

Pavord ID. 2004. Cough and asthma. Pulm Pharmacol Ther, 17 (6), pp. 399-402. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cough variant asthma and the closely related corticosteroid responsive cough syndromes eosinophilic bronchitis and atopic cough are common causes of chronic cough. The diagnosis is often not overt but detailed investigation of airway responsiveness and airway inflammation can be helpful. Cough variant asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis and atopic cough are all associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, which is similar to that seen in non-cough predominant asthma. However, evidence of activated mast cells and increased concentrations of mast cell products appears to be confined to the conditions associated with cough, suggesting a role for mast cell degranulation in the superficial airway structures in the pathogenesis of cough. Cough variant asthma is typically corticosteroid responsive; leukotriene antagonists and antihistamines also help. Further study of this interesting asthma variant may increase our understanding of the relationship between airway inflammation and airway dysfunction.

Birring SS, Parker D, Brightling CE, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2004. Induced sputum inflammatory mediator concentrations in chronic cough. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 169 (1), pp. 15-19. | Show Abstract | Read more

Previous studies have shown evidence of airway inflammation in patients with chronic cough and have suggested that the cough may be due to release of tussive mediators and activation of afferent sensory nerve endings. We measured the concentration of various proinflammatory and tussive mediators in induced sputum supernatants from 20 patients with cough variant asthma or eosinophilic bronchitis, 20 patients with nonasthmatic chronic cough, 22 patients with idiopathic chronic cough, and 18 healthy control subjects. We measured histamine, cysteinyl-leukotrienes, prostanoids (prostaglandin D2 and prostaglandin E2), and interleukin-8 by enzyme immunoassay. The median sputum histamine concentrations were significantly higher in patients with idiopathic chronic cough (8.0 ng/ml) and cough variant asthma/eosinophilic bronchitis (10.2 ng/ml) than in normal subjects (2.6 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval of difference from idiopathic chronic cough, 0.8 to 25.8 [p = 0.009] and 95% confidence interval of difference from cough variant asthma/eosinophilic bronchitis, 1.1 to 20.1 [p = 0.01]). Median sputum prostaglandin D2 and prostaglandin E2 concentrations were significantly higher in all categories of chronic cough. Our findings support the view that there is release of inflammatory and tussive mediators in patients with chronic cough and suggest that there might be similarities in the mechanism of cough in a diverse range of conditions.

Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2004. Eosinophils in asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 169 (1), pp. 131-132. | Read more

Birring SS, Brightling CE, Symon FA, Barlow SG, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2003. Idiopathic chronic cough: association with organ specific autoimmune disease and bronchoalveolar lymphocytosis. Thorax, 58 (12), pp. 1066-1070. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported a strong association between organ specific autoimmune disease and idiopathic chronic cough and have suggested that cough may be caused by airway inflammation secondary to aberrant homing of activated lymphocytes to the lung. An immunopathological study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that idiopathic chronic cough is associated with lymphocytic airway inflammation. METHODS: Bronchoscopy, bronchial biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and peripheral blood and BAL flow cytometry were performed in 19 patients with idiopathic chronic cough, 14 with explained chronic cough, and 11 normal subjects. RESULTS: Organ specific autoimmune disease or positive autoantibodies were present in eight of the 19 patients with idiopathic cough, in one of the 14 patients with explained cough, and in one of the 11 normal subjects. Median BAL fluid differential lymphyocyte counts were significantly higher in patients with idiopathic cough (10.0%) than in normal subjects (6.3%, 95% confidence interval of difference 1.5 to 11.9, p = 0.01) or patients with explained cough (5.2%, 95% CI of difference 2.0 to 10.4, p = 0.001). There were no differences in bronchial biopsy T lymphocyte counts between the groups. The mean (SE) proportion of CD3+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing CD4 was significantly higher in normal subjects than in patients with idiopathic cough (69 (3)% v 58 (3)%, mean difference 11%, 95% CI of difference 2 to 20, p<0.02) but not than those with explained chronic cough (63 (2)%). There were no differences in BAL T lymphocyte phenotype between groups. CONCLUSION: BAL fluid lymphocytosis occurs in some patients with idiopathic chronic cough. The association of idiopathic chronic cough with organ specific autoimmune disease raises the possibility that this might be caused by lymphocyte homing from the primary site of autoimmune inflammation or the result of an autoimmune process in the lung.

Brightling CE, Symon FA, Holgate ST, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID, Bradding P. 2003. Interleukin-4 and -13 expression is co-localized to mast cells within the airway smooth muscle in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 33 (12), pp. 1711-1716. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Airway smooth muscle infiltration by mast cells is a feature of asthma and not eosinophilic bronchitis. In asthma, Th2 cytokines have been implicated as playing a critical role in the development of airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness. Whether inflammatory cells within the airway smooth muscle release these cytokines is unknown. METHODS: We have undertaken a comparative immunohistochemical study in bronchial biopsies from 14 subjects with asthma, 10 with eosinophilic bronchitis and eight normal controls recruited from two centres. RESULTS: The median number of IL-4+ cells/mm2 smooth muscle was significantly higher in subjects with asthma than eosinophilic bronchitis and normal controls for both the anti-IL-4 mAb 3H4 (2.4, 0, 0, respectively; P=0.001) and anti-IL-4 mAb 4D9 (1.6, 0, 0, respectively; P=0.02). There were no group differences in the number of IL-5+ cells (P=0.31). In six subjects with asthma, IL-13 expression by cells within the airway smooth muscle was studied. The median (range) of IL-13+cells was 2 (0.9-2.7). Ninety-four percent of the cells expressing IL-4 (3H4), 92% of those expressing IL-4 (4D9) and 100% expressing IL-13 in the airway smooth muscle were mast cells. Fifty-five percent of the mast cells within the airway smooth muscle co-localized to IL-4 (3H4), 29% to IL-4 (4D9) and 17% to IL-13. CONCLUSIONS: In asthma, IL-4+ and IL-13+ cells were present within the airway smooth muscle and were expressed predominantly by mast cells, suggesting that IL-4 and IL-13 may play an important role in mast cell-airway smooth muscle interactions.

Pavord ID. 2003. New approach for treating asthma (p. 1715) BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY, 57 (9), pp. 437-438.

Pavord ID, Birring SS, Kanazawa H. 2003. COPD and Hepatitis C [4] (multiple letters) Chest, 124 (5), pp. 2035-2036. | Read more

Berry MA, Birring SS, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2003. Cough and asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 33 (11), pp. 1481-1483. | Read more

Pavord ID, Birring SS. 2003. COPD and hepatitis C. Chest, 124 (5), pp. 2035-2036. | Read more

Gamble E, Grootendorst DC, Brightling CE, Troy S, Qiu Y, Zhu J, Parker D, Matin D, Majumdar S, Vignola AM et al. 2003. Antiinflammatory effects of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor cilomilast (Ariflo) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 168 (8), pp. 976-982. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cilomilast (Ariflo), a new oral phosphodiesterase-4 selective inhibitor, improves lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have evaluated its antiinflammatory effects in 59 patients with COPD randomized to receive cilomilast, 15 mg two times a day, or placebo for 12 weeks. Induced sputum differential cell counts were obtained at baseline and at five further visits. Interleukin-8 and neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatant. Bronchial biopsies obtained at baseline and at Week 10 were immunostained and counted for neutrophils, CD8+ and CD4+ T-lymphocyte subsets, and CD68+ macrophages. Cells expressing the genes for interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were identified by in situ hybridization and quantified. Compared with placebo, analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the change from baseline showed that cilomilast did not alter any sputum endpoint or FEV1. However, bronchial biopsies demonstrated that cilomilast treatment was associated with reductions in CD8+ (p = 0.001; ANOVA) and CD68+ cells (p < 0.05; ANOVA). In addition, by Poisson analysis, comparison of cell counts analyzed as a ratio of active to placebo demonstrated reductions of CD8+ (48% p < 0.01) and CD68+ (47% p = 0.001) cells. This is the first demonstration of reduction by any agent of airway tissue inflammatory cells characteristic of COPD. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors represent a promising new class of substances for use in antiinflammatory treatment of this disease.

Siva R, Berry M, Pavord ID. 2003. Recent insights into the relationship between airway inflammation and asthma. Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace / Fondazione clinica del lavoro, IRCCS [and] Istituto di clinica tisiologica e malattie apparato respiratorio, Universita di Napoli, Secondo ateneo, 59 (4), pp. 296-299. | Show Abstract

There have been important recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway dysfunction. Observational studies have shown that eosinophilic airway inflammation is not always present in asthma nor is it an exclusive feature of asthma. Its presence seems to be more closely linked to the presence of corticosteroid responsive airways disease and the occurrence of severe exacerbations than the presence of symptoms or the extent of airway dysfunction--indeed recent evidence suggests that in asthma these features may be more closely linked to the site of localisation of mast cells in the airway wall. One implication of this new understanding of the significance of eosinophilic airway inflammation is that it predicts that measuring airway inflammation might provide information that it is not readily available from a more traditional clinical assessment, and that patients might do better if this information is available. Recent studies support this view, showing a marked reduction in asthma exacerbation in patients with moderate to severe disease who are managed with reference to markers of airway inflammation as well as symptoms and simple tests of airway function. The development of new agents that have the potential to modulate specific aspects of airway inflammation, together with refinements in non-invasive techniques to assess the efficacy of these agents offers the prospect of further refining our understanding of the role of this aspect of the inflammatory response in asthma and other airway diseases.

Siva R, Berry M, Pavord ID. 2003. Recent insights into the relationship between airway inflammation and asthma. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis, 59 (4), pp. 296-299. | Show Abstract

There have been important recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway dysfunction. Observational studies have shown that eosinophilic airway inflammation is not always present in asthma nor is it an exclusive feature of asthma. Its presence seems to be more closely linked to the presence of corticosteroid responsive airways disease and the occurrence of severe exacerbations than the presence of symptoms or the extent of airway dysfunction--indeed recent evidence suggests that in asthma these features may be more closely linked to the site of localisation of mast cells in the airway wall. One implication of this new understanding of the significance of eosinophilic airway inflammation is that it predicts that measuring airway inflammation might provide information that it is not readily available from a more traditional clinical assessment, and that patients might do better if this information is available. Recent studies support this view, showing a marked reduction in asthma exacerbation in patients with moderate to severe disease who are managed with reference to markers of airway inflammation as well as symptoms and simple tests of airway function. The development of new agents that have the potential to modulate specific aspects of airway inflammation, together with refinements in non-invasive techniques to assess the efficacy of these agents offers the prospect of further refining our understanding of the role of this aspect of the inflammatory response in asthma and other airway diseases.

Brightling CE, Symon FA, Birring SS, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2003. Comparison of airway immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma. Thorax, 58 (6), pp. 528-532. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a condition characterised by a corticosteroid responsive cough, sputum eosinophilia, and normal tests of variable airflow obstruction and airway responsiveness. We performed a detailed comparative immunopathological study to test the hypothesis that the different airway function in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma reflects differences in the nature of the lower airway inflammatory response. METHODS: Exhaled nitric oxide was measured and induced sputum, bronchoscopy, bronchial wash (BW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and bronchial biopsy were performed in 16 subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, 15 with asthma, and 14 normal controls. RESULTS: Both eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma were characterised by an induced sputum, BW and BAL eosinophilia, an increased number of epithelial and subepithelial eosinophils, and increased reticular basement membrane thickness. The median concentration of exhaled nitric oxide was higher in those with eosinophilic bronchitis (12 ppb) or asthma (8.5 ppb) than normal controls (2 ppb) (95% CI of the difference 5 to 16, p<0.0001 and 2 to 11.3, p=0.004, respectively). There were no group differences in epithelial integrity or the number of subepithelial T lymphocytes, mast cells or macrophages. CONCLUSION: With the exception of our previously reported association of smooth muscle mast cell infiltration with asthma, the immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma are similar which suggests that eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased exhaled nitric oxide, and increased basement membrane thickening are regulated independently of airway hyperresponsiveness.

Birring SS, Morgan AJ, Prudon B, McKeever TM, Lewis SA, Falconer Smith JF, Robinson RJ, Britton JR, Pavord ID. 2003. Respiratory symptoms in patients with treated hypothyroidism and inflammatory bowel disease. Thorax, 58 (6), pp. 533-536. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Patients with idiopathic chronic cough and unexplained airflow obstruction in non-smokers have been shown to have an increased prevalence of hypothyroidism and other organ specific autoimmune disorders. Whether patients with hypothyroidism have an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms is unknown. METHODS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was assessed in 124 patients with treated hypothyroidism recruited from primary and secondary care, 64 outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease, and 1346 control adults recruited randomly from the electoral register in a case-control study. Respiratory symptoms and smoking history were assessed by a respiratory symptom questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex and smoking, symptoms of breathlessness and sputum production were more prevalent in both patient populations than in controls (odds ratios for hypothyroidism and inflammatory bowel disease; breathlessness: 3.1 (95% CI 2.1 to 4.6) and 3.4 (95% CI 2.0 to 6.0), respectively; sputum production: 2.7 (95% CI 1.6 to 4.5) and 2.5 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.0), respectively). Cough during the day and night was significantly more prevalent in patients with hypothyroidism (1.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.9)) and approached significance in those with inflammatory bowel disease (1.8 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.4)). Wheeze and nocturnal cough were no more prevalent in either disease population than in controls. CONCLUSION: There is a significantly increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in patients with hypothyroidism or inflammatory bowel disease compared with controls recruited from the general population. Further work is required to determine whether similar differences are seen in comparison with hospital based controls. These findings support the hypothesis that there is a link between autoimmune hypothyroidism and respiratory disease.

