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Measuring the burden of typhoid fever and developing effective strategies to reduce it require a surveillance infrastructure that is currently lacking in many endemic countries. Recent efforts and partnerships between local and international researchers have helped to provide new data on the incidence and control of typhoid in parts of Asia and Africa. Here, we highlight examples from India, Nepal, Vietnam, Fiji, Sierra Leone, and Malawi that summarize past and present experiences with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of typhoid fever in different locations with endemic disease. While there is no validated road map for the elimination of typhoid, the lessons learned in studying the epidemiology and control of typhoid in these settings can provide insights to guide future disease control efforts.

Original publication




Journal article


Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Publication Date





S395 - S401


Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.


Humans, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella typhi, Typhoid Fever, Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines, Incidence, Endemic Diseases, Communicable Disease Control, Cost of Illness, Africa, Asia, Epidemiological Monitoring