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The daily oscillations of bi ological and behavioural processes are controlled by the circadian clock circuitry that drives the physiology of the organism and, in particular, the functioning of the immune system in response to infectious agents. Circadian rhythmicity is known to affect both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pharmacological agents and vaccine-elicited immune responses. A better understanding of the role circadian pathways play in the regulation of virus replication will impact our clinical management of these diseases. This review summarises the experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between different viral pathogens and our biological clocks, emphasising the importance of continuing research on the role played by the biological clock in virus-host organism interaction.

Original publication




Journal article


Seminars in immunopathology

Publication Date



Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7FZ, UK.