Minimum inhibitory concentrations of commercial essential oils against common chicken pathogenic bacteria and their relationship with antibiotic resistance.
Van NTB., Vi OT., Yen NTP., Nhung NT., Cuong NV., Kiet BT., Hoang NV., Hien VB., Thwaites G., Campell J., Choisy M., Carrique-Mas J.
AimsWe investigated the antibacterial effect of seven essential oils (EOs) and one EO-containing liquid phytogenic solution marketed for poultry and pigs ('Product A') on chicken pathogens, as well as the relationship between minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in EOs and antibiotics commonly administered to chicken flocks in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam).Methods and resultsMicellar extracts from oregano (Origanum vulgare), cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendra), garlic (Allium sativum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) EOs and Product A were investigated for their MIC against Avibacterium endocarditidis (N = 10), Pasteurella multocida (N = 7), Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) (N = 10), Escherichia coli (N = 10) and Gallibacterium anatis (N = 10). Cinnamon EO had the lowest median MIC across strains (median 0.5 mg/ml [IQR, interquartile range 0.3-2.0 mg/ml]), followed by Product A (3.8 mg/ml [1.9-3.8 mg/ml]), oregano EO (30.4 mg/ml [7.6-60.8 mg/ml]) and garlic 63.1 mg/ml [3.9 to >505.0 mg/ml]. Peppermint, tea tree, cajeput and pepper EOs had all MIC ≥219 mg/ml. In addition, we determined the MIC of the 12 most commonly used antibiotics in chicken flocks in the area. After accounting for pathogen species, we found an independent, statistically significant (p ConclusionsIncreases in MIC of antibiotics generally correlates with increased tolerance to EOs. For cinnamon EO, however, the opposite was observed.Significance and impact of the studyOur results suggest increased antibacterial effects of EOs on multi-drug resistant pathogens; cinnamon EO was particularly effective against bacterial poultry pathogens.