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Despite the development of thoracic ultrasound, there remains a crucial role for three-dimensional cross-sectional imaging in the investigation and management of pleura disease. Traditionally this has been in the form of computed tomography (CT) which has become established as a common imaging modality in routine standard practice, however the roles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography in imaging the pleura are increasing and becoming superiorly defined. The mechanisms, roles and utilities of all three modalities in common elements of pleural disease are explored in this article.

Original publication





Book title

Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine, Second Edition

Publication Date





354 - 366