The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Molecule N-3-(Oxododecanoyl)-l-Homoserine Lactone Inhibits T-Cell Differentiation and Cytokine Production by a Mechanism Involving an Early Step in T-Cell Activation
Ritchie AJ., Jansson A., Stallberg J., Nilsson P., Lysaght P., Cooley MA.
ABSTRACT The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (OdDHL) has been reported to have immunomodulatory activity in several systems, although the mechanism of that activity remains to be fully characterized. We demonstrate here, using a defined in vitro model of antigen responses by T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mouse splenic CD4 T cells, that the effect of OdDHL on activation and cytokine production is complete within 4 h of antigen or mitogen stimulation and does not depend on the insertion of OdDHL in the cell membrane, despite a previous report that immunosuppression by homoserine lactones required a minimum acyl chain length of 11 carbons (S. R. Chhabra, C. Harty, D. S. W. Hooi, M. Daykin, B. W. Bycroft, P. Williams, and D. Pritchard, J. Med. Chem. 46:97-104, 2003). We also demonstrate that while OdDHL can have toxic effects on nonlymphoid leukocytes, it does not induce significant cell death in T cells at the concentrations (≤10 μM) used in these experiments. In addition, we show that primary and secondary antigen-specific cytokine responses are equally susceptible to inhibition by OdDHL and that the compound inhibits the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. However, the precise balance of cytokine production by CD4 T cells stimulated in the presence of OdDHL varies with both the antigen concentration and its affinity for the transgenic TCR. Thus, conflicting reports of the nature of the immunosuppression by OdDHL may be due in part to the differences in antigen affinity and concentration in different models.