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: Soluble forms of the coinhibitory receptors programmed death 1 (PD-1) and Tim-3 exist, but their relationship with T-cell surface expression remains unclear. When measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma, soluble PD-1, and soluble Tim-3 were elevated during primary HIV infection, decreased on antiretroviral therapy to levels found in controls, and correlated with cell surface expression. We conclude that soluble PD-1 and soluble Tim-3 are easy to measure biomarkers of immune exhaustion which potentially eliminate the need for flow cytometry.

Original publication




Journal article


AIDS (London, England)

Publication Date





1253 - 1256


Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford.


CHERUB Investigators, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Plasma, Humans, HIV Infections, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Male, Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor, Biomarkers, Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2