Bacteremia Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Vientiane, Lao PDR: A 5-Year Study.
Chang K., Rattanavong S., Mayxay M., Keoluangkhot V., Davong V., Vongsouvath M., Luangraj M., Simpson AJH., Newton PN., Dance DAB.
Although there has been an increasing incidence of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) across South East Asia, there are sparse data from the Lao PDR, where laboratory capacity for antimicrobial resistance surveillance is limited. We, therefore, retrospectively reviewed bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae between 2010 and 2014 at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR. Clinical and laboratory data relating to all episodes of ESBL-E bacteremia were reviewed over the 5-year period and compared with non-ESBL-E bacteremia. Blood cultures positive for E. coli or K. pneumoniae were identified retrospectively from laboratory records. Clinical and laboratory data were extracted from research databases and case notes and analyzed using STATA. Between 2010 and 2014, we identified 360 patients with E. coli (n = 249) or K. pneumoniae (n = 111) bacteremia, representing 34.8% of all patients with clinically significant bacteremia. Seventy-two (20%) isolates produced ESBL; E. coli accounted for 15.3% (55/360) and K. pneumoniae for 4.7% (17/360), respectively. The incidence of ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia rose during the study period. By multiple logistic analysis, reported antibiotic use in the previous week was significantly associated with ESBL positivity (P < 0.001, odds ratio 3.89). Although multiresistant, most ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae remained susceptible to meropenem (65/65; 100%) and amikacin (64/65; 98.5%). We demonstrated an alarming increase in the incidence of ESBL-E as a cause of bacteremia in Vientiane during the study period. This has implications for empiric therapy of sepsis in Laos, and ongoing surveillance is essential.