Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

ObjectivesSuboptimal breastfeeding contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Studies in high-income countries (HICs) show that exclusive-breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with longer breastfeeding duration. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal reports of EBF at six months are associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first two years of life in a low and middle-income country (LMIC) setting, and to identify determinants of breastfeeding duration.MethodsThis prospective cohort includes data from an EBF promotion program in Demak District, Central Java Province, Indonesia, with a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. Mothers and infants were followed through 26 months postnatal age. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression with time to cessation of EBF as the outcome.ResultsA total of 147 families were included in the study. Longer EBF duration was not associated with prolonged duration of breastfeeding. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with mothers who disagreed with a statement of being ashamed to breastfeed (HR 0.035, 95%CI 0.003,0.44). Risk factors for shorter breastfeeding duration included mothers' plan to breastfeed for less than 24 months (HR 4.28 95%CI 1.91,9.60), mothers' belief that breastfeeding less than 24 months was the norm (HR 2.98 95%CI 1.31,6.77) and exposure to EBF promotion (HR:4.09 95%CI 2.14,7.82).ConclusionsIn a LMIC community where long breastfeeding duration is common, EBF is not associated with breastfeeding duration. However, modifiable behavioral factors were significant predictors of breastfeeding duration. We therefore recommend that prolonged breastfeeding duration can be achieved through programs that improve breastfeeding behavior.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





163 - 171


Department of Nutrition, Department of Applied Midwifery, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Poltekkes Kemenkes Semarang, Jl. Wolter Monginsidi 115 Semarang 52192, Indonesia. Electronic address:


Humans, Cohort Studies, Prospective Studies, Attitude to Health, Mothers, Breast Feeding, Pregnancy, Time Factors, Income, Indonesia, Female