Brightling CE, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 2003. New insights into the role of the mast cell in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 33 (5), pp. 550-556. | Read more

Green RH, Brightling CE, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 2003. Management of asthma in adults: current therapy and future directions. Postgrad Med J, 79 (931), pp. 259-267. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is increasing in prevalence worldwide and results in significant use of healthcare resources. Although most patients with asthma can be adequately treated with inhaled corticosteroids, an important number of patients require additional therapy and an increasing number of options are available. A further minority of patients develop severe persistent asthma which remains difficult to manage despite current pharmacological therapies. This review discusses the various treatment options currently available for each stage of asthma severity, highlights some of the limitations of current management, and outlines directions which may improve the management of asthma in the future.

Green RH, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2003. Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts - Reply LANCET, 361 (9365), pp. 1303-1303. | Read more

Currie GP, Lee DKC, Lipworth BJ. 2003. Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts. Lancet, 361 (9365), pp. 1302-1303. | Read more

Birring SS, Prudon B, Carr AJ, Singh SJ, Morgan MDL, Pavord ID. 2003. Development of a symptom specific health status measure for patients with chronic cough: Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Thorax, 58 (4), pp. 339-343. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is a common condition which has a significant impact on quality of life. Assessment and management are hampered by the absence of well validated outcome measures. The development and validation of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), a self-completed health related quality of life measure of chronic cough, is presented. METHODS: Patients with chronic cough were recruited from outpatient clinics. The development of the LCQ consisted of three phases: phase 1 (item generation); phase 2 (item reduction, allocation of items to domains and validation of questionnaire); phase 3 (repeatability and responsiveness testing of final version of questionnaire). RESULTS: Phase 1: Literature review, multidisciplinary team meeting and 15 structured interviews with chronic cough patients generated 44 items (LCQ1) with a 7 point Likert response scale. Phase 2: 104 chronic cough outpatients completed the LCQ1 along with an importance rating for each item. The clinical impact factor method was used for item reduction to 19 items (LCQ2: final version). These items were divided into three domains (physical, psychological and social) following expert opinion. Internal reliability, as assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients, varied between 0.79 and 0.89. Concurrent validity was high when the LCQ2 (n=56) was compared with a cough visual analogue score (r=-0.72). There was a moderate relationship with response to the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (r=-0.54) and SF36 total score (r=0.46). Phase 3: Two week repeatability (n=24) was high with intraclass correlation coefficients for domains varying between 0.88 and 0.96. Responsiveness in nine patients whose cough was successfully treated varied within domains from an effect size of 0.84 to 1.75. CONCLUSION: The LCQ is a valid, repeatable 19 item self-completed quality of life measure of chronic cough which is responsive to change. It should be a useful tool in clinical trials and longitudinal studies.

Birring SS, Berry M, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2003. Eosinophilic bronchitis: clinical features, management and pathogenesis. Am J Respir Med, 2 (2), pp. 169-173. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common and treatable cause of chronic cough. The major pathological feature is eosinophilic airway inflammation, similar to that seen in asthma. However, the associated airway dysfunction is quite different, with evidence of heightened cough reflex sensitivity, but no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Recent evidence suggests that the differences in functional association are related to differences in localization of mast cells in airway wall, with airway smooth muscle infiltration occurring in asthma and epithelial infiltration in eosinophilic bronchitis. Diagnosis is usually made with induced sputum analysis after exclusion of other causes for chronic cough on clinical, radiological and lung function assessment. The cough responds well to inhaled corticosteroids but dose and duration of treatment remain unclear. Little is known about the natural history of this condition. However, some patients with COPD without a history of previous asthma have sputum eosinophilia, so one possibility is that some cases of eosinophilic bronchitis may develop fixed airflow obstruction. Further study of this interesting condition will increase our understanding of airway inflammation and airway responsiveness, leading to novel targets for therapeutics for both eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma.

Pavord ID. 2002. Assessment of inflammation in COPD: Observed cell profiles and the effects of treatment European Respiratory Review, 12 (86-87), pp. 343-346.

Brightling CE, Symon FA, Birring SS, Bradding P, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 2002. TH2 cytokine expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid T lymphocytes and bronchial submucosa is a feature of asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 110 (6), pp. 899-905. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Asthma is characterized by variable airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness in association with airway inflammation under the influence of T(H)2 cytokines. Eosinophilic bronchitis has similar immunopathology to asthma but without disordered airway physiology. Whether eosinophilic bronchitis is associated with increased expression of T(H)2 cytokines is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the expression of T(H)2 cytokines in eosinophilic bronchitis. METHODS: Expression of activation markers and chemokine receptors from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid T cells and the T(H)2 cytokine expression from these T cells and bronchial mucosa biopsy specimens were assessed from subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, subjects with asthma, and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: The proportion of resting (stimulated) CD4 BAL fluid T cells expressing intracellular IL-4 was significantly higher in the subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis 7.2% (11.4%) and subjects with asthma 5.3% (5.5%) than in healthy control subjects 2.8% (3.9%) (P =.03). The number of IL-4(+) (P <.001) and IL-5(+) (P =.003) cells per square millimeter of bronchial submucosa was significantly higher in the disease groups than in the healthy control subjects. Expression of intracellular IFN-gamma was significantly higher in stimulated blood CD8 T cells from subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis (24%) and asthma (17%) than in the healthy control subjects (5%; P =.003). There were no between-group differences in expression of IFN-gamma in the BAL fluid T cells or in the bronchial submucosa and no differences in expression of activation markers or chemokine receptors. CONCLUSION: These findings support the concept of asthma as a disease associated with activation of T(H)2 lymphocytes in the airway and provide evidence that these cytokines play a role in the development of airway inflammation in eosinophilic bronchitis but suggest that the release of T(H)2 cytokines is not sufficient for the elaboration of disordered airway physiology in asthma.

Green RH, Brightling CE, McKenna S, Hargadon B, Parker D, Bradding P, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2002. Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 360 (9347), pp. 1715-1721. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Treatment decisions in asthma are based on assessments of symptoms and simple measures of lung function, which do not relate closely to underlying eosinophilic airway inflammation. We aimed to assess whether a management strategy that minimises eosinophilic inflammation reduces asthma exacerbations compared with a standard management strategy. METHODS: We recruited 74 patients with moderate to severe asthma from hospital clinics and randomly allocated them to management either by standard British Thoracic Society asthma guidelines (BTS management group) or by normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count and reduction of symptoms (sputum management group). We assessed patients nine times over 12 months. The results were used to manage those in the sputum management group, but were not disclosed in the BTS group. The primary outcomes were the number of severe exacerbations and control of eosinophilic inflammation, measured by induced sputum eosinophil count. Analyses were by intention to treat. FINDINGS: The sputum eosinophil count was 63% (95% CI 24-100) lower over 12 months in the sputum management group than in the BTS management group (p=0.002). Patients in the sputum management group had significantly fewer severe asthma exacerbations than did patients in the BTS management group (35 vs 109; p=0.01) and significantly fewer patients were admitted to hospital with asthma (one vs six, p=0.047). The average daily dose of inhaled or oral corticosteroids did not differ between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: A treatment strategy directed at normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count reduces asthma exacerbations and admissions without the need for additional anti-inflammatory treatment.

Birring SS, Brightling CE, Bradding P, Entwisle JJ, Vara DD, Grigg J, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2002. Clinical, radiologic, and induced sputum features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmokers: a descriptive study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 166 (8), pp. 1078-1083. | Show Abstract | Read more

Epidemiologic studies show that 5-12% of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are nonsmokers. Little is known about the pathophysiology of the fixed airflow obstruction in these subjects. We have prospectively identified 25 patients with COPD who had never smoked or had a less than 5 pack years smoking history and present the clinical, radiologic, and induced sputum features. Our population represented 5.7% of total referrals with fixed airflow obstruction over 2 years. Patients had a mean age of 70 years, were predominantly female (86%), and had a mean duration of respiratory symptoms of 7 years. The mean FEV(1) was 58%, and the FEV(1)/FVC was 55%. Features on high-resolution computed tomographic scanning were nonspecific and were considered typical of a wider population with COPD. An induced sputum differential inflammatory cell count suggested the presence of two distinct groups. Nine had significant sputum eosinophilia (mean, 8.1%; normal, less than 1.9%), and the remaining 13 had a normal sputum eosinophil and tended to have a raised sputum neutrophil count (mean, 70.1%; normal, less than 65%). Organ-specific autoimmune disease was present in 7 of the 22 patients (32%) and was particularly prevalent in those without sputum eosinophilia (6 of 13). In conclusion, COPD in nonsmokers predominantly affects females and has at least two pathologic subgroups, one of which may be associated with organ-specific autoimmune disease. Further investigation of this group may disclose novel mechanisms of fixed airflow obstruction.

Green RH, Brightling CE, Woltmann G, Parker D, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2002. Analysis of induced sputum in adults with asthma: identification of subgroup with isolated sputum neutrophilia and poor response to inhaled corticosteroids. Thorax, 57 (10), pp. 875-879. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The debate as to whether asthma is a single or heterogeneous disease remains unresolved although pathological studies, mostly using fibreoptic bronchoscopy on small numbers of subjects, have emphasised the similarities between different clinical phenotypes. METHODS: Lower airway inflammation was assessed non-invasively using induced sputum in 34 normal controls and 259 adults with symptomatic asthma receiving treatment at steps 1-3 of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines. A subgroup of 49 patients treated with as required beta(2) agonists only who met BTS criteria for a step up in treatment were studied before and 2 months after treatment with inhaled budesonide 400 micro g twice daily. RESULTS: There was considerable heterogeneity in induced sputum cell counts, particularly in non-atopic patients. A subgroup of 60 patients had a distinctive sputum cell profile with a neutrophil count higher than our normal range (>65.3%) and a normal sputum eosinophil count (<1.9%). These patients were older, predominantly female, and were more likely to be non-atopic but otherwise had similar clinical and physiological features to the group as a whole. Among the 49 subjects studied before and after inhaled budesonide, 11 patients had an isolated sputum neutrophilia. Following treatment, these patients showed significantly less improvement in visual analogue symptom scores (-5.5 v -19.4 mm; mean difference 13.9; 95% CI 0.7 to 27.0), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) (-0.08 v 0.13 l; mean difference 0.21; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.39), and concentration of methacholine provoking a fall in FEV(1) of 20% or more (PC(20)) (0.15 v 1.29 doubling doses; mean difference 1.11; 95% CI 0.13 to 2.15) than the remaining 38 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the presence of a distinct subgroup of patients with mild to moderate asthma who have predominantly neutrophilic airway inflammation and who respond less well to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids.

Tunon-de-Lara J-M, Berger P, Bégueret H. 2002. Mast cells in airway smooth muscle. N Engl J Med, 347 (13), pp. 1040-1041. | Read more

Wardlaw AJ, Brightling CE, Green R, Woltmann G, Bradding P, Pavord ID. 2002. New insights into the relationship between airway inflammation and asthma. Clin Sci (Lond), 103 (2), pp. 201-211. | Show Abstract | Read more

Asthma is a condition characterized by variable airflow obstruction, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation which is usually, but not invariably, eosinophilic. Current thoughts on the pathogenesis of asthma are focused on the idea that it is caused by an inappropriate response of the specific immune system to harmless antigens, particularly allergens such as cat dander and house dust mite, that result in Th2-mediated chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between inflammation and asthma is complex, with no good correlation between the severity of inflammation, at least as measured by the number of eosinophils, and the severity of asthma. In addition, there are a number of conditions, such as eosinophilic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis, in which there is a Th2-mediated inflammatory response, but no asthma, as measured by variable airflow obstruction or AHR. Bronchoconstriction can also occur without obvious airway inflammation, and neutrophilic inflammation can in some cases be associated with asthma. When we compared the immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma, the only difference we observed was that, in asthma, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) was infiltrated by mast cells, suggesting that airway obstruction and AHR are due to an ASM mast cell myositis. This observation emphasizes that the features that characterize asthma, as opposed to bronchitis, are due to abnormalities in smooth muscle responsiveness, which could be intrinsic or acquired, and that inflammation is only relevant in that it leads to these abnormalities. It also emphasizes the importance of micro-localization as an organizing principle in physiological responses to airway inflammation. Thus, if inflammation is localized to the epithelium and lamina propria, then the symptoms of bronchitis (cough and mucus hypersecretion) result, and it is only if the ASM is involved -- for reasons that remain to be established -- that asthma occurs.

Brightling CE, Bradding P, Symon FA, Holgate ST, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2002. Mast-cell infiltration of airway smooth muscle in asthma. N Engl J Med, 346 (22), pp. 1699-1705. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis are characterized by similar inflammatory infiltrates in the submucosa of the lower airway. However, eosinophilic bronchitis differs from asthma in that there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness in the former condition. We tested the hypothesis that there were differences between the two conditions in the microlocalization of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of bronchial-biopsy specimens was completed in 17 subjects with asthma, 13 subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, and 11 normal controls recruited from two centers. RESULTS: Both groups with disease had a similar degree of submucosal eosinophilia and thickening of the basement membrane and lamina reticularis. By contrast, the number of tryptase-positive mast cells in the bundles of airway smooth muscle from subjects with asthma (median, 5.1 mast cells per square millimeter of smooth muscle [range, 0 to 33.3]) was substantially higher than that in subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis (median, 0 mast cells per square millimeter; range, 0 to 4.8) and that in normal controls (median, 0 mast cells per square millimeter [range, 0 to 6.4]; P<0.001 for the comparison among the three groups). T cells and eosinophils were not usually seen in the airway smooth muscle in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The infiltration of airway smooth muscle by mast cells is associated with the disordered airway function found in asthma.

