Abattoir-based serological surveillance for transboundary and zoonotic diseases in cattle and swine in Cambodia: a pilot study in Phnom Penh province during 2019 and 2020.
Siengsanan-Lamont J., Tum S., Kong L., Selleck PW., Gleeson LJ., Blacksell SD.
A pilot animal disease surveillance program was implemented at four abattoirs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between October 2019 and January 2020. A total of 1141 samples were collected from 477 cattle and 664 swine. Serological testing was performed using commercial antibody ELISA kits for zoonotic and high-impact animal diseases, namely brucellosis, Q fever, classical swine fever (CSF), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and African swine fever (ASF). Only two samples tested positive for Brucella antibodies (0.2%, 95% CI 0.4-0.6, n = 1141). The seroprevalence of Q fever was 0.8% (95% CI 0.3-2.1, n = 477) in the cattle samples, while CSF, PRRS and ASF in pigs were 55.4% (95% CI 51.6-59.2, n = 655), 81.2% (95% CI 78.1-84.0, n = 655) and 2.6% (95% CI 1.6-4.1, n = 664), respectively. All 38 doubtful and 17 positive ASF antibody ELISA samples were negative when tested by real-time PCR. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the factor significantly associated with positive results of ASF was the abattoir location (p-value = 0.002). Based on logistic regression models, significant risk factors for CSF were province of origin (p-value = 1.7 × 10-6), abattoir (p-value = 3.6 × 10-11) and PRRS positivity (p-value = 0.004), and for PRRS were province of origin (p-value = 0.0004) and CSF positivity (p-value = 0.001). In conclusion, the seroprevalences of zoonotic diseases in this study were very low. The high prevalence of CSF and PRRS antibodies were most likely the result of vaccination. All ASF seropositive pigs, including those that gave equivocal results, originated from large-scale Cambodian-based commercial farms, as well as Thailand, which raises questions about possible illegal vaccination or low-pathogenicity ASF variants. The pilot abattoir serological surveillance program described here has the potential to provide a sentinel for incursions of novel and endemic pathogens, although further work is required to demonstrate its capacity to provide information on the longitudinal disease trends.