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Purpose of reviewThe aim of this study was to identify similarities, differences and lessons to be shared from recent progress in HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunotherapeutic approaches.Recent findingsImmune dysregulation is a hallmark of both HIV and HBV infection, which have shared routes of transmission, with approximately 10% of HIV-positive patients worldwide being coinfected with HBV. Immune modulation therapies to orchestrate effective innate and adaptive immune responses are currently being sought as potential strategies towards a functional cure in both HIV and HBV infection. These are based on activating immunological mechanisms that would allow durable control by triggering innate immunity, reviving exhausted endogenous responses and/or generating new immune responses. Recent technological advances and increased appreciation of humoral responses in the control of HIV have generated renewed enthusiasm in the cure field.SummaryFor both HIV and HBV infection, a primary consideration with immunomodulatory therapies continues to be a balance between generating highly effective immune responses and mitigating any significant toxicity. A large arsenal of new approaches and ongoing research offer the opportunity to define the pathways that underpin chronic infection and move closer to a functional cure.

Original publication




Journal article


Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

Publication Date





157 - 164


Division of Infection and Immunity, UCL, London.


Humans, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B, Chronic, HIV Infections, Antiviral Agents, Immunotherapy