Hunter CJ, Brightling CE, Woltmann G, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2002. A comparison of the validity of different diagnostic tests in adults with asthma. Chest, 121 (4), pp. 1051-1057. | Show Abstract | Read more

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Diagnosing asthma is not always easy, and there are times when objective tests can be helpful. The extent to which these tests alter the probability of asthma depends on how much more commonly the test result is positive in subjects with asthma compared to healthy subjects and particularly subjects with conditions that are commonly confused with asthma. We set out to compare the sensitivity and specificity of different tests in this setting. DESIGN: Single-center, cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-one healthy control subjects, 69 patients with asthma, and 20 subjects referred to the hospital with a diagnosis of asthma who were found to have alternative explanations for their symptoms (i.e., pseudoasthma). INTERVENTIONS: We measured methacholine airway responsiveness, the maximum within-day peak expiratory flow amplitude mean percentage (derived from twice-daily readings for > 2 weeks), the FEV(1)/FVC ratio, the percentage change in FEV(1) 10 min after the administration of 200 microg inhaled albuterol, and the differential eosinophil count in blood and induced sputum. We derived normal ranges (from the 95% upper or lower limit for healthy subjects), sensitivity, and specificity (ie, the percentage of subjects with pseudoasthma who had negative test results). RESULTS: Most tests were less specific when the reference population was composed of subjects with conditions that can be confused with asthma. Methacholine airway responsiveness and the sputum differential eosinophil count were the most sensitive (91% and 72%, respectively) and specific (90% and 80%, respectively) tests. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methacholine airway responsiveness and the sputum differential eosinophil count are the most useful objective tests in patients with mild asthma.

Anees W, Huggins V, Pavord ID, Robertson AS, Burge PS. 2002. Occupational asthma due to low molecular weight agents: eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic variants. Thorax, 57 (3), pp. 231-236. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Despite having a work related deterioration in peak expiratory flow (PEF), many workers with occupational asthma show a low degree of within day diurnal variability atypical of non-occupational asthma. It was hypothesised that these workers would have a neutrophilic rather than an eosinophilic airway inflammatory response. METHODS: Thirty eight consecutive workers with occupational asthma induced by low molecular weight agents underwent sputum induction and assessment of airway physiology while still exposed at work. RESULTS: Only 14 (36.8%) of the 38 workers had sputum eosinophilia (>2.2%). Both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic groups had sputum neutrophilia (mean (SD) 59.5 (19.6)% and 55.1 (18.8)%, respectively). The diurnal variation and magnitude of fall in PEF during work periods was not significantly different between workers with and without sputum eosinophilia. Those with eosinophilia had a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; 61.4% v 83% predicted, mean difference 21.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.2 to 34.1, p=0.001) and greater methacholine reactivity (geometric mean PD20 253 microg v 1401 microg, p=0.007). They also had greater bronchodilator reversibility (397 ml v 161 ml, mean difference 236, 95% CI of difference 84 to 389, p=0.003) which was unrelated to differences in baseline FEV(1). The presence of sputum eosinophilia did not relate to the causative agent, duration of exposure, atopy, or lack of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma caused by low molecular weight agents can be separated into eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic pathophysiological variants with the latter predominating. Both groups had evidence of sputum neutrophilia. Sputum eosinophilia was associated with more severe disease and greater bronchodilator reversibility but no difference in PEF response to work exposure.

Pavord ID, Green RH, Berry MA, Brightling CE, Wardlaw AJ. 2002. The significance of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma CPD Bulletin Immunology and Allergy, 2 (3), pp. 79-83. | Show Abstract

The development of non-invasive methods to assess airway inflammation in asthma has made it possible to relate inflammation to other features of the disease in large and heterogeneous populations. Studies have shown that eosinophilic airway inflammation is not always present in asthma nor is it an exclusive feature of asthma. Moreover studies with humanised monoclonal antibodies to IL-5 have shown that eosinophilic airway inflammation can be disassociated from symptoms and disordered airway function. These features may be more closely linked to the presence of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is associated with corticosteroid-responsive disease and there is increasing evidence that it is important in the genesis of asthma exacerbations. Thus it appears that different aspects of the lower airway inflammatory response are important in the genesis of the different manifestations of asthma.

Brightling CE, Symon FA, Birring SS, Wardlaw AJ, Robinson R, Pavord ID. 2002. A case of cough, lymphocytic bronchoalveolitis and coeliac disease with improvement following a gluten free diet. Thorax, 57 (1), pp. 91-92. | Show Abstract | Read more

Chronic cough is a common reason for presentation to a respiratory clinic. In up to 20% of cases the cause remains unclear after investigations. We report one such case where there was bronchoscopic evidence of lymphocytic airway inflammation in association with newly diagnosed coeliac disease. All features improved markedly on a gluten free diet, suggesting a causal relationship between coeliac disease, cough, and lymphocytic bronchoalveolitis.

Pavord ID, Sterk PJ, Hargreave FE, Kips JC, Inman MD, Louis R, Pizzichini MMM, Bel EH, Pin I, Grootendorst DC et al. 2002. Clinical applications of assessment of airway inflammation using induced sputum. Eur Respir J Suppl, 37 (Supplement 37), pp. 40s-43s. | Read more

Kips JC, Inman MD, Jayaram L, Bel EH, Parameswaran K, Pizzichini MMM, Pavord ID, Djukanović R, Hargreave FE, Sterk PJ. 2002. The use of induced sputum in clinical trials. Eur Respir J Suppl, 37 (Supplement 37), pp. 47s-50s. | Read more

Green RH, Pavord ID. 2001. Leukotriene antagonists and symptom control in chronic persistent asthma. Lancet, 357 (9273), pp. 1991-1992. | Read more

Birring SS, Heartin E, Williams TJ, Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2001. Peak expiratory flow sequence in acute exacerbations of asthma. BMJ, 322 (7297), pp. 1281. | Read more

Brightling CE, Monterio W, Green RH, Parker D, Morgan MD, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord D. 2001. Induced sputum and other outcome measures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: safety and repeatability. Respir Med, 95 (12), pp. 999-1002. | Show Abstract | Read more

The forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) is the most established outcome measure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, changes in FEV1 in response to treatment are small in relation to the repeatability of the measurement and there is increasing interest in other measures including markers of lower airway inflammation in induced sputum, assessment of symptoms and health status using visual analogue scores, and questionnaires. Little is known about the repeatability of these measures or the safety of sputum induction in COPD. We have assessed the safety of sputum induction in 61 subjects with moderate and severe COPD who participated in a placebo-controlled cross-over study The within-subject repeatability of sputum markers of airway inflammation, health status using the chronic respiratory disease questionnaire (CRQ) and symptom visual analogue scores (VAS) were estimated from the data obtained from before and after 2 weeks of treatment with placebo. Sputum induction was performed on 122 occasions and was successful resulting in a cytospin adequate to assess a differential cell count in 95% of inductions. The group mean (SEM) FEV1 was 1.09 (0.05)[41.6 (2.9)% predicted] and the mean (SEM) fall in FEV1 after sputum induction was 120 ml (6) and % fall 10.9% (0.55%). Seven inductions were stopped due to a fall in FEV1 >20% and at a further 13 visits the full sputum induction protocol was not completed due to development of symptoms. The reproducibility of measurements, calculated by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was relatively high for all indices measured (0.4-0.95) with the exception ofthe proportion of lymphocytes (0.15) and epithelial cells (0.3). The ICC for symptom scores and the CRQ domains ranged between 0.87 and 0.96. In conclusion, sputum induction is safe and the cell and fluid phase mediators repeatable in the investigation of airway inflammation in patients with COPD. VAS symptom scores and the CRQ are reproducible outcome measures in COPD.

Lewis SA, Pavord ID, Stringer JR, Knox AJ, Weiss ST, Britton JR. 2001. The relation between peripheral blood leukocyte counts and respiratory symptoms, atopy, lung function, and airway responsiveness in adults. Chest, 119 (1), pp. 105-114. | Show Abstract | Read more

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Eosinophils and neutrophils play major roles, respectively, in the pathogenesis of asthma and COPD, and it is well recognized that levels of these cells in peripheral blood are increased in relation to their pulmonary involvement. However, the relation between peripheral blood cell counts of the other major leukocyte groups and these lung diseases or markers of allergy or airflow obstruction is less clear. We have therefore investigated the association between peripheral blood levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes and the occurrence of chronic respiratory symptoms, atopy, lung function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and the modifying effect of age, in adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional general population study. SETTING: Data on > 2,000 British adults, who originally participated in a study of diet and lung health, were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, including age, sex, and smoking history. RESULTS: We found that, like eosinophils, the peripheral basophil count was increased in relation to asthma and associated symptoms, and to airway hyperreactivity and increased total IgE, but differed from eosinophils in that basophils were unrelated to atopy. Monocytes were predominantly associated with symptoms indicative of obstructive airway disease, in similar relation to neutrophils, but both of these leukocyte counts were also increased in asthma patients in older age groups. Lymphocyte counts were unrelated to any objective or subjective marker of disease. CONCLUSIONS: If peripheral blood cell counts reflect pulmonary involvement of these leukocyte groups, basophils and monocytes may play a distinct role in the pathogenesis of allergic and nonallergic respiratory disease.

Brightling CE, Monteiro W, Ward R, Parker D, Morgan MD, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2000. Sputum eosinophilia and short-term response to prednisolone in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 356 (9240), pp. 1480-1485. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) respond to corticosteroid therapy. Whether these patients have different airway pathology from other COPD patients is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that response to prednisolone is related to the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. Patients who had COPD treated with bronchodilators only were assigned placebo and 30 mg prednisolone daily for 2 weeks each, in a random order, separated by a 4-week washout period. Before and after each treatment period, we assessed patients with spirometry, symptom scores, the chronic respiratory disease questionnaire (CRQ), incremental shuttle walk test, and induced sputum. Analysis was done by intention to treat. FINDINGS: 83 patients were recruited, of whom 67 were randomised. The geometric mean sputum eosinophil count fell significantly after prednisolone (from 2.4% to 0.4%; mean difference six-fold [95% CI 3.1-11.4]) but not after placebo. Other sputum cell counts did not change. After stratification into tertiles by baseline eosinophil count, postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and total scores on the CRQ improved progressively after prednisolone from the lowest to the highest eosinophilic tertile, compared with placebo. The mean change in postbronchodilator FEV1, total CRQ score, and shuttle walk distance with prednisolone compared with placebo in the highest tertile was 0.19 L (0.06-0.32), 0.62 (0.31-0.93), and 20 m (5-35), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic airway inflammation contributes to airflow obstruction and symptoms in some patients with COPD and that the short-term effects of prednisolone are due to modification of this feature of the inflammatory response. The possibility that sputum eosinophilia identifies a subgroup of patients who particularly respond to long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids should be investigated.

Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2000. Eosinophilic bronchitis: an important cause of prolonged cough. Ann Med, 32 (7), pp. 446-451. | Show Abstract | Read more

The recent development of noninvasive techniques to measure airway inflammation has led to the recognition of eosinophilic bronchitis, a condition characterized by a sputum eosinophilia identical to that seen in asthma, but without any of the functional abnormalities associated with asthma. The condition is interesting for a number of reasons. Firstly, eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which is important to recognize as it responds well to corticosteroids. However, recognition is not straightforward because it requires assessment of airway inflammation. Secondly, the natural history of eosinophilic bronchitis is uncertain. Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease without a history of previous asthma have sputum eosinophilia, thus one possibility is that eosinophilic bronchitis may develop into fixed airflow obstruction. Finally, the difference in the association of eosinophilic airway inflammation to airway dysfunction between eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma is of interest as it is possible that it reflects important differences in the nature or site of the airway inflammation. Further study of this interesting condition may shed light on the relationship between airway inflammation and airway responsiveness, leading to a greater understanding of both eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma.

Cookson JB, Morgan MDL, Wales JM, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ, Bradding P. 2000. TB guidelines THORAX, 55 (9), pp. 809-809.

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Brichtling CE, Ward R, Woltmann G, Bradding P, Sheller JR, Dworski R, Pavord ID. 2000. Induced sputum inflammatory mediator concentrations in eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, 162 (3), pp. 878-882.

Cookson JB, Morgan MD, Wales JM, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ, Bradding P. 2000. TB guidelines. Thorax, 55 (9), pp. 809-810. | Read more

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European Pubmed Central

Brightling CE, Ward R, Woltmann G, Bradding P, Sheller JR, Dworski R, Pavord ID. 2000. Induced sputum inflammatory mediator concentrations in eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 162 (3 Pt 1), pp. 878-882. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but in contrast to asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis was that the differences in airway pathophysiology maybe due to less active airway inflammation in eosinophilic bronchitis, with reduced release of important effector mediators. We measured the concentration of various proinflammatory mediators in induced sputum cell-free supernatant in eight patients with eosinophilic bronchitis, 17 patients with asthma matched for sputum eosinophil count, and 10 normal subjects. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) were measured by enzyme immunoassay, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) by fluoroimmunoassay, prostanoids (PGE(2), PGD(2), TXB(2), and PGF(2alpha)) by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy, and histamine by radioenzymic assay. The geometric mean sputum eosinophil count was similar in asthma (13.4%) and eosinophilic bronchitis (12.5%). Sputum cys-LT and ECP were a mean (95% CI) 1.6-fold (1.1, 2.5) and 6.4-fold (1.4, 28) higher in eosinophilic bronchitis and 1.9-fold (1.3, 2.9) and 7.7-fold (1.2, 46) higher in asthma compared with that in control subjects (geometric mean, 5.9 and 95 ng/ml, respectively). In eosinophilic bronchitis the mean concentration of sputum PGD(2) (0.79 ng/ml) and histamine (168 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in asthma (mean absolute difference in PGD(2) concentration, 0.47 ng/ml [95% CI, 0.19 to 0. 74] and mean-fold difference in histamine concentration, 6.7 [95% CI 1.7 to 26]) and normal subjects (0.64 ng/ml [0.36 to 0.90] and 11-fold [3.3 to 36]), respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic bronchitis is associated with active airway inflammation with increased release of vasoactive and bronchoconstrictor mediators.

