AP180 promotes release site clearance and clathrin-dependent vesicle reformation in mouse cochlear inner hair cells
Kroll J., Özçete ÖD., Jung S., Maritzen T., Milosevic I., Wichmann C., Moser T.
High-throughput neurotransmission at ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) requires tight coupling of neurotransmitter release and balanced recycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs) as well as rapid restoration of release sites. Here, we examined the role of the adaptor protein AP180 for IHC synaptic transmission in AP180-KO mice using high-pressure freezing and electron tomography, confocal microscopy, patch-clamp membrane-capacitance measurements and systems physiology. AP180 was found predominantly at the synaptic pole of IHCs. AP180-deficient IHCs had severely reduced SV numbers, slowed endocytic membrane retrieval, and accumulated endocytic intermediates near ribbon synapses, indicating that AP180 is required for clathrin-dependent endocytosis and SV reformation in IHCs. Moreover, AP180 deletion led to a high prevalence of SVs in a multi-tethered or docked state after stimulation, a reduced rate of SV replenishment, and a hearing impairment. We conclude that, in addition to its role in clathrin recruitment, AP180 contributes to release site clearance in IHCs.