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The loss of self-tolerance leading to autoimmune type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model involves at least 19 genetic loci. In addition to their genetic defects in self-tolerance, NOD mice resist peripheral transplantation tolerance induced by costimulation blockade using donor-specific transfusion and anti-CD154 antibody. Hypothesizing that these two abnormalities might be related, we investigated whether they could be uncoupled through a genetic approach. Diabetes-resistant NOD and C57BL/6 stocks congenic for various reciprocally introduced Idd loci were assessed for their ability to be tolerized. Surprisingly, in NOD congenic mice that are almost completely protected from diabetes, costimulation blockade failed to prolong skin allograft survival. In reciprocal C57BL/6 congenic mice with NOD-derived Idd loci, skin allograft survival was readily prolonged by costimulation blockade. These data indicate that single or multiple combinations of evaluated Idd loci that dramatically reduce diabetes frequency do not correct resistance to peripheral transplantation tolerance induced by costimulation blockade. We suggest that mechanisms controlling autoimmunity and transplantation tolerance in NOD mice are not completely overlapping and are potentially distinct, or that the genetic threshold for normalizing the transplantation tolerance defect is higher than that for preventing autoimmune diabetes.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





321 - 326


Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605, USA.


Animals, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred NOD, Mice, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, CD40 Ligand, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Blood Transfusion, Skin Transplantation, Antibody Specificity, Transplantation Tolerance, Graft Survival, Time Factors, Immunity, Innate