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Djibouti is an East African country with a high tuberculosis incidence. This study was conducted over a 2-month period in Djibouti, during which 62 consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were included. Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit variable-number tandem-repeat typing and spoligotyping, was performed. The genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed only three major families (Central Asian, East African Indian and T). The high diversity and linkage disequilibrium within each family suggest a long period of clonal evolution. A Bayesian approach shows that the phylogenetic structure observed in our sample of 62 isolates is very likely to be representative of the phylogenetic structure of the M. tuberculosis population in the total number of TB cases.

Original publication




Journal article


Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Publication Date





1023 - 1026


Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie Arnaud de Villeneuve, Université Montpellier 1, EA 4205 Transmission, Pathogenèse et Prévention de l'Infection par le VIH, and CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France.


Humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, DNA, Bacterial, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Evolution, Molecular, Phylogeny, Base Sequence, Linkage Disequilibrium, Polymorphism, Genetic, Djibouti, Genetic Variation