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Enteric fever continues to impact millions of people who lack adequate access to clean water and sanitation. The typhoid and paratyphoid fever burden in South Asia is broadly acknowledged, but current estimates of incidence, severity, and cost of illness from India are lacking. This supplement addresses this gap in our knowledge, presenting findings from two years of surveillance, conducted at multiple sites between October 2017 and February 2020, in the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in India (SEFI) network. Results provide contemporaneous evidence of high disease burden and cost of illness-the latter borne largely by patients in the absence of universal healthcare coverage in India. Against a backdrop of immediate priorities in the COVID-19 pandemic, these data are a reminder that typhoid, though often forgotten, remains a public health problem in India. Typhoid conjugate vaccines, produced by multiple Indian manufacturers, and recommended for use in high burden settings, ensure that the tools to tackle typhoid are an immediately available solution to this public health problem.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





S469 - S474


Enteric and Diarrheal Diseases, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, USA.