Green RH, Pavord ID. 2000. Asthma guidelines THORAX, 55 (5), pp. 441-441.

Macfarlane AJ, Dworski R, Sheller JR, Pavord ID, Kay AB, Barnes NC. 2000. Sputum cysteinyl leukotrienes increase 24 hours after allergen inhalation in atopic asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 161 (5), pp. 1553-1558. | Show Abstract | Read more

We have used the relatively noninvasive technique of induced sputum to measure allergen-induced changes in the concentration of eicosanoid mediators in bronchial secretions from atopic asthmatics. Sputum induction was performed before and 24 h after inhalational allergen challenge in 14 atopic asthmatics who developed a late asthmatic reaction (LAR). Differential cell counts were made on sputum cytospins and eicosanoid (cysteinyl leukotrienes [cys LTs], prostaglandin D(2) [PGD(2)], and PGE(2)) concentrations were measured in the sputum supernatants. The percentage of eosinophils at baseline correlated with the concentration of cys LTs (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) but not prostanoid mediators. Allergen challenge produced a significant increase in the concentration of sputum cys LTs from 3. 45 ng/ml sputum to 11.95 ng/ml (p = 0.002), which correlated with the increase in sputum eosinophils (r = 0.55, p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in PGD(2) or PGE(2) concentrations in sputum supernatants in response to challenge. Thus, the noninvasive technique of induced sputum has been used to demonstrate increased cys LTs, but not prostanoids associated with LAR after allergen challenge. The correlation between eosinophil numbers and cys LT concentrations at baseline values and 24 h after allergen challenge is consistent with these cells being a principal source of cys LTs within the airways at these time points.

Green RH, Pavord ID. 2000. Asthma guidelines. Thorax, 55 (5), pp. 441. | Read more

Brightling CE, Ward R, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 2000. Airway inflammation, airway responsiveness and cough before and after inhaled budesonide in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis. Eur Respir J, 15 (4), pp. 682-686. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, characterized by sputum eosinophilia similar to that seen in asthma, but unlike asthma the patients have no objective evidence of variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. The reason for the different functional associations is unclear. The authors have tested the hypothesis that in eosinophilic bronchitis the inflammation is mainly localized in the upper airway. In an open study the authors measured the lower (provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20)) and upper (PC25 MIF50) airway responsiveness to histamine, lower and upper airway inflammation using induced sputum and nasal lavage, in II patients with eosinophilic bronchitis. The authors assessed changes in these measures and in cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin and cough severity after 400 microg of inhaled budesonide for 4 weeks. A nasal eosinophilia was present in only three patients with one having upper airway hyperresponsiveness. Following treatment with inhaled corticosteroids the geometric mean sputum eosinophil count decreased from 12.8% to 2.9% (mean difference 4.4-fold, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-10.02), the mean +/- sem cough visual analogue score on a 100 mm scale decreased from 27.2 +/- 6.6 mm to 12.6 +/- 5.7 mm (mean difference 14.6, 95% CI 9.1-20.1) and the cough sensitivity assessed as the capsaicin concentration required to cause two coughs (C2) and five coughs (C5) improved (C2 mean difference 0.75 doubling concentrations, 95% CI 0.36-1.1; C5 mean difference 1.3 doubling concentration, 95% CI 0.6-2.1). There was a significant positive correlation between the fold change in sputum eosinophil count and doubling dose change in C5 after inhaled budesonide (r=0.61). It is concluded that upper airway inflammation is not prominent in eosinophilic bronchitis and that inhaled budesonide improves the sputum eosinophilia, cough severity and sensitivity suggesting a causal link between the inflammation and cough.

Pavord ID. 2000. Inhaled beclomethasone (BDP) with non-CFC propellant (HFA 134a) is equivalent to BDP-CFC for the treatment of asthma (Respir Med 1999; 93: 245-251) Respir Med, 94 (2), pp. 182-183. | Read more

Green RH, Pavord ID, Tattersfield AE, Harrison T. 2000. Asthma guidelines (multiple letters) Thorax, 55 (5), pp. 441.

Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 2000. Eosinophilic bronchitis - what is it and why is it important? Clin Exp Allergy, 30 (1), pp. 4-6. | Read more

Wardlaw AJ, Brightling C, Green R, Woltmann G, Pavord I. 2000. Eosinophils in asthma and other allergic diseases. Br Med Bull, 56 (4), pp. 985-1003. | Show Abstract | Read more

A hallmark of allergic disease is infiltration of the tissues with increased numbers of eosinophils. This is the result of the co-ordinated action of cytokines, particularly IL-5, CCR3 binding chemokines and the adhesion molecules P-selectin and VCAM-1, acting in concert to cause selective trafficking of eosinophils into allergic tissue. This process is orchestrated by the Th-2 allergen specific lymphocyte. While there is little data to support the view that eosinophils ameliorate the allergic process, although they could have an important role in the disordered repair that leads to permanently impaired function in some allergic diseases, the evidence that they cause many of the pathophysiological features of allergic disease, while strong, remains circumstantial. Much of the data could be interpreted just as easily to suggest that eosinophils are bystander cells; markers of a certain type of pathological process, but not impinging upon it. The most direct evidence for a pathological role rests on the toxicity of the eosinophil granule proteins for bronchial epithelium and the bronchoconstrictor actions of the sulphidopeptide leukotrienes. The actions of LT antagonists in asthma which are certainly beneficial, but in most cases are not as effective as glucocorticoids, could be interpreted both for and against the eosinophil. In this paper we have focused on the studies that ask most directly the question of whether eosinophils are important effector cells in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We conclude with a qualified affirmative. Even if they are only bystander cells they remain clinically important as diagnostic markers and a guide to the management of allergic disease.

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Scopus

Brightling CE, Ward R, Woltmann G, Bradding P, Sheller JR, Dworski R, Pavord ID. 2000. Induced sputum inflammatory mediator concentrations in eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 162 (3 I), pp. 878-882. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but in contrast to asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis was that the differences in airway pathophysiology maybe due to less active airway inflammation in eosinophilic bronchitis, with reduced release of important effector mediators. We measured the concentration of various proinflammatory mediators in induced sputum cell-free supernatant in eight patients with eosinophilic bronchitis, 17 patients with asthma matched for sputum eosinophil count, and 10 normal subjects. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) were measured by enzyme immunoassay, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) by fluoroimmunoassay, prostanoids (PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, and PGF(2α)) by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy, and histamine by radioenzymic assay. The geometric mean sputum eosinophil count was similar in asthma (13.4%) and eosinophilic bronchitis (12.5%). Sputum cys-LT and ECP were a mean (95% CI) 1.6-fold (1.1, 2.5) and 6.4-fold (1.4, 28) higher in eosinophilic bronchitis and 1.9-fold (1.3, 2.9) and 7.7-fold (1.2, 46) higher in asthma compared with that in control subjects (geometric mean, 5.9 and 95 ng/ml, respectively). In eosinophilic bronchitis the mean concentration of sputum PGD2(0.79 ng/ml) and histamine (168 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in asthma (mean absolute difference in PGD2concentration, 0.47 ng/ml [95% CI, 0.19 to 0.74] and mean-fold difference in histamine concentration, 6.7 [95% CI 1.7 to 26]) and normal subjects (0.64 ng/ml [0.36 to 0.90] and 11-fold [3.3 to 36]), respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic bronchitis is associated with active airway inflammation with increased release of vasoactive and bronchoconstrictor mediators.

Lipworth BJ, Jackson CM. 2000. Equivalence of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) formulations of inhaled beclomethasone. Respir Med, 94 (2), pp. 177. | Read more

Pavord ID, Ward R, Woltmann G, Wardlaw AJ, Sheller JR, Dworski R. 1999. Induced sputum eicosanoid concentrations in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 160 (6), pp. 1905-1909. | Show Abstract | Read more

Further definition of the role of leukotrienes (LT) and prostaglandins (PG) in asthma would be helped by a noninvasive method for assessing airway production. The supernatant from sputum induced with hypertonic saline and dispersed using dithiotrietol has been successfully used to measure other molecular markers of airway inflammation and might be a useful method. We have measured induced sputum supernatant LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4) concentrations using enzyme immunoassay and PGE(2), PGD(2), TXB(2), and PGF(2alpha) using gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy in 10 normal subjects and in 26 subjects with asthma of variable severity. Sputum cysteinyl-leukotrienes concentrations were significantly greater in subjects with asthma (median, 9.5 ng/ml) than in normal control subjects (6.4 ng/ml; p < 0.02) and greater in subjects with persistent asthma requiring inhaled corticosteroids (median, 11.4 ng/ml) or studied within 48 h of an acute severe exacerbation of asthma (13 ng/ml) than in subjects with episodic asthma treated with inhaled beta(2)-agonists only (7.2 ng/ml). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of other eicosanoids between groups, although there was a negative correlation between the percentage sputum eosinophil count and sputum PGE(2) concentration (r = -0.48; p < 0.01) in subjects with asthma. We conclude that induced sputum contains high concentrations of eicosanoids and that sputum LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4) concentrations are significantly greater in subjects with asthma than in normal subjects. The inverse relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and sputum PGE(2) concentration would be consistent, with the latter having an anti-inflammatory role.

Brightling CE, Woltmann G, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 1999. Development of irreversible airflow obstruction in a patient with eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma. Eur Respir J, 14 (5), pp. 1228-1230. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophilic bronchitis is a recently described condition presenting with chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. The patient, a 48-yr-old male who had never smoked, presented with an isolated chronic cough. He had normal spirometric values, peak flow variability and airway responsiveness, but an induced sputum eosinophil count of 33% (normal <1%). Although his cough improved with inhaled corticosteroids the sputum eosinophilia persisted. Over 2 yrs he developed airflow obstruction, which did not improve following nebulized bronchodilators and a 2-week course of prednisolone 30 mg once daily sufficient to return the sputum eosinophilia to normal (0.5%). It is suggested that the progressive irreversible airflow obstruction was due to persistent structural change to the airway secondary to eosinophilic airway inflammation, and it is further speculated that eosinophilic bronchitis may be a prelude to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in some patients.

Li Kam Wa TC, Mansur AH, Britton J, Williams G, Pavord I, Richards K, Campbell DA, Morton N, Holgate ST, Morrison JF. 1999. Association between - 308 tumour necrosis factor promoter polymorphism and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 29 (9), pp. 1204-1208. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a pivotal cytokine in the inflammation underlying asthma. The TNF gene is located in the polymorphic HLA class 3 region on chromosome 6p. Several polymorphisms in this region have been described and associated with alteration of TNF secretion in vitro. OBJECTIVE: In this study we tested the hypothesis that two such polymorphisms, lymphotoxin alpha NcoI B*1 and -308 TNF2 may be components of the genetic predisposition to asthma. METHODS: Five hundred and fifty-six random individuals were studied, comprising approximately equal numbers of asthmatic subjects, with or without atopy, and a nonatopic nonasthmatic control group. In addition, 355 subjects (172 asthmatics) from 60 multiplex families were typed at the LTalpha NcoI locus. RESULTS: There was an association between allele two of the -308 TNF polymorphism and bronchial hyperreactivity (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.04-4.32, P = 0.036). However, there was no association with LTalpha NcoI alleles. To determine whether this was influenced by linkage disequilibrium within the MHC, 91 subjects with bronchial hyperreactivity and 85 control subjects were typed for class 2 and 3 alleles. Following identification of the extended TNF2 haplotype, we found no independent association of these alleles with BHR. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the -308 TNF2 promoter polymorphism may form a component of the genetic predisposition to BHR in asthma.

Brightling CE, Ward R, Goh KL, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 1999. Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 160 (2), pp. 406-410. | Show Abstract | Read more

Eosinophilic bronchitis presents with chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia, but without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. It is important to know how commonly eosinophilic bronchitis causes cough, since in contrast to cough in patients without sputum eosinophilia, the cough responds to inhaled corticosteroids. We investigated patients referred over a 2-yr period with chronic cough, using a well-established protocol with the addition of induced sputum in selected cases. Eosinophilic bronchitis was diagnosed if patients had no symptoms suggesting variable airflow obstruction, and had normal spirometric values, normal peak expiratory flow variability, no airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decrease in FEV(1) ([PC(20)] > 8 mg/ml), and sputum eosinophilia (> 3%). Ninety-one patients with chronic cough were identified among 856 referrals. The primary diagnosis was eosinophilic bronchitis in 12 patients, rhinitis in 20, asthma in 16, post-viral-infection status in 12, and gastroesophageal reflux in seven. In a further 18 patients a diagnosis was established. The cause of chronic cough remained unexplained in six patients. In all 12 patients with eosinophilic bronchitis, the cough improved after treatment with inhaled budesonide 400 micrograms twice daily, and in eight of these patients who had a follow-up sputum analysis, the eosinophil count decreased significantly, from 16.8% to 1.6%. We conclude that eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, and that sputum induction is important in the investigation of cough.

