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BackgroundThe endometrial cancer molecular classification has been integrated into the 2020 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic classification and European treatment guidelines, and provides direction towards more effective and less toxic adjuvant treatment strategies for women with endometrial cancer.Primary objectivesThe RAINBO program of clinical trials will investigate four molecular class-directed adjuvant treatment strategies following surgical resection to either increase cure rates through the addition of novel targeted therapies or safely reduce toxicity and improve quality of life through treatment de-escalation.Study hypothesisMolecular-directed adjuvant treatment strategies will improve clinical outcomes and reduce toxicity of unwarranted therapies in women with endometrial cancer. The overarching and translational research RAINBO program will advance knowledge of predictive and prognostic (bio)markers that will improve prognostication and treatment allocation.Trial designThe RAINBO program is a platform of four international clinical trials and an overarching research program. The randomized phase III p53abn-RED trial for women with invasive stage I-III p53abn endometrial cancer compares adjuvant chemoradiation followed by olaparib for 2 years with adjuvant chemoradiation alone. The randomized phase III MMRd-GREEN trial for women with stage II (with lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI)) or stage III mismatch repair-deficient (MMRd) endometrial cancer compares adjuvant radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant durvalumab for 1 year to radiotherapy alone. The randomized phase III NSMP-ORANGE trial is a treatment de-escalation trial for women with estrogen receptor positive stage II (with LVSI) or stage III no specific molecular profile (NSMP) endometrial cancer comparing radiotherapy followed by progestin for 2 years to adjuvant chemoradiation. The POLEmut-BLUE trial is a phase II trial in which the safety of de-escalation of adjuvant therapy is investigated for women with stage I-III POLEmut endometrial cancer: no adjuvant therapy for lower-risk disease and no adjuvant therapy or radiotherapy alone for higher-risk disease. The overarching RAINBO program will combine data and tumor material of all participants to perform translational research and evaluate molecular class-based adjuvant therapy in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality of life, and cost-utility.Major inclusion/exclusion criteriaInclusion criteria include a histologically confirmed diagnosis of endometrial cancer treated by hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymphadenectomy or sentinel lymph node biopsy, with no macroscopic residual disease after surgery and no distant metastases, and molecular classification according to the WHO 2020 algorithm.Primary endpointsRecurrence-free survival at 3 years in the p53abn-RED, MMRd-GREEN, and NSMP-ORANGE trials and pelvic recurrence at 3 years in the POLEmut-BLUE trial.Sample sizeThe p53abn-RED trial will include 554 patients, the MMRd-GREEN trial 316, the NSMP-ORANGE trial 600, and the POLEmut-BLUE trial 145 (120 for lower-risk disease and approximately 25 for higher-risk disease). The overarching research program will pool the four sub-trials resulting in a total sample size of around 1600.Estimated dates for completing accrual and presenting resultsThe four clinical trials will have different completion dates; main results are expected from 2028.Trial registration numberThe RAINBO program is registered at (NCT05255653).

Original publication




Journal article


International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society

Publication Date



RAINBO Research Consortium