Anti-GD2 synergizes with CD47 blockade to mediate tumor eradication.
Theruvath J., Menard M., Smith BAH., Linde MH., Coles GL., Dalton GN., Wu W., Kiru L., Delaidelli A., Sotillo E., Silberstein JL., Geraghty AC., Banuelos A., Radosevich MT., Dhingra S., Heitzeneder S., Tousley A., Lattin J., Xu P., Huang J., Nasholm N., He A., Kuo TC., Sangalang ERB., Pons J., Barkal A., Brewer RE., Marjon KD., Vilches-Moure JG., Marshall PL., Fernandes R., Monje M., Cochran JR., Sorensen PH., Daldrup-Link HE., Weissman IL., Sage J., Majeti R., Bertozzi CR., Weiss WA., Mackall CL., Majzner RG.
The disialoganglioside GD2 is overexpressed on several solid tumors, and monoclonal antibodies targeting GD2 have substantially improved outcomes for children with high-risk neuroblastoma. However, approximately 40% of patients with neuroblastoma still relapse, and anti-GD2 has not mediated significant clinical activity in any other GD2+ malignancy. Macrophages are important mediators of anti-tumor immunity, but tumors resist macrophage phagocytosis through expression of the checkpoint molecule CD47, a so-called 'Don't eat me' signal. In this study, we establish potent synergy for the combination of anti-GD2 and anti-CD47 in syngeneic and xenograft mouse models of neuroblastoma, where the combination eradicates tumors, as well as osteosarcoma and small-cell lung cancer, where the combination significantly reduces tumor burden and extends survival. This synergy is driven by two GD2-specific factors that reorient the balance of macrophage activity. Ligation of GD2 on tumor cells (a) causes upregulation of surface calreticulin, a pro-phagocytic 'Eat me' signal that primes cells for removal and (b) interrupts the interaction of GD2 with its newly identified ligand, the inhibitory immunoreceptor Siglec-7. This work credentials the combination of anti-GD2 and anti-CD47 for clinical translation and suggests that CD47 blockade will be most efficacious in combination with monoclonal antibodies that alter additional pro- and anti-phagocytic signals within the tumor microenvironment.