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A new model of sperm axoneme with 16 + 0 doublets is described. The spermatozoon of Acerentulus confinis (Apterygota : Protura) has a short conical acrosome, a long helicoidal nucleus, well-developed centriolar adjunct material, and a long flagellum. Using fixation with a glutaraldehyde-tannic acid mixture, without osmium post-fixation, doublet protofilaments, inner dynein arms, radial spokes, nexin bridges, and Y-links of the sperm axoneme of A. confinis and Acerentomon italicum were clearly observed. Optical observation shows that the proturan flagellate spermatozoa are motile cells. The process involving the transformation of the spermatozoa from a coiled to an elongated swimming form was studied by scanning electron microscope. The findings confirmed that flagellar motility is due to the presence of a single dynein arm on doublets in spite of the unusual axonemal pattern. © 1992.

Original publication




Journal article


International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology

Publication Date





137 - 148