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Drugs remain the most important tool for the treatment and control of both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although there have been several advances in the past decade, with the introduction of new therapies by liposomal amphotericin, oral miltefosine and paromomycin (PM), these are not ideal drugs, and improved shorter duration, less toxic and cheaper therapies are required. Treatments for complex forms of leishmaniasis and HIV co-infections are inadequate. In addition, full deployment of drugs in treatment and control requires defined strategies, which can also prevent or delay the development of drug resistance.

Original publication





Publication Date





223 - 274


Department for Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.


Animals, Dogs, Humans, HIV Infections, Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic, Leishmaniasis, Dog Diseases, Antiprotozoal Agents, Pregnancy, Drug Resistance, Health Policy, Female