Common variable immunodeficiency is associated with a functional deficiency of invariant natural killer T cells.
Gao Y., Workman S., Gadola S., Elliott T., Grimbacher B., Williams AP.
BackgroundCommon variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the commonest symptomatic primary antibody disorder, with monogenic causes identified in less than 10% of all cases. X-linked proliferative disease is a monogenic disorder that is associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and characterized by a deficiency of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. We sought to evaluate whether a defect in iNKT cell number or function was associated with CVID.ObjectiveAn evaluation of the function and number of iNKT cells in CVID.MethodsSix-color flow cytometry enumerated iNKT cells in 36 patients with CVID and 50 healthy controls. Their proliferative capacity and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17) was then investigated following activation with CD1d ligand alpha-galactosylceramide.ResultsA reduction in the number of iNKT cells (31 iNKT cells/10(5) T cells) in patients with CVID compared with healthy controls (100 iNKT cells/10(5) T cells) was observed (P < .0001). Two cohorts could be discerned within the CVID group: group 1 with an abnormal number of iNKT cells (n = 28) and group 2 with a normal number of iNKT cells (n = 8). This segregation coassociated with the proliferative capacity of iNKT cells between the 2 groups. However, differences in the function of iNKT cells were noted in group 2, in which an increase in IFN-γ (P = .0016) and a decrease in IL-17 (P = .0002) production was observed between patients with CVID and controls. Finally, a significant association was seen between the number of iNKT cells and the percentage of class-switched memory B cells and propensity to lymphoproliferation (P = .002) in patients with CVID.ConclusioniNKT cells are deficient and/or functionally impaired in most of the patients with CVID.