Zeibecoglou K, Macfarlane AJ, Ying S, Meng Q, Pavord I, Barnes NC, Robinson DS, Kay AB. 1999. Increases in eotaxin-positive cells in induced sputum from atopic asthmatic subjects after inhalational allergen challenge. Allergy, 54 (7), pp. 730-735. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are believed to be critical proinflammatory cells in airway mucosal damage in asthma. Eotaxin is a C-C chemokine with selective activity for eosinophils and basophils. Previous studies have shown increased expression of eotaxin in the airways of asthmatics at baseline. We aimed to investigate eotaxin expression during the late-phase reaction to allergen inhalation in atopic asthmatics. METHODS: Sputum induction was performed before and 24 h after inhalational allergen challenge in atopic asthmatics, and eotaxin protein was detected immunocytochemically. RESULTS: Thirteen patients with a mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 28% (+/-1.5) during the early asthmatic reaction, and 39% (+/-4.7) during the late asthmatic reaction produced sufficient sputum for study. The percentage of eosinophils in sputum was increased 24 h after allergen challenge (P<0.004), and eosinophil percentages in sputum after challenge correlated with the magnitude of the late-phase reaction (r=0.56, P=0.05). The percentage of eotaxin-positive cells increased from 12.6% (range 2-43.8) to 24.3% (8.1-47.1, P<0.005). Allergen-induced increases in eotaxin-positive cells correlated with increases in eosinophils (r=0.63, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that eotaxin may contribute to allergen-induced recruitment of eosinophils to the airway in asthmatic subjects.

Pavord ID, Brightling CE, Woltmann G, Wardlaw AJ. 1999. Non-eosinophilic corticosteroid unresponsive asthma. Lancet, 353 (9171), pp. 2213-2214. | Read more

Hunter CJ, Ward R, Woltmann G, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 1999. The safety and success rate of sputum induction using a low output ultrasonic nebuliser. Respir Med, 93 (5), pp. 345-348. | Show Abstract | Read more

Induced sputum differential cell counts have been advocated as a method of non-invasively assessing airway inflammation in asthma and other airway diseases. Since sputum induction usually involves delivering hypertonic saline via a high output ultrasonic nebulizer there have been concerns about its safety in asthma. There are relatively little data on the effects of sputum induction in large numbers of patients. We have examined the success rate and effect of sputum induction on forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) in 100 inductions performed on 79 patients using a low output nebulizer. Thirty-seven patients had asthma, 29 had miscellaneous conditions (mainly chronic cough) and 13 were subjects without respiratory symptoms. Sputum was induced 10 min after 200 micrograms of inhaled salbutamol by sequential 5-min inhalations of 3, 4 and 5% saline delivered via a Fisoneb ultrasonic nebulizer and FEV1 was measured after each inhalation. Sputum induction resulted in a sample suitable for analysis in 92% of asthmatics, 90% of those with miscellaneous conditions and 100% of normal subjects. The mean (SEM) maximum per cent fall in FEV1 was 5.4% (0.1), 4.3%, (1.0) and 2.6% (1.1) in subjects with asthma, miscellaneous conditions and in asymptomatic subjects respectively. Only 13 inductions resulted in a > 10% fall in FEV1, and only three of these resulted in a > 20% fall. The maximum per cent fall in FEV1 did not correlate with baseline FEV1 % predicted (r = -0.17), the log sputum eosinophil count (r = -0.12), or the methacholine PC20 (r = -0.14). We conclude that sputum induction using a relatively low output ultrasonic nebulizer with premedication with salbutamol is successful and safe in the majority of patients with asthma and other airway conditions.

Ward R, Woltmann G, Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 1999. Between-observer repeatability of sputum differential cell counts. Influence of cell viability and squamous cell contamination. Clin Exp Allergy, 29 (2), pp. 248-252. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Induced sputum differential cell counts have been advocated as a method of noninvasively assessing airway inflammation in asthma and other airway diseases. Relatively little is known about the between-observer repeatability of sputum differential cell counts and the factors that influence it. OBJECTIVE: To assess the between-observer variability of induced sputum cell counts. METHODS: Sputum was induced and processed using standard techniques. Forty-two slides from 38 patients (31 with asthma, seven normal subjects) were randomly selected. Slides were classified as good (<20% squamous cells and >50% viability; n = 24); low viability (<50% viability; n = 10) and high squamous cell contamination (>20% squamous cells; n = 8). Two blinded observers counted between 200 and 400 nonsquamous cells and agreement was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the standard deviation of between-observer differences (SD). RESULTS: The overall ICC were 0.9, 0.89, 0.9 for eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages and 0.29 and 0.69 for lymphocytes and epithelial cells. Repeatability was greater in slides classified as good compared with slides with low cell viability and particularly excess squamous cell contamination. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that the overall between-observer repeatability of the differential eosinophil, neutrophil and macrophage cell counts is good. Low cell viability and particularly excess squamous cell contamination reduce between-observer repeatability suggesting that techniques that ensure high cell viability and reduce squamous contamination would be an advantage.

Woltmann G, Ward RJ, Symon FA, Rew DA, Pavord ID, Wardlaw AJ. 1999. Objective quantitative analysis of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells in induced sputum by laser scanning cytometry. Thorax, 54 (2), pp. 124-130. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Sputum induction is an important non-invasive technique for measuring airway inflammation in asthma. Cell numbers are often too low for flow cytometric analysis. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a novel technique that allows objective multicolour fluorescence analysis of cells on a microscope slide. METHODS: LSC was used to determine sputum eosinophil and bronchial epithelial cell counts. We first confirmed that we could measure eosinophil counts accurately in peripheral blood using alpha-major basic protein (MBP) immunofluorescent staining. Sputum induction was performed according to standard protocols. Sputum samples from eight normal controls and 12 asthmatic patients were analysed by LSC and manual counting by two independent observers. Octospot cytospins were fixed and stained with mouse-alpha-human-MBP monoclonal antibody or mouse-alpha-human-cytokeratin antibody and goat-alpha-mouse Oregon Green conjugated second antibody. RESULTS: Sputum induction provided a mean (SE) of 0.99 (0.2) x 10(6) cells per donor. More than 3000 cells on three cytospins per slide were analysed per cell type. The intraclass correlation coefficient (R) and standard deviation (SD) of differences in eosinophils determined by manual counting and LSC were 0.9 and 2.1, respectively, and for bronchial epithelial cell counts they were 0.7 and 2.0. Selective detection of labelled cells was confirmed visually after relocation. CONCLUSION: Eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells can be accurately and reproducibly counted in an objective manner. LSC is therefore a potentially powerful new method for immunophenotyping leucocytes and epithelial cells objectively in induced sputum in patients with asthma.

Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 1999. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. Thorax, 54 (2), pp. 186-187.

Wardlaw AJ, Pavord ID. 1999. Clinicians should be proactive in testing for asthma. BMJ, 318 (7178), pp. 258-259. | Read more

Hart S. 1999. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. Thorax, 54 (2), pp. 186. | Read more

Brightling CE, Pavord ID. 1999. Chronic cough. Thorax, 54 (6), pp. 563. | Read more

Pizzichini MM, Pizzichini E, Clelland L, Efthimiadis A, Pavord I, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. 1999. Prednisone-dependent asthma: inflammatory indices in induced sputum. Eur Respir J, 13 (1), pp. 15-21. | Show Abstract | Read more

The kinetics of changes in inflammatory indices in induced sputum from eight prednisone dependent asthmatics whose minimum clinical maintenance and exacerbation doses were known were investigated. The study began on the last day of a course of 30 mg prednisone daily for one week. Thereafter, the daily prednisone was reduced in a structured way to below the maintenance dose. This treatment was continued until a clinical exacerbation occurred. Prednisone 30 mg daily was then given again for one week. The mean duration of prednisone reduction was 7.4 weeks and the median dose was 7.5 mg x day(-1). Increases in sputum eosinophils preceded increases in blood eosinophils by 4 weeks and worsening of symptoms and forced expiratory volume in one second by 6 weeks. The clinical exacerbation was also accompanied by sputum neutrophilia and increases in sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), fibrinogen and interleukin (IL)-5. Treatment with prednisone suppressed median sputum eosinophilia (from 16.3 to 0%, p<0.001), decreased sputum ECP (from 7,480 to 700 microg x L(-1), p = 0.01), but did not improve neutrophil numbers, fibrinogen or IL-5. The results show that the reduction of prednisone treatment in prednisone-dependent asthmatics evokes a severe airway eosinophilic inflammatory response. Clinical and blood indices deteriorate later than those in sputum suggesting that sputum examination may be useful to identify the minimum regular dose of prednisone required in these patients.

Bennett JA, Thompson Coon J, Pavord ID, Wilding PJ, Tattersfield AE. 1998. The airway effects of stopping regular oral theophylline in patients with asthma. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 45 (4), pp. 402-404. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS: We investigated whether the deterioration in asthma control reported following cessation of theophylline was due to tolerance to theophylline. METHODS: Eighteen subjects with mild stable asthma were given oral theophylline 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or placebo for 2 weeks in a double-blind crossover study. FEV1 and PD20 histamine were measured before and 8 h after the first dose of treatment and 8, 32 and 56 h after the final dose. PD20 AMP was measured before treatment and 9 h after the final dose. RESULTS: Six patients did not tolerate theophylline. In the other 12 subjects there were no differences between treatments in daily PEF, symptom scores, rescue bronchodilator use, PD20 histamine or FEV1 up to 8 h post treatment. Following withdrawal of theophylline there were significantly lower values for mean FEV1 (mean difference 0.151, 95% CI 0.03, 026) and PD20 AMP compared to placebo but no difference in other end points. CONCLUSIONS: The small rebound deterioration in lung function following regular treatment with therapeutic doses of oral theophylline is consistent with the development of tolerance.

Dawson S, Cave C, Pavord I, Potter JF. 1998. Transcutaneous monitoring of blood gases: is it comparable with arterialized earlobe sampling? Respir Med, 92 (3), pp. 584-587. | Show Abstract | Read more

Researchers are increasingly looking for reliable non-invasive methods of assessing blood gas concentrations, and several new techniques have recently become available. Values derived using arterialized earlobe samples have been found to be comparable with conventional arterial samples, and recent studies have compared transcutaneous blood gas analysis with the traditional arterial samples and found a reasonable level of agreement in particular for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. There are no data comparing oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures (pO2, pCO2) derived from arterialized samples with one of the newer transcutaneous techniques. We therefore simultaneously studied arterialized earlobe blood gas samples and values for pO2 and pCO2 obtained by a transcutaneous monitor (TINA, Radiometer, Copenhagen) in 26 subjects with varying blood gas values. There was a close agreement between the two methods for assessment of pCO2 [mean difference (95% C.I.) between transcutaneous and earlobe values 0.25 kPa (-0.004, 0.5 kPa)], but not for pO2 [1.71 kPa (0.35, 3.07 kPa)]. Similarly, the limits of agreement were narrow for pCO2 compared to those for pO2 (-0.98, 1.47 kPa and -6.44, 3.02 kPa respectively). We conclude that transcutaneous measurement of pCO2 using the TINA is acceptable in the research setting, whereas assessment of pO2 cannot reliably be made using this technique.

Pavord ID. 1998. Sputum induction to assess airway inflammation: is it an inflammatory stimulus? Thorax, 53 (2), pp. 79-80. | Read more

Pavord ID. 1998. Making the diagnosis of asthma. Measurement of airway responsiveness should be more readily available. BMJ, 316 (7125), pp. 150. | Read more

Ward R, Woltmann G, Wardlaw A, Pavord I. 1997. Between observer repeatability of sputum differential cell counts. Influence of cell viability and squamous cell contamination Thorax, 52 (SUPPL. 6), | Show Abstract

Induced sputum differential cell counts have been advocated as a method of non-invasively assessing airway inflammation in asthma and other airway diseases. Relatively little is known about the between observer repeatability of sputum differential cell counts and the factors that influence it. We have assessed the between observer variability of induced sputum inflammatory cell counts in 42 slides from 38 patients (31 with asthma, 7 normal subjects). Sputum was induced and processed as suggested by Pizzichini et al (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:308-17). Slides were classified as good (<20% squamous cells and >60% viability; n=20); low viability (<60% viability; n=14) and high squamous cell contamination (>20% squamous cells; n=8). Two blinded observers counted betwen 200 and 400 non-squamous cells in each slide and agreement was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the standard deviation of between observer differences (SD). Between observer repeatability was as follows: Category Eosinophil* Macrophage Neutrophil Overall ICC 0.90 0.89 0.90 SD 0.27 11.2 11.0 Good ICC 0.96 0.94 0.93 SD 0.17 9.3 10.5 Viability <60% ICC 0.85 0.94 0.91 SD 0.35 8.8 7.6 Squamous >20% ICC 0.85 0.25 0.55 SD 0.29 15.7 16.1 * Log SD We have shown that the overall between observer repeatability of differential cell counts is good. Low cell viability and particularly excess squamous cell contamination reduce between observer repeatability suggesting that techniques that ensure high cell viability and reduce squamous contamination would be an advantage.

