Evaluation strategies for measuring pneumococcal conjugate vaccine impact in low-resource settings.
von Mollendorf C., Lim R., Choummanivong M., Sychareun V., Vilivong K., Lai JYR., Chan J., Dunne EM., Phommachanh S., Moore KA., Ortika BD., Gray A., Weaver R., Mayxay M., Phetsouvanh R., Datta SS., Fox K., Newton PN., Mulholland KE., Nguyen CD., Dance DAB., Satzke C., Russell FM.
Objectives: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in reducing pneumococcal disease. We measured 13-valent PCV (PCV13) effect on different pneumococcal outcomes using diverse studies in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos).Methods: Studies included: pre-PCV13 population-based record review of hospitalized childhood pneumonia cases; acute respiratory infection (ARI) study post-PCV13 to demonstrate effectiveness (VE) against hypoxic pneumonia; invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance in all ages (2004-2018); carriage studies in children hospitalized with ARI (2013-2019); community carriage surveys pre- and post-PCV13.Results: Annual pneumonia incidence rate in children 2-59 months pre-PCV13 was 1,530 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1,477-1,584) per 100,000. Adjusted VE against hypoxic pneumonia was 37% (95% CI 6-57%). For IPD, 85% (11/13) of cases were due to vaccine-types prior to PCV13, and 43% (3/7) post-PCV13 in children aged <5 years; for ≥5 years, this was 61% (27/44) and 42% (17/40), respectively. For ARI cases, adjusted VE for vaccine-type carriage was 39% (95% CI 4-60) in <5 year olds; slightly higher than community surveys (23% [95% CI 4-39%] in 12-23 month olds).Conclusions: Despite limited baseline data, we found evidence of PCV13 impact on disease and carriage. Our approach could be used in similar settings to augment existing WHO PCV evaluation guidelines.