Characterization of humoral and SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses in people living with HIV.
Alrubayyi A., Gea-Mallorquí E., Touizer E., Hameiri-Bowen D., Kopycinski J., Charlton B., Fisher-Pearson N., Muir L., Rosa A., Roustan C., Earl C., Cherepanov P., Pellegrino P., Waters L., Burns F., Kinloch S., Dong T., Dorrell L., Rowland-Jones S., McCoy LE., Peppa D.
There is an urgent need to understand the nature of immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, to inform risk-mitigation strategies for people living with HIV (PLWH). We show that the majority of PLWH, controlled on ART, mount a functional adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Humoral and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are comparable between HIV-positive and negative subjects and persist 5-7 months following predominately mild COVID-19 disease. T cell responses against Spike, Membrane and Nucleocapsid are the most prominent, with SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells outnumbering CD8 T cells. We further show that the overall magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses relates to the size of the naive CD4 T cell pool and the CD4:CD8 ratio in PLWH, in whom disparate antibody and T cell responses are observed. These findings suggest that inadequate immune reconstitution on ART, could hinder immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 with implications for the individual management and vaccine effectiveness in PLWH.