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ObjectivesTo describe the pattern of drug resistance at virological failure in the NEAT001/ANRS143 trial (first-line treatment with ritonavir-boosted darunavir plus either tenofovir/emtricitabine or raltegravir).MethodsGenotypic testing was performed at baseline for reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes and for RT, protease and integrase (IN) genes for patients with a confirmed viral load (VL) >50 copies/mL or any single VL >500 copies/mL during or after week 32.ResultsA resistance test was obtained for 110/805 (13.7%) randomized participants qualifying for resistance analysis (61/401 of participants in the raltegravir arm and 49/404 of participants in the tenofovir/emtricitabine arm). No resistance-associated mutation (RAM) was observed in the tenofovir/emtricitabine plus darunavir/ritonavir arm, and all further analyses were limited to the raltegravir plus darunavir arm. In this group, 15/55 (27.3%) participants had viruses with IN RAMs (12 N155H alone, 1 N155H + Q148R, 1 F121Y and 1 Y143C), 2/53 (3.8%) with nucleotide analogue RT inhibitor RAMs (K65R, M41L) and 1/57 (1.8%) with primary protease RAM (L76V). The frequency of IN mutations at failure was significantly associated with baseline VL: 7.1% for a VL of <100,000 copies/mL, 25.0% for a VL of ≥100,000 copies/mL and <500,000 copies/mL and 53.8% for a VL of ≥500,000 copies/mL (PTREND = 0.007). Of note, 4/15 participants with IN RAM had a VL ConclusionsIn the NEAT001/ANRS143 trial, there was no RAM at virological failure in the standard tenofovir/emtricitabine plus darunavir/ritonavir regimen, contrasting with a rate of 29.5% (mostly IN mutations) in the raltegravir plus darunavir/ritonavir NRTI-sparing regimen. The cumulative risk of IN RAM after 96 weeks of follow-up in participants initiating ART with raltegravir plus darunavir/ritonavir was 3.9%.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

Publication Date





1056 - 1062


Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, INSERM, UMR_S 1136, AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service de Virologie, Paris, F-75013, France


NEAT 001/ANRS 143 Study Group, Humans, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Anti-HIV Agents, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Treatment Outcome, Treatment Failure, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Viral Load, Follow-Up Studies, Drug Resistance, Viral, Mutation, Adult, Middle Aged, Female, Male