Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BackgroundAdvance care planning (ACP) can improve the quality of life of patients suffering from heart failure (HF). However, primary care healthcare professionals (HCPs) find ACP difficult to engage with and patient care remains suboptimal.AimTo explore the views of primary care HCPs on how to improve their engagement with ACP in HF.Design and settingA qualitative interview study with GPs and primary care nurses in England.MethodSemi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 24 primary care HCPs. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis.ResultsThree main themes were constructed from the data: ACP as integral to holistic care in HF; potentially limiting factors to the doctor-patient relationship; and approaches to improve professional performance. Many HCPs saw the benefits of ACP as synonymous with providing holistic care and improving patients' quality of life. However, some feared that initiating ACP could irrevocably damage their doctor-patient relationship. Their own fear of death and dying, a lack of disease-specific communication skills, and uncertainty about the right timing were significant barriers to ACP. To optimise their engagement with ACP in HF, HCPs recommended better clinician-patient dialogue through question prompts, enhanced shared decision-making approaches, synchronising ACP across medical specialties, and disease-specific training.ConclusionGPs and primary care nurses are vital to deliver ACP for patients suffering from HF. HCPs highlighted important areas to improve their practice and the urgent need for investigations into better clinician-patient engagement with ACP.

Original publication




Journal article


The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners

Publication Date





e550 - e560


Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.


Humans, Physician-Patient Relations, Qualitative Research, Quality of Life, Advance Care Planning, Primary Health Care, Heart Failure