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The spread of resistance to insecticides in disease-carrying mosquitoes poses a threat to the effectiveness of control programmes, which rely largely on insecticide-based interventions. Monitoring mosquito populations is essential, but obtaining phenotypic measurements of resistance is laborious and error-prone. High-throughput genotyping offers the prospect of quick and repeatable estimates of resistance, while also allowing resistance markers to be tracked and studied. To demonstrate the potential of highly-mulitplexed genotypic screening for measuring resistance-association of mutations and tracking their spread, we developed a panel of 28 known or putative resistance markers in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, which we used to screen mosquitoes from a wide swathe of Sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Kenya). We found resistance association in four markers, including a novel mutation in the detoxification gene Gste2 (Gste2-119V). We also identified a duplication in Gste2 combining a resistance-associated mutation with its wild-type counterpart, potentially alleviating the costs of resistance. Finally, we describe the distribution of the multiple origins of kdr resistance, finding unprecedented diversity in the DRC. This panel represents the first step towards a quantitative genotypic model of insecticide resistance that can be used to predict resistance status in An. gambiae.

Original publication




Journal article


Scientific reports

Publication Date





Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.


Animals, Anopheles, Malaria, Glutathione Transferase, Insect Proteins, Genetic Markers, Insecticides, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Insecticide Resistance, Africa South of the Sahara, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Genotyping Techniques, Mosquito Vectors