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OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at describing characteristics and outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in HIV-positive patients and comparing these parameters with those of extrapulmonary TB (TBEP) and pulmonary TB (TBP). METHODS: Kaplan-Meier estimation and Poisson regression models were used to assess the mortality following TB diagnosis and to evaluate potential prognostic factors for the 3 groups of TB patients separately. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients with TBM, 601 with TBEP, and 371 TBP were included. Patients with TBM had lower CD4 cell counts and only 17.0% received antiretroviral therapy (ART) at TB diagnosis. The cumulative probability of death at 12 months following TB was 51.2% for TBM (95% CI 41.4-61.6%), 12.3% for TBP (8.9-15.7%), and 19.4% for TBEP (16.1-22.6) (P<0.0001; log-rank test). For TBM, factors associated with a poorer prognosis were not being on ART (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 4.00 (1.72-9.09), a prior AIDS diagnosis (aIRR=4.82 (2.61-8.92)), and receiving care in Eastern Europe (aIRR=5.41 (2.58-11.34))). CONCLUSIONS: TBM among HIV-positive patients was associated with a high mortality rate, especially for patients from Eastern Europe and patients with advanced HIV-infection, which urgently calls for public health interventions to improve both TB and HIV aspects of patient management.

Original publication

DOI

10.1155/2013/373601

Type

Journal article

Journal

BioMed research international

Publication Date

01/2013

Volume

2013

Addresses

Copenhagen HIV Programme, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen University Hospital and University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Keywords

HIV/TB Study Group, Humans, HIV, Tuberculosis, Meningeal, HIV Infections, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Treatment Outcome, Risk Factors, Adult, Argentina, Europe, Female, Male, Kaplan-Meier Estimate