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ObjectivesAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant global health threat with substandard and falsified (SF) antibiotics being neglected contributing factors. With their relationships poorly understood, more research is needed in order to determine how interventions to reduce SF antibiotics should be ranked as priorities in national AMR action plans. We assessed the evidence available on the global prevalence of SF antibiotics, examined the quality of the evidence and discussed public health impact.Materials/MethodsWe searched PubMed, Embase, Google and Google Scholar for publications on antibiotic quality up to 31 December 2020. Publications reporting on the prevalence of SF antibiotics were evaluated for quantitative analysis and assessed using the Medicines Quality Assessment Reporting Guidelines.ResultsOf the 10 137 screened publications, 648 were relevant to antibiotic quality. One hundred and six (16.4%) surveys, published between 1992 and 2020 and conducted mainly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) (89.9% (480/534) of the data points), qualified for quantitative analysis. The total number of samples tested for quality in prevalence surveys was 13 555, with a median (Q1–Q3) number of samples per survey of 47 (21–135). Of the 13 555 samples, 2357 (17.4%) failed at least one quality test and the median failure frequency (FF) per survey was 19.6% (7.6%–35.0%). Amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin were the most surveyed antibiotics, with FF of 16.1% (355/2208), 26.2% (329/1255) and 10.4% (366/3511), respectively. We identified no SF survey data for antibiotics in the WHO ‘Reserve’ group. The mean Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guidelines score was 11 (95% CI 10.1 to 12.2) out of 26.ConclusionsSF antibiotics are widely spread with higher prevalence in LMICs. The quality of the evidence is poor, and these data are not generalisable that 17.4% of global antibiotic supply is SF. However, the evidence we have suggests that interventions to enhance regulatory, purchasing and financial mechanisms to improve the global antibiotic supply are needed.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42019124988.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Global Health



Publication Date





e008587 - e008587