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BackgroundCambodia introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in January 2015 using a 3 + 0 dosing schedule and no catch-up campaign. We investigated the effects of this introduction on pneumococcal colonization and invasive disease in children aged <5 years.MethodsThere were 6 colonization surveys done between January 2014 and January 2018 in children attending the outpatient department of a nongovernmental pediatric hospital in Siem Reap. Nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed by phenotypic and genotypic methods to detect pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial resistance. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) data for January 2012-December 2018 were retrieved from hospital databases. Pre-PCV IPD data and pre-/post-PCV colonization data were modelled to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE).ResultsComparing 2014 with 2016-2018, and using adjusted prevalence ratios, VE estimates for colonization were 16.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.6-21.8) for all pneumococci and 39.2% (95% CI 26.7-46.1) for vaccine serotype (VT) pneumococci. There was a 26.0% (95% CI 17.7-33.0) decrease in multidrug-resistant pneumococcal colonization. The IPD incidence was estimated to have declined by 26.4% (95% CI 14.4-35.8) by 2018, with a decrease of 36.3% (95% CI 23.8-46.9) for VT IPD and an increase of 101.4% (95% CI 62.0-145.4) for non-VT IPD.ConclusionsFollowing PCV13 introduction into the Cambodian immunization schedule, there have been declines in VT pneumococcal colonization and disease in children aged <5 years. Modelling of dominant serotype colonization data produced plausible VE estimates.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciz481

Type

Journal article

Journal

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Publication Date

04/2020

Volume

70

Pages

1580 - 1588

Addresses

Cambodia Oxford Medical Research Unit, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap.

Keywords

Humans, Pneumococcal Infections, Pneumococcal Vaccines, Vaccines, Conjugate, Child, Child, Preschool, Infant, Cambodia, Serogroup, Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Asians