Prevalence of carbapenem resistance and its potential association with antimicrobial use in humans and animals in rural communities in Vietnam.
Yen NTP., Nhung NT., Phu DH., Dung NTT., Van NTB., Kiet BT., Hien VB., Larsson M., Olson L., Campbell J., Quynh NPN., Duy PT., Carrique-Mas J.
BackgroundVietnam and Southeast Asia are hotspots for antimicrobial resistance; however, little is known on the prevalence of carriage of carbapenem resistance in non-hospitalized humans and in animals. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), particularly Escherichia coli (CREC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and also Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are emerging threats worldwide.MethodsWe investigated healthy humans (n = 652), chickens (n = 237), ducks (n = 150) and pigs (n = 143) in 400 small-scale farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Samples (rectal swabs, faecal swabs) were investigated for carriage of CRE/CRAB and were further characterized phenotypically and genotypically.ResultsIn the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, the prevalence of CRE isolates in human rectal swabs was 0.6%, including 4 CREC and 1 CRKP. One pig was infected with CREC (prevalence 0.7%). CRAB was isolated from chickens (n = 4) (prevalence 2.1%) and one duck (prevalence 0.7%). CRKP was isolated from a human who was also colonized with CREC. The CRKP strain (ST16), from an 80 year-old person with pneumonia under antimicrobial treatment, genetically clustered with clinical strains isolated in a hospital outbreak in southern Vietnam. The prevalence of CRE was higher among humans that had used antimicrobials within 90 days of the sampling date than those had not (4.2% versus 0.2%) (P = 0.005). All CRE/CRAB strains were MDR, although they were susceptible to colistin and neomycin. The carbapenemase genes identified in study strains were bla NDM and bla OXA.ConclusionsThe finding of a CRKP strain clustering with previous hospital outbreak raises concerns about potential transmission of carbapenem-resistant organisms from hospital to community settings or vice-versa.