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Off-axis electron holography is used to measure electrostatic potential profiles across a silicon p-n junction, which has been prepared for examination in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) in two different specimen geometries using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Results are obtained both from a conventional unbiased FIB-milled sample and using a novel sample geometry that allows a reverse bias to be applied to an FIB-milled sample in situ in the TEM. Computer simulations are fitted to the results to assess the effect of TEM specimen preparation on the charge density and the electrostatic potential in the thin sample.

Original publication




Journal article


Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada

Publication Date





66 - 78


Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.