Community-level consumption of antibiotics according to the AWaRe (Access, Watch, Reserve) classification in rural Vietnam
Nguyen NV., Do NTT., Nguyen CTK., Tran TK., Ho PD., Nguyen HH., Vu HTL., Wertheim HFL., van Doorn HR., Lewycka S.
Abstract Objectives To review community-level consumption of antibiotics in rural Vietnam, according to the WHO Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) classification of 2019, and identify factors associated with the choice of these antibiotics. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data on antibiotic purchases were collected through a customer exit survey of 20 community antibiotic suppliers in Ba Vi District, Hanoi, between September 2017 and July 2018. Antibiotic consumption was estimated through the number of antibiotic encounters, the number of DDDs supplied and the number of treatment days (DOTs) with antibiotics, and analysed according to the AWaRe classification. The factors associated with watch-group antibiotic supply were identified through multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results In total, there were 1342 antibiotic encounters, with access-group antibiotics supplied in 792 encounters (59.0%), watch-group antibiotics supplied in 527 encounters (39.3%) and not-recommended antibiotics supplied in 23 encounters (1.7%). No reserve-group antibiotics were supplied. In children, the consumption of watch-group antibiotics dominated in all three measures (54.8% of encounters, 53.0% of DOTs and 53.6% of DDDs). Factors associated with a higher likelihood of watch-group antibiotic supply were: private pharmacy (OR, 4.23; 95% CI, 2.8–6.38; P < 0.001), non-prescription antibiotic sale (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.78–3.87; P < 0.001) and children (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.84–3.55; P < 0.001). Conclusions High consumption of watch-group antibiotics was observed, especially for use in children. The frequent supply of watch-group antibiotics at private pharmacies reconfirms the need for implementing pharmacy-targeted interventions in Vietnam.