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BackgroundViet Nam has high rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) but little capacity for genomic surveillance. This study used whole genome sequencing to examine the prevalence and transmission of three key AMR pathogens in two intensive care units (ICUs) in Hanoi, Viet Nam.MethodsA prospective surveillance study of all adults admitted to ICUs at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases and Bach Mai Hospital was done between June 19, 2017, and Jan 16, 2018. Clinical and environmental samples were cultured on selective media, characterised with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry, and sequenced with Illumina. Phylogenies based on the de-novo assemblies (SPAdes) were constructed with MAFFT (PARsnp), Gubbins, and RAxML. Resistance genes were detected with Abricate against the US National Center for Biotechnology Information database.Findings3153 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from 369 patients were analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed predominant lineages within A baumannii (global clone 2, sequence types ST2 and ST571) and K pneumoniae (ST15, ST16, ST656, ST11, and ST147) isolates. Isolation from stool was most common with E coli (87·0%) followed by K pneumoniae (62·5%). Of the E coli, 85·0% carried a blaCTX-M variant, while 81·8% of K pneumoniae isolates carried blaNDM (54·4%), or blaKPC (45·1%), or both. Transmission analysis with single nucleotide polymorphisms identified 167 clusters involving 251 (68%) of 369 patients, in some cases involving patients from both ICUs. There were no clear differences between the lineages or AMR genes recovered between the two ICUs.InterpretationThis study represents the largest prospective surveillance study of key AMR pathogens in Vietnamese ICUs. Clusters of closely related isolates in patients across both ICUs suggests recent transmission before ICU admission in other health-care settings or in the community.FundingUK Medical Research Council Newton Fund, Viet Nam Ministry of Science and Technology, Wellcome Trust, Academy of Medical Sciences, Health Foundation, and UK National Institute for Health and Care Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.

Original publication




Journal article


The Lancet. Microbe

Publication Date





e857 - e866


European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Hinxton, UK; Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.


Humans, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Cross Infection, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Prospective Studies, Genomics, Phylogeny, Adult, Intensive Care Units, Vietnam