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The 12 Arab countries of the Middle East are inhabited by 21 species of terrestrial venomous snakes of varying medical importance. This review considers these species, consisting of 16 viperids, 3 elapids and 2 atractaspidines. Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen report the largest numbers of snakebites and envenomings. Accessible literature in English and Arabic on venomous snakes and snakebites and available antivenoms is reviewed. Clinical effects include potentially misleading symptoms attributable to anxiety and traditional pre-hospital treatments.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.01.012

Type

Journal article

Journal

Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology

Publication Date

04/2020

Volume

177

Pages

1 - 15

Addresses

Biology Department, Jordan University for Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan. Electronic address: amrz@just.edu.jo.

Keywords

Animals, Snakes, Elapidae, Snake Bites, Middle East