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Recent developments in the use of viruses as vaccine vectors have been facilitated by a better understanding of viral biology. Advances occur as we gain greater insight into the interrelationship of viruses and the immune system. Viral-vector vaccines remain the best means to induce cellular immunity and are now showing promise for the induction of strong humoral responses. The potential benefits for global health that are offered by this field reflect the scope and utility of viruses as vaccine vectors for human and veterinary applications, with targets ranging from certain types of cancer to a vast array of infectious diseases.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Rev Microbiol

Publication Date





62 - 73


Communicable Disease Control, Genetic Vectors, Humans, Immunity, Cellular, Immunity, Humoral, Neoplasms, Vaccination, Vaccines, Viruses