Insights and challenges in tuberculosis vaccine development.
Tuberculosis kills more people than any other pathogen and the need for a universally effective vaccine has never been greater. An effective vaccine will be a key tool in achieving the targets set by WHO in the End TB Strategy. Tuberculosis vaccine development is difficult and slow. Substantial progress has been made in research and development of tuberculosis vaccines in the past 20 years, and two clinical trial results from 2018 provide reason for optimism. However, many challenges to the successful licensure and deployment of an effective tuberculosis vaccine remain. The development of new tools for vaccine evaluation might facilitate these processes, and continued collaborative working and sustained funding will be essential.