Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of alpha-GalCer epimers.
Trappeniers M., Goormans S., Van Beneden K., Decruy T., Linclau B., Al-Shamkhani A., Elliott T., Ottensmeier C., Werner JM., Elewaut D., Van Calenbergh S.
alpha-GalCer (also known as KRN7000) is an immunomodulatory glycolipid that is known to potently activate invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells upon CD1d-mediated stimulation. Because Th1 and Th2 cytokines, which are released after alpha-GalCer presentation, antagonize each other's effects, alpha-GalCer analogues that induce a biased Th1/Th2 response are highly awaited. In this context, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of alpha-Gal-D-xylo-Cer and two alpha-Gal-L-lyxo-Cer analogues, one with the natural acyl chain, the other with a truncated chain.