Pavord ID, Pizzichini MM, Pizzichini E, Hargreave FE. 1997. The use of induced sputum to investigate airway inflammation. Thorax, 52 (6), pp. 498-501. | Read more

Egbagbe E, Pavord ID, Wilding P, Thompson-Coon J, Tattersfield AE. 1997. Adenosine monophosphate and histamine induced bronchoconstriction: repeatability and protection by terbutaline. Thorax, 52 (3), pp. 239-243. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Inhaled adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is thought to cause bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients indirectly through mast cell mediator release. It may therefore be a more sensitive marker of airway inflammation in asthma and hence more specific for epidemiological surveys of asthma than challenges that act directly on airway smooth muscle such as histamine. There is some uncertainty as to how repeatable the measurement is and this is important if it is to be used for epidemiological studies. METHODS: The response to histamine and AMP challenges and the protection afforded by terbutaline (500 micrograms) against these two challenges was measured on two occasions two weeks apart in 20 subjects with asthma (19 completed the study). The response to histamine and AMP was measured as the provocative dose causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD20) and the protection afforded by terbutaline in doubling doses (DD). Repeatability was assessed as the limits of agreement. RESULTS: Although terbutaline had a slightly greater protective effect against AMP than histamine on both the first (delta PD20 = 2.66 versus 2.11 DD) and second occasion (2.56 and 2.15 DD), the differences were not statistically significant. The limits of agreement for the two histamine and two AMP challenges after placebo were from 3.06 to -3.5 and from 3.78 to -4.54 DD respectively, and these values did not differ significantly. The agreement limits between the first PD20 histamine and PD20 AMP values after placebo were similar, being from 3.73 to -3.72 DD after allowing for the 17.8-fold higher PD20 values for AMP compared with histamine. CONCLUSIONS: Terbutaline caused a slightly greater inhibition of the bronchoconstrictor response to AMP than histamine but the differences were small and non-significant. Any differences in repeatability between AMP and histamine challenges are small and in this study were not significant. The fact that the agreement between histamine and AMP PD20 values was similar to the agreement between repeat histamine or repeat AMP PD20 values suggests that, within an asthmatic population, PD20 AMP may not be providing different information from that provided by PD20 histamine.

Pavord ID, Pizzichini MM, Pizzichini E, Hargreave FE. 1997. The use of induced sputum to investigate airway inflammation Pneumologie, 51 (11), pp. 1067-1068.

Harrison TW, Knox AJ, Bessell EM, Haynes AP, MacFarlane JT, Morris GK, Pavord ID. 1996. A rare cause of superior vena cava obstruction - A rare problem presenting in an unusual way BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 313 (7068), pp. 1324-1326.

Wong AG, Pavord ID, Sears MR, Hargreave FE. 1996. A case for serial examination of sputum inflammatory cells. Eur Respir J, 9 (10), pp. 2174-2175. | Show Abstract | Read more

In the case reported, serial evaluation of sputum inflammatory cell counts made it possible to identify an unusual series of events in a man with eosinophilic bronchitis. The patient initially presented with a productive cough, which did not respond to treatment with antibiotics or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. A diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchitis was made after demonstration of intense sputum eosinophilia. When inhaled corticosteroids were stopped, symptoms and sputum eosinophilia became worse and airway hyperresponsiveness developed. Both abnormalities were reversed by a course of prednisone. When the prednisone was stopped the productive cough recurred but on this occasion sputum examination suggested a different disease process and the symptoms resolved after a course of co-trimoxazole. The patient has subsequently remained well on no treatment with little or no sputum eosinophilia.

Wang M, Wisniewski A, Pavord I, Knox A, Tattersfield A. 1996. Comparison of three inhaled non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the airway response to sodium metabisulphite and adenosine 5'-monophosphate challenge in asthma. Thorax, 51 (8), pp. 799-804. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to assess the role of prostaglandins in asthma but their effects on bronchoconstrictor challenges have been inconsistent. The effects of three nebulised nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the airway response to inhaled sodium metabisulphite (MBS) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) were compared in the same asthmatic subjects to see whether contractile prostaglandins were involved in MBS or AMP induced bronchoconstriction. A possible protective effect of the osmolarity or pH of the inhaled solutions was also assessed. METHODS: Two double blind placebo controlled studies were carried out. In study 1, 15 non-aspirin sensitive patients with mild asthma attended on four occasions and inhaled 5 ml of lysine aspirin (L-aspirin) 900 mg, indomethacin 50 mg, sodium salicylate 800 mg, or saline 20 minutes before an inhaled MBS challenge. On four further occasions 14 of the patients inhaled the same solutions followed by an inhaled AMP challenge. In study 2, 10 of the patients attended on four additional occasions and inhaled 5 ml of 0.9%, 3%, 10%, or 9.5% saline with indomethacin 50 mg 20 minutes before an inhaled MBS challenge. RESULTS: In study 1 inhaled lysine aspirin had a similar effect on MBS and AMP induced bronchoconstriction, increasing the provocative dose causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20) by 1.29 (95% CI 0.54 to 2.03) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.93) doubling doses, respectively. Indomethacin increased the MBS PD20 and AMP PD20 by 0.64 (95% CI -0.1 to 1.38) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.69) doubling doses, respectively. Sodium salicylate had no significant effect on either challenge. The two solutions causing most inhibition were the most acidic and the most alkaline. In study 2 inhaled 9.5% saline with indomethacin (osmolarity 3005 mOsm/kg) increased the MBS PD20 by 1.1 doubling doses (95% CI 0.2 to 2.0) compared with only 0.09 (95% CI -0.83 to 1.0) and 0.04 (95% CI -0.88 to 0.95) doubling doses with 3% saline (918 mOsm/kg) and 10% saline (2994 mOsm/ kg), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled L-aspirin and indomethacin have broadly similar protective effects against MBS and AMP induced bronchoconstriction in the doses given, although the effect of indomethacin on MBS was not quite statistically significant. The osmolarity and pH of the solutions did not appear to be important determinants of the response. The effect of L-aspirin and indomethacin is likely to be the result of cyclooxygenase inhibition reducing the production of contractile prostaglandins during MBS and AMP challenge.

Wilding PJ, Clark MM, Pavord ID, Parker D, Bennett JA, Tattersfield AE. 1996. Effect of cessation of short-term therapy with ipratropium bromide on lung function and airway responsiveness. Eur Respir J, 9 (8), pp. 1627-1631. | Show Abstract | Read more

Regular exposure to antimuscarinic drugs would be expected to upregulate airway muscarinic receptors and could cause a transient increase in airways obstruction if treatment was stopped or omitted. We have examined peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) during treatment and forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1) and airway responsiveness to three constrictor agonists (as the provocative dose of agonist causing a 20% fall in FEV1, (PD20)) following cessation of regular inhaled ipratropium bromide, in 13 subjects with mild stable asthma. Subjects inhaled placebo and ipratropium bromide, 80 microg q.i.d. for 14 days in a cross-over fashion with a 1 week run-in/wash-out period before and after each treatment period. Subjects recorded symptom scores and PEFR throughout the study, and FEV1 and PD20 to histamine, methacholine and metabisulphite were measured before and after cessation of treatment. When compared to baseline, FEV1 was lower after cessation of ipratropium than after placebo, with a significant difference 30 h after the last dose (difference 190 mL; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 310-70 mL; p<0.02). FEV1 measured 6-10 days later, did not differ significantly. PEFR was significantly lower after cessation of ipratropium than after placebo on Day 15 (19-37 h after the last dose) (mean difference 4.6%; 95% CI 1.6-7.5%; p<0.01) but not on Day 16. There were no significant changes in PD20 histamine, methacholine and metabisulphite, symptom scores or rescue bronchodilator use after cessation of treatment. Thus, transient bronchoconstriction was found around 30 h after cessation of regular therapy with inhaled ipratropium for 2 weeks. The mechanism is unclear, as no evidence of muscarinic receptor upregulation was found. Although the changes were small and unlikely to be important for most patients, the results of this study indicate that the timing of lung function measurements relative to the last dose of ipratropium is important when interpreting the course of lung function in long-term studies.

Johnson SR, Pavord ID, Tatersfield AE, Macfarlane JT, Donald FE, Ahsan AJ, Banks DC, Loudon M. 1996. Grand rounds - City Hospital, Nottingham - A complicated case of community acquired pneumonia - Beware of drug induced side effects in critically ill people BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 312 (7035), pp. 899-901.

Johnson SR, Pavord ID. 1996. Grand Rounds--City Hospital, Nottingham. A complicated case of community acquired pneumonia. BMJ, 312 (7035), pp. 899-901. | Read more

Pavord I, Mudassar T, Bennett J, Wilding P, Knox A. 1996. The effect of inhaled heparin on bronchial reactivity to sodium metabisulphite and methacholine in patients with asthma. Eur Respir J, 9 (2), pp. 217-219. | Show Abstract | Read more

Inhaled heparin inhibits the early response to allergen and exercise-induced asthma, probably by inhibiting mast cell mediator release. Recent animal studies suggest that heparin might also inhibit cholinergic neurotransmission in asthma by restoring inhibitory M2 receptor function. We have tested the hypothesis that heparin inhibits neurally-mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma by examining the effect of inhaled heparin on bronchial reactivity to sodium metabisulphite. We also examined the effect of inhaled heparin on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction to exclude a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Eleven patients with mild asthma inhaled nebulized heparin (1,000 U.kg-1) or placebo (normal saline) in a randomized, double-blind fashion, 10 min before a challenge with sodium metabisulphite. Nine patients were also challenged with methacholine after the same dose of heparin or placebo. Inhaled heparin did not significantly change forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), nor did it alter the provocative dose of sodium metabisulphite or methacholine required to cause a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20). Geometric mean sodium metabisulphite PD20 was 2.54 and 2.15 mumol after placebo and heparin, respectively (mean difference -0.24 doubling doses; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.64-0.17). Geometric mean methacholine PD20 was 1.00 and 1.51 mumol after placebo and heparin, respectively (mean difference 0.6 doubling doses; 95% CI -0.25-1.5). Thus, heparin inhaled at doses sufficient to inhibit allergen and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction has no effect on the response to sodium metabisulphite and methacholine challenge in asthma. This argues against an inhibitory effect on neural pathways or airway smooth muscle.

Johnson SR, Pavord ID. 1996. Grand Rounds—City Hospital, Nottingham: A complicated case of community acquired pneumonia BMJ, 312 (7035), pp. 899. | Read more

Harrison TW. 1996. Grand rounds--Nottingham City Hospital. A rare cause of superior vena cava obstruction. BMJ, 313 (7068), pp. 1324-1326. | Read more

Pavord I, Holland E, Baldwin D, Tattersfield A, Knox A. 1995. Effect of diuretics on allergen-induced contractions of passively sensitized human bronchi in vitro. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 152 (4 Pt 1), pp. 1164-1169. | Show Abstract | Read more

Inhaled furosemide has been shown to protect subjects with asthma from bronchoconstriction induced by a wide variety of stimuli, including allergen, but the mechanism of action is controversial. We have used an in vitro model of allergen-induced bronchoconstriction to examine the effects of furosemide and other ion transport inhibitors. Human bronchial rings were passively sensitized by incubation with serum from an atopic donor and were challenged with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Allergen-challenged bronchial rings developed bronchoconstriction which was effectively inhibited by the cysteinyl-leukotriene antagonist ICI 198,615 (10(-7) M) and to a lesser extent by terfenadine (10(-5) M). Assessed over 60 min furosemide 10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M inhibited contractions by a mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) 7.9% (-23.5, 39.3%, p > 0.05), 44.2% (12.9, 75.2%, p < 0.01), and 86.9% (55.5, 118.3%, p < 0.001) respectively (n = 5). The same concentrations of bumetanide inhibited contractions by 21.5% (-8.4, 51.4%, p > 0.05), 13.6% (-16.3, 43.4%, p > 0.05) and 51.6% (21.7, 81.4%, p < 0.01) respectively (n = 5). The sodium transport inhibitor amiloride and the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) were without effect (both 10(-4) M; n = 4). Furosemide increased PGE2 production by the bronchial rings by 134% (95% CI 53, 259%). Indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M) blocked the furosemide-induced increase in PGE2 production and reduced the protection afforded by 10(-4) M furosemide against allergen-induced contractions from 67.9% to 34.7% (mean difference 33.2%; 95% CI 9.7, 56.6%; p < 0.01; n = 8).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Britton JR, Pavord ID, Richards KA, Knox AJ, Wisniewski AF, Lewis SA, Tattersfield AE, Weiss ST. 1995. Dietary antioxidant vitamin intake and lung function in the general population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 151 (5), pp. 1383-1387. | Show Abstract | Read more

We have investigated the relation between lung function and dietary intake of the antioxidant vitamins C and E in the general population in a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of adults from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham. In 2,633 subjects 18 to 70 yr of age, we measured FEV1 and FVC, allergen skin sensitivity to grass pollen, cat fur, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, pack-years smoking exposure by personal recall, and usual dietary intake of vitamins C and E by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for the effects of age, sex, height, mean allergen skin wheal diameter, and pack-years smoking history, both FEV1 and FVC were significantly and independently related to mean daily intake of vitamin C, such that a standard deviation (40 mg/d) higher vitamin C intake was associated with a 25.0 (95% CI, 5.2 to 44.8; p = 0.01) ml higher FEV1 and a 23.3 (0.94 to 45.7, p = 0.04) ml higher FVC. There was also an association between vitamin E intake and lung function, such that a standard deviation (2.2 mg) higher intake of vitamin E was associated with a 20.1 (1.3 to 40.4, p = 0.04) ml higher FEV1 and a 23.1 (1.0 to 45, p = 0.04) ml higher FVC. However, vitamin C and vitamin E intakes were significantly correlated (r = 0.29, p < 0.001), and after allowing for the effects of vitamin C there was no additional independent effect of vitamin E on either FEV1 or FVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pavord ID, Muller AF. 1995. Regional Royal College of Physicians conference. Nottingham, September 1994. J R Coll Physicians Lond, 29 (2), pp. 154-158. | Show Abstract

The September 1994 Regional Royal College of Physicians Conference was held in the newly refurbished Postgraduate Medical Education Centre at the Nottingham City Hospital. Over 100 participants enjoyed a broadly based programme where topical issues in many of the specialty areas of general medicine were discussed and posters of local research were displayed. The presentations were given by both local and national experts and were of a uniformly high standard.

