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Low awareness of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance may lead to inappropriate antibiotic use and contribute to the problem of antibiotic resistance. This study explored levels and determinants of antibiotic awareness in a rural community in northern Vietnam, through a cross-sectional survey of 324 households in one commune of Ha Nam Province. Awareness and knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance and determinants were evaluated using structured questionnaires. Most respondents (232/323 (71.8%)) had heard of antibiotics, but fewer could name any antibiotic (68/323 (21.1%)) or had heard of antibiotic resistance (57/322 (17.7%)). In adjusted regression models, antibiotic awareness was lower among those who lived further from health facilities (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.08; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.04–0.19) but higher among those who used interpersonal sources for health information (OR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.32–12.46). Antibiotic resistance awareness was lower among those who used private providers or pharmacies as their usual health facility (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.44) but higher among those with medical insurance (OR: 3.70; 95% CI: 1.06–12.96) and those with high media use frequency (OR: 9.54; 95% CI: 2.39–38.07). Awareness of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) was also higher among those who sought health information from official sources (OR: 3.88; 95% CI: 1.01–14.86) or had overall high levels of health information seeking (OR: 12.85; 95% CI: 1.63–101.1). In conclusion, communication interventions need to target frequently used media platforms, such as television, as well as key health information providers, such as health workers, as channels for increasing knowledge and changing community antibiotic use behaviour.

Original publication




Journal article





Publication Date





1751 - 1751