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Autoreactive T cells clearly mediate the pancreatic beta cell destruction causing type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, studies in NOD mice indicate that B cells also contribute to pathogenesis because their ablation by introduction of an Igmunull mutation elicits T1D resistance. T1D susceptibility is restored in NOD.Igmunull mice that are irradiated and reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow plus NOD B cells, but not syngeneic bone marrow alone. Thus, we hypothesized some non-MHC T1D susceptibility (Idd) genes contribute to disease by allowing development of pathogenic B cells. Supporting this hypothesis was the finding that unlike those from NOD donors, engraftment with B cells from H2g7 MHC-matched, but T1D-resistant, nonobese-resistant (NOR) mice failed to restore full disease susceptibility in NOD.Igmunull recipients. T1D resistance in NOR mice is mainly encoded within the Idd13, Idd5.2, and Idd9/11 loci. B cells from NOD congenic stocks containing Idd9/11 or Idd5.1/5.2-resistance loci, respectively, derived from the NOR or C57BL/10 strains were characterized by suppressed diabetogenic activity. Immature autoreactive B cells in NOD mice have an impaired ability to be rendered anergic upon Ag engagement. Interestingly, both Idd5.1/5.2 and Idd9/11-resistance loci were found to normalize this B cell tolerogenic process, which may represent a mechanism contributing to the inhibition of T1D.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Publication Date





7033 - 7041


The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.


B-Lymphocyte Subsets, Animals, Mice, Congenic, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred NOD, Mice, Transgenic, Mice, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Markers, Lymphocyte Activation, Cell Differentiation, Clonal Anergy, Gene Deletion, Female, Immunity, Innate