Pavord ID, Tattersfield AE. 1995. Bronchoprotective role for endogenous prostaglandin E2. Lancet, 345 (8947), pp. 436-438. | Show Abstract | Read more

The possibility that impaired production of bronchoprotective factors contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma cannot be excluded. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) could be such a factor. It is a dominant cyclo-oxygenase product of airway epithelium and smooth muscle; it has inhibitory effects on inflammatory cells and pathways involved in bronchoconstriction at concentrations known to occur in the airway; inhalation of PGE2 has considerable bronchoprotective effects in patients with asthma; and manoeuvres that increase or decrease endogenous production of PGE2 have beneficial and deleterious effects on airway function.

Pye S, Pavord I, Wilding P, Bennett J, Knox A, Tattersfield A. 1995. A comparison of the effects of inhaled furosemide and ethacrynic acid on sodium-metabisulfite-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 151 (2 I), pp. 337-339. | Show Abstract

Inhaled furosemide prevents bronchoconstriction induced by a number of challenges in asthma. One approach to determine the mechanism underlying this protection has been to examine the effects of diuretics with different or overlapping pharmacologic effects. We have compared the effects of furosemide on sodium metabisulfite-induced bronchoconstriction with those of equivalent diuretic doses of ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic that, unlike furosemide, does not interact directly with the membrane Na/K/Cl cotransporter protein or inhibit carbonic anhydrase. Eight subjects with mild asthma were studied on five occasions, receiving nebulized furosemide (20 and 40 mg), ethacrynic acid (25 and 50 mg), or placebo (normal saline) in random order and double- blind 10 min before a cumulative dose challenge with inhaled sodium metabisulfite. After placebo the geometric mean sodium metabisulfite PD20was 7.9 μmol. Furosemide 20 mg and 40 mg increased the PD20by a mean 1.1 (95% confidence interval, - 0.2-2.4; p > 0.05) and 1.6 (0.4-2.9; p < 0.02) doubling doses to 17.1 and 24.7 μmol, respectively. After inhaled ethacrynic acid 25 mg and 50 mg, the geometric mean PD20was increased by 0.9 (- 0.4- 2.2; p > 0.05) and 1.5 (0.2-2.8; p < 0.05) doubling doses to 14.5 and 22.4 μmol, respectively. Thus, equivalent diuretic doses of furosemide and ethacrynic acid have a similar inhibitory effect on sodium metabisulfite- induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. This suggests that interaction with the Na/K/Cl cotransporter protein, or carbonic anhydrase inhibition, is not relevant to the effects of furosemide in asthma.

Barry T, Delamere F, Holland E, Pavord I, Knox A. 1995. Production of PGE2 by bovine cultured airway smooth muscle cells: regulation by cAMP. J Appl Physiol (1985), 78 (2), pp. 623-628. | Show Abstract | Read more

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is thought to be an important inhibitory modulator of inflammatory processes in the airway. Previous studies have shown that it is produced by bovine cultured airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in large quantities, but its regulation by second messengers has not been studied in this tissue. To determine whether PGE2 production by ASM might be an important action of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in asthma, the regulation of PGE2 production by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) was assessed using dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP), forskolin, and albuterol. DBcAMP increased PGE2 production over a 24-h time course. Forskolin and albuterol both increased PGE2 production over control cells to similar levels after 24 h. Incubation of albuterol-treated cells with propranolol significantly (70%) reduced the stimulatory effect of albuterol on PGE2 production. Incubation of forskolin-treated cells with Rp-cAMP, a cAMP antagonist, inhibited the PGE2 response evoked by forskolin by 80%. Ro-20-1724, a selective inhibitor of type IV phosphodiesterase, stimulated PGE2 production (P = 0.02). Cycloheximide, a protein-synthesis inhibitor, did not inhibit the response to DBcAMP. The effects of DBcAMP were additive with the effects of bradykinin, a proinflammatory mediator known to increase PGE2 production (P < 0.05). These studies suggest that cAMP may play an important regulatory role in stimulating PGE2 production by ASM. This may be a novel beneficial action of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in asthma.

Pye S, Pavord I, Wilding P, Bennett J, Knox A, Tattersfield A. 1995. A comparison of the effects of inhaled furosemide and ethacrynic acid on sodium-metabisulfite-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 151 (2 Pt 1), pp. 337-339. | Show Abstract | Read more

Inhaled furosemide prevents bronchoconstriction induced by a number of challenges in asthma. One approach to determine the mechanism underlying this protection has been to examine the effects of diuretics with different or overlapping pharmacologic effects. We have compared the effects of furosemide on sodium metabisulfite-induced bronchoconstriction with those of equivalent diuretic doses of ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic that, unlike furosemide, does not interact directly with the membrane Na/K/Cl cotransporter protein or inhibit carbonic anhydrase. Eight subjects with mild asthma were studied on five occasions, receiving nebulized furosemide (20 and 40 mg), ethacrynic acid (25 and 50 mg), or placebo (normal saline) in random order and double-blind 10 min before a cumulative dose challenge with inhaled sodium metabisulfite. After placebo the geometric mean sodium metabisulfite PD20 was 7.9 mumol. Furosemide 20 mg and 40 mg increased the PD20 by a mean 1.1 (95% confidence interval, -0.2-2.4; p > 0.05) and 1.6 (0.4-2.9; p < 0.02) doubling doses to 17.1 and 24.7 mumol, respectively. After inhaled ethacrynic acid 25 mg and 50 mg, the geometric mean PD20 was increased by 0.9 (-0.4-2.2; p > 0.05) and 1.5 (0.2-2.8; p < 0.05) doubling doses to 14.5 and 22.4 mumol, respectively. Thus, equivalent diuretic doses of furosemide and ethacrynic acid have a similar inhibitory effect on sodium metabisulfite-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. This suggests that interaction with the Na/K/Cl cotransporter protein, or carbonic anhydrase inhibition, is not relevant to the effects of furosemide in asthma.

PAVORD ID, MULLER AF. 1995. REGIONAL CONFERENCE IN NOTTINGHAM JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF LONDON, 29 (2), pp. 154-158.

Pavord I, Holland E, Baldwin D, Tattersfield A, Knox A. 1995. Effect of diuretics on allergen-induced contractions of passively sensitized human bronchi in vitro American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 152 (4 I), pp. 1164-1169. | Show Abstract | Read more

Inhaled furosemide has been shown to protect subjects with asthma from bronchoconstriction induced by a wide variety of stimuli, including allergen, but the mechanism of action is controversial. We have used an in vitro model of allergen-induced bronchoconstriction to examine the effects of furosemide and other ion transport inhibitors. Human bronchial rings were passively sensitized by incubation with serum from an atopic donor and were challenged with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Allergen-challenged bronchial rings developed bronchoconstriction which was effectively inhibited by the cysteinyl-leukotriene antagonist ICI 198,615 (10-7M) and to a lesser extent by terfenadine (10-5M). Assessed over 60 min furosemide 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4M inhibited contractions by a mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) 7.9% (-23.5, 39.3%, p > 0.05), 44.2% (12.9, 75.2%, p < 0.01), and 86.9% (55.5, 118.3%, p < 0.001) respectively (n = 5). The same concentrations of bumetanide inhibited contractions by 21.5% (-8.4, 51.4%, p > 0.05), 13.6% (-16.3, 43.4%, p > 0.05) and 51.6% (21.7, 81.4%, p < 0.01) respectively (n = 5). The sodium, transport inhibitor amiloride and the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) were without effect (both 10-4M; n = 4). Furosemide increased PGE2production by the bronchial rings by 134% (95% CI 53, 259%). Indomethacin (3 x 10-6M) blocked the furosemide-induced increase in PGE2production and reduced the protection afforded by 10-4M furosemide against allergen- induced contractions from 67.9% to 34.7% (mean difference 33.2%; 95% CI 9.7, 56.6%; p < 0.01; n=8). PGE2(10-7, 10-6, and 10-5M) did not alter airway smooth muscle responsiveness to methacholine but inhibited allergen- induced contractions by 5% (-68.2, 78.3%), 14.5% (-58.8, 87.7%), and 100% (26.7, 173.2%; p < 0.02) respectively (n = 5). Thus furosemide and to a lesser extent bumetanide inhibit allergen-induced contractions of passively sensitized human bronchi. Production of PGE2may play a role in the inhibitory effect of furosemide.

Baldwin DR, Sivardeen Z, Pavord ID, Knox AJ. 1994. Comparison of the effects of salbutamol and adrenaline on airway smooth muscle contractility in vitro and on bronchial reactivity in vivo. Thorax, 49 (11), pp. 1103-1108. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: The effect of adrenergic agonists in asthma depends on their net effect on microvascular leakage, mucosal oedema, vascular clearance of spasmogens, inhibition of cholinergic neurotransmission, and airway smooth muscle contractility. It has been postulated that adrenaline, by virtue of its alpha effects on the vasculature and cholinergic neurotransmission, may have additional useful properties in asthma compared with selective beta agonists such as salbutamol. METHODS: The airway effects of adrenaline (a non-selective adrenoreceptor agonist) were compared with the selective beta 2 agonist salbutamol. Their airway smooth muscle relaxant potencies and effect on histamine contraction in human bronchi in vitro were compared with their effects on airway calibre and histamine reactivity in asthmatic subjects in vivo. For the in vitro studies changes in tension were measured in response to these agents in thoracotomy specimens of human airways. In vivo the effects of adrenaline and salbutamol on airway calibre and histamine reactivity were measured in eight subjects with mild to moderate asthma in a randomised crossover study. RESULTS: Salbutamol and adrenaline had approximately equivalent airway smooth muscle relaxant potencies in vitro and bronchodilator potency in vivo. However, their effects on histamine induced contraction in vitro were significantly different from their effects on histamine reactivity in vivo. Salbutamol was less potent in vitro producing a mean (SE) 2.4 (0.15) doubling dose increase in the histamine EC20 and adrenaline a 5.2 (0.18) doubling dose increase (mean difference between salbutamol and adrenaline 2.8 doubling doses; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.5). Salbutamol had no effect on the maximal response to histamine whereas adrenaline reduced it by 54%. In contrast, salbutamol was more potent in vivo producing a mean (SE) increase in PD20 histamine of 1.84 (0.5) doubling doses whereas adrenaline was without effect increasing PD20 by only 0.06 (0.47) doubling doses (mean difference between adrenaline and salbutamol 1.78, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.29 doubling doses). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the alpha adrenergic airway effects of non-selective adrenoreceptor agonists such as adrenaline offer no additional protection against histamine-induced broncho-constriction in vivo than beta 2 selective drugs such as salbutamol, despite adrenaline providing greater protection against histamine-induced contraction in vitro. The differences between the effects of these agents in vitro and in vivo may be related to their opposing vascular effects in vivo.

Wong CS, Wahedna I, Pavord ID, Tattersfield AE. 1994. Effect of regular terbutaline and budesonide on bronchial reactivity to allergen challenge. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 150 (5 Pt 1), pp. 1268-1273. | Show Abstract | Read more

There is a transient rebound increase in bronchial reactivity to histamine and methacholine following regular treatment with an inhaled beta 2-agonist. We set out to determine whether the response to allergen was increased after cessation of regular inhaled terbutaline and whether concomitant inhaled budesonide modifies this response. In a double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group design we studied 41 subjects (37 evaluable) with mild asthma who were allergic to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur. Following a 2 wk run-in period, subjects underwent a fixed three-dose allergen challenge based on their previously determined provocative concentration of allergen producing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) before starting terbutaline 1,000 micrograms or placebo three times daily and budesonide 800 micrograms or placebo twice daily for a period of 2 to 4 wk (mean 18 d). The same three-dose allergen challenge was repeated 33 h after stopping treatment. During treatment evening peak flow values were highest in the terbutaline plus budesonide group. Following regular terbutaline there was no rebound increase in bronchial reactivity to allergen. Following budesonide there was a significantly smaller response to allergen and an increased FEV1 compared with the other three groups, including the budesonide plus terbutaline group. The changes in median (95% CI) allergen PC20 after budesonide, terbutaline, budesonide plus terbutaline, and placebo were 0.79 (0.3, 2.3), 0.11 (-0.4, 0.6), 0.24 (-0.4, 0.5) and -0.47 (-1.5, 0.1) doubling doses (p < 0.01). The respective changes in mean FEV1 were 0.34, -0.16, -0.01, and 0.06 L (p < 0.005). Thus bronchial reactivity to allergen was not increased after regular inhaled terbutaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Wong CS, Wahedna I, Pavord ID, Tattersfield AE. 1994. Effect of regular terbutaline and budesonide on bronchial reactivity to allergen challenge American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 150 (5 I), pp. 1268-1273. | Show Abstract | Read more

There is a transient rebound increase in bronchial reactivity to histamine and methacholine following regular treatment with an inhaled β2-agonist. We set out to determine whether the response to allergen was increased after cessation of regular inhaled terbutaline and whether concomitant inhaled budesonide modifies this response. In a double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group design we studied 41 subjects (37 evaluable) with mild asthma who were allergic to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur. Following a 2 wk run-in period, subjects underwent a fixed three-dose allergen challenge based on their previously determined provocative concentration of allergen producing a 20% fall in FEV1(PC20) before starting terbutaline 1,000 μg or placebo three times daily and budesonide 800 μg or placebo twice daily for a period of 2 to 4 wk (mean 18 d). The same three-dose allergen challenge was repeated 33 h after stopping treatment. During treatment evening peak flow values were highest in the terbutaline plus budesonide group. Following regular terbutaline there was no rebound increase in bronchial reactivity to allergen. Following budesonide there was a significantly smaller response to allergen and an increased FEV1compared with the other three groups, including the budesonide plus terbutaline group. The changes in median (95% CI) allergen PC20after budesonide, terbutaline, budesonide plus terbutaline, and placebo were 0.79 (0.3, 2.3), 0.11 (-0.4, 0.6), 0.24 (-0.4, 0.5) and -0.47 (-1.5, 0.1) doubling doses (p < 0.01). The respective changes in mean FEV1were 0.34, -0.16, - 0.01, and 0.06 L (p < 0.005). Thus bronchial reactivity to allergen was not increased after regular inhaled terbutaline. Terbutaline enhanced the effect of budesonide on peak expiratory flow (PEF) during treatment but attenuated the bronchodilatation and protection against allergen seen following budesonide alone.

Britton J, Pavord I, Richards K, Knox A, Wisniewski A, Weiss S, Tattersfield A. 1994. Dietary sodium intake and the risk of airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population. Thorax, 49 (9), pp. 875-880. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: High dietary sodium intake has been identified as a potential cause of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is an independent determinant of the risk of hyperreactivity in the general population, and to assess the role of atopy in the association between these factors. METHODS: Airway reactivity to methacholine, atopy, 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, and self-reported smoking and symptom history were measured in a random sample of 1702 adults aged 18-70 from an administrative district of Nottingham. Hyperreactivity was defined as a PD20FEV1 of 12.25 mumol or less, and atopy was defined quantitatively as the mean allergen skin weal response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat fur, and grass pollen, and categorically as the occurrence of any allergen response 1 mm or greater than the saline control. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent relative odds of hyperreactivity, atopy, or symptoms in relation to sodium excretion in all 1702 subjects, and multiple linear regression to assess the independent relation between sodium excretion and mean allergen skin weal diameter, and the PD20 value amongst hyperreactive subjects. RESULTS: There was no relation between the relative odds of hyperreactivity to methacholine and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, either before or after adjustment for age, smoking, allergen skin weal diameter, and sex, and similarly no relation if the analysis was restricted to men or women only. The relative odds of having at least one allergen skin test response 1 mm greater than the saline control were increased in relation to sodium excretion after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking by a ratio of 2.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 4.15) per log10 unit increase in sodium excretion, but there was no evidence of an association between sodium excretion and the occurrence of self-reported wheeze, hay fever, eczema, or asthma. There was no relation between 24 hour sodium excretion and the magnitude of the mean allergen skin weal response or the PD20 value. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high dietary sodium intake is a risk factor for airway hyperreactivity or atopic disease in the general adult population.

Britton J, Pavord I, Richards K, Wisniewski A, Knox A, Lewis S, Tattersfield A, Weiss S. 1994. Dietary magnesium, lung function, wheezing, and airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population sample. Lancet, 344 (8919), pp. 357-362. | Show Abstract | Read more

Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biological activities, including some that may protect against the development of asthma and chronic airflow obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary magnesium intake is associated with better lung function, and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham, UK, we measured dietary magnesium intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, lung function as the 1-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and atopy as the mean skin-prick test response to three common environmental allergens. We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a cumulative dose of 12.25 mumol or less. Mean (SD) daily intake of magnesium was 380 (114) mg/day. After adjusting for age, sex, and height, and for the effects of atopy and smoking, a 100 mg/day higher magnesium intake was associated with a 27.7 (95% CI, 11.9-43.5) mL higher FEV1, and a reduction in the relative odds of hyper-reactivity by a ratio of 0.82 (0.72-0.93). The same incremental difference in magnesium intake was also associated with a reduction in the odds of self-reported wheeze within the past 12 months, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, atopy, and kilojoule intake, by a ratio of 0.85 (0.76-0.95). Dietary magnesium intake is independently related to lung function and the occurrence of airway hyper-reactivity and self-reported wheezing in the general population. Low magnesium intake may therefore be involved in the aetiology of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease.

Bennett JA, Smyth ET, Pavord ID, Wilding PJ, Tattersfield AE. 1994. Systemic effects of salbutamol and salmeterol in patients with asthma. Thorax, 49 (8), pp. 771-774. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Knowing the extent of the systemic effects of a new beta 2 agonist relative to an established drug is important for the prediction and interpretation of side effects. A recent study in which the effect of cumulative doses of salbutamol was compared with single doses of salmetreol suggested that, weight for weight, salmeterol may be up to 10 times more potent than salbutamol. This current study was designed to investigate further the dose equivalence of salmeterol and salbutamol. METHODS: Twelve patients with mild asthma inhaled cumulative doses of placebo, salmeterol 25, 50, 100, and 200 micrograms, and salbutamol 100, 500, 1000, and 1000 micrograms on separate days at hourly intervals in a randomised double blind crossover study. Changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), heart rate, plasma potassium concentration, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Dose equivalence was determined as the dose ratio of salmeterol to salbutamol for the 50% maximum response to salbutamol. RESULTS: No important changes occurred in any measurements following placebo. Salmeterol and salbutamol caused a near maximum increase in FEV1 following the first dose so the dose equivalence for the airway effects could not be estimated. Heart rate increased and plasma potassium concentration and diastolic blood pressure decreased in a dose dependent manner following salmeterol and salbutamol, with median dose equivalences for salmeterol compared with salbutamol of 17.7, 7.8, and 7.6, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that the systemic activity of salmeterol compared with salbutamol is higher than would be expected from in vitro data, particularly for heart rate. Whether this is because of the relatively high dose of salmeterol used or pharmacokinetic differences between the two drugs is uncertain.

Britton J, Pavord I, Richards K, Knox A, Wisniewski A, Wahedna I, Kinnear W, Tattersfield A, Weiss S. 1994. Factors influencing the occurrence of airway hyperreactivity in the general population: the importance of atopy and airway calibre. Eur Respir J, 7 (5), pp. 881-887. | Show Abstract

The factors that determine the occurrence of airway hyperreactivity in the general population are not clearly understood. This study was designed to assess the independent effects of age, atopy, smoking and airway calibre. In a random sample of 2,415 adults aged 18-70 yrs we measured reactivity to methacholine as the dose provoking a 20% fall (PD20) in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), atopy as the mean skin wheal response to three common environmental allergens, and airway calibre as the baseline FEV1 in absolute terms, as percent predicted (FEV1 % predicted) and as percent forced vital capacity (FEV1 % FVC). Hyperreactivity, defined as a PD20 < or = 12.25 mumol, was present in 314 (13%) of the sample, and before adjustment for FEV1 was more common in females (independent odds ratio (OR) = 2.05 (95% confidence interval 1.6-2.7)), current smokers (OR = 1.89 (1.3-2.6)), atopics (OR = 1.39 (1.3-1.5) per mm skin wheal), and in older age groups (OR for age 60-70 yrs relative to 18-29 yrs = 2.70 (1.7-4.3)). However, the odds of hyperreactivity were also strongly and independently related to absolute FEV1 (OR = 0.46 (0.27-0.77) per litre), FEV1 % predicted (OR = 0.96 (0.94-0.98) per percent), and FEV1 % FVC (OR = 0.92 (0.90-0.94) per percent; combined chi-square on 3 df = 312, p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Delamere F, Holland E, Patel S, Bennett J, Pavord I, Knox A. 1994. Production of PGE2 by bovine cultured airway smooth muscle cells and its inhibition by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol, 111 (4), pp. 983-988. | Show Abstract | Read more

1. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is thought to be an important inhibitory modulator of inflammatory processes in the airway. It inhibits inflammatory cell function and cholinergic neurotransmission in vitro and roles have been postulated in vivo in refractoriness and in the mechanism of action of the diuretic agent, frusemide. 2. The production of PGE2 by bovine cultured airway smooth muscle cells has been studied under a range of conditions. The effects of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (flurbiprofen, indomethacin, acetyl salicylic acid) on serum-induced production of PGE2 were assessed over a range of concentrations (10(-7)-10(-4) M). 3. Serum-stimulated production of PGE2 in control wells ranged from 350 to 800 ng PGE2 ml-1 in cells from different animals. All three cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors inhibited PGE2 production with an order of potency, flurbiprofen > indomethacin > acetyl salicylic acid. Log IC50 values were -6.24 for flurbiprofen, -5.23 for indomethacin and -3.50 for acetyl salicylic acid. 4. PGE2 production was stimulated by arachidonic acid (10(-5) M) or addition of the proinflammatory mediator, bradykinin (10(-8)-10(-5) M). 5. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 5 bromo deoxyuridine (BRDU) (10(-4) M) to prevent DNA synthesis did not alter PGE2 production in response to serum, suggesting that it was not a function of proliferation per se. 6. Our study suggests that airway smooth muscle may be an important source of PGE2. Production of PGE2 may be a novel feedback mechanism whereby airway smooth muscle cells can negatively modulate airways inflammation. The differing potencies of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors may explain the contrasting effect of these drugs in recent studies in asthma.

Pavord I, Lazarowicz H, Inchley D, Baldwin D, Knox A, Tattersfield A. 1994. Cross refractoriness between sodium metabisulphite and exercise induced asthma. Thorax, 49 (3), pp. 245-249. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Exercise and inhaled sodium metabisulphite are thought to cause bronchoconstriction in asthma through different mechanisms. The response to both stimuli becomes refractory with repeat challenge. The mechanism of refractoriness is unclear, although depletion of mast cell derived mediators or neurotransmitters has been suggested. Recent studies suggest a common mechanism involving release of inhibitory prostaglandins. If this is true, exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction should show cross refractoriness. METHODS: Thirteen subjects with mild asthma and previously established exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction performed two sodium metabisulphite challenges (giving a single dose previously shown to cause a 20% fall in FEV1) on one study day, and two exercise tests on another. The second challenge proceeded after recovery (FEV1 > 95% baseline) from the first. Subjects then attended on two further occasions when an exercise test was performed after sodium metabisulphite and a sodium metabisulphite challenge after exercise. RESULTS: When expressed as the percentage reduction in the area under the change in percentage FEV1 curve over 20 minutes (AUC) the response to exercise was reduced by a mean 62.3% (95% CI 46.5% to 78.1%) following a first exercise challenge, and by 50.7% (95% CI 27.8% to 73.6%) following a sodium metabisulphite challenge. The response to a sodium metabisulphite challenge was reduced by a mean of 80.2% (95% CI 68.9% to 91.5%) when it followed a sodium metabisulphite challenge, and by 37.3% (95% CI 15.1% to 59.5%) following an exercise challenge. CONCLUSION: This study shows some cross refractoriness between exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction, in keeping with a partially shared mechanism of refractoriness.

Pavord I, Hall I, Wahedna I, Cooper S, Tattersfield A. 1994. Effect of 443c81, an inhaled mu-opioid receptor agonist in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy, 24 (2), pp. 144-148. | Show Abstract | Read more

Stimulation of exposed C-fibre afferent nerve endings by inflammatory mediators may contribute to airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction in asthma through the release of neuropeptides from collateral nerve endings. The polar opioid peptide 443c81 is a mu-opioid receptor agonist which inhibits C-fibre activation and non-cholinergic neurally mediated bronchoconstriction in animal models. We have compared the effect of 443c81 (5 ml of a 4 mg/ml solution nebulized) four times daily for 7 days with placebo on asthma control in a double-blind parallel group study of 40 subjects with mild asthma. Twenty subjects (12 male, mean FEV1 83% predicted) received placebo and 20 (15 male, mean FEV1 91% predicted) 443c81 after a 1 week run-in. Efficacy was assessed by comparing changes from baseline values in FEV1, provocative dose of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20), symptom scores, bronchodilator use and home peak flow readings. 443c81 had no acute effect on FEV1 and the mean changes in FEV1 after 1 week of treatment were not significantly different (placebo -0.9%; 443c81-3.8%). One hour after the first dose of 443c81 PD20 increased from a geometric mean of 0.88 to 1.48 mumol (mean change 0.76 doubling doses; 95% CI 0.23, 1.29) but this did not differ significantly from the change with placebo (mean difference between 443c81 and placebo 0.63 doubling doses; 95% CI -0.2, 1.5; P = 0.095). After 1 week's treatment, PD20 was similar to baseline values with 443c81 (0.78 mumol) and placebo (baseline 0.71, post-treatment 0.93 mumol).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pavord ID, Wisniewski A, Tattersfield AE. 1994. Refractoriness to inhaled sodium metabisulphite in subjects with mild asthma. Eur Respir J, 7 (1), pp. 50-54. | Show Abstract | Read more

Refractoriness occurs after challenges causing mediator release in asthma, by a mechanism which may involve inhibitory prostaglandins. Bronchoconstriction due to inhaled sodium metabisulphite is thought to involve neural pathways and to be independent of mediator release; whether it shows refractoriness is uncertain. We have sought evidence of refractoriness to the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled sodium metabisulphite in subjects with mild asthma, and have tested the hypothesis that the development of refractoriness invol