Pharmacometrics of high dose ivermectin in early COVID-19: an open label, randomized, controlled adaptive platform trial (PLATCOV)
Schilling WHK., Jittamala P., Watson JA., Ekkapongpisit M., Siripoon T., Ngamprasertchai T., Luvira V., Pongwilai S., Cruz CV., Callery JJ., Boyd S., Kruabkontho V., Ngernseng T., Tubprasert J., Abdad MY., Piaraksa N., Suwannasin K., Hanboonkunupakarn P., Hanboonkunupakarn B., Sookprome S., Poovorawan K., Thaipadungpanit J., Blacksell S., Imwong M., Tarning J., Taylor WRJ., Chotivanich V., Sangketchon C., Ruksakul W., Chotivanich K., Teixeira MM., Pukrittayakamee S., Dondorp AM., Day NPJ., Piyaphanee W., Phumratanaprapin W., White NJ.
Background: There is no generally accepted methodology for in vivo assessment of antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Ivermectin has been recommended widely as a treatment of COVID-19, but whether it has clinically significant antiviral activity in vivo is uncertain.Methods: In a multicentre open label, randomized, controlled adaptive platform trial, adult patients with early symptomatic COVID-19 were randomized to one of six treatment arms including high dose oral ivermectin (600µg/kg daily for seven days), the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab (600mg/600mg), and no study drug. The primary outcome was the comparison of viral clearance rates in the modified intention-to-treat population (mITT). This was derived from daily log10 viral densities in standardized duplicate oropharyngeal swab eluates. This ongoing trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05041907).Results: Randomization to the ivermectin arm was stopped after enrolling 205 patients into all arms, as the prespecified futility threshold was reached. Following ivermectin the mean estimated rate of SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance was 9.1% slower [95%CI -27.2% to +11.8%; n=45] than in the no drug arm [n=41], whereas in a preliminary analysis of the casirivimab/imdevimab arm it was 52.3% faster [95%CI +7.0% to +115.1%; n=10 (Delta variant) versus n=41].Conclusions: High dose ivermectin did not have measurable antiviral activity in early symptomatic COVID-19. Pharmacometric evaluation of viral clearance rate from frequent serial oropharyngeal qPCR viral density estimates is a highly efficient and well tolerated method of assessing SARS CoV-2 antiviral therapeutics in vivo.Funding: 'Finding treatments for COVID-19: A phase 2 multi-centre adaptive platform trial to assess antiviral pharmacodynamics in early symptomatic COVID-19 (PLAT-COV)' is supported by the Wellcome Trust Grant ref: 223195/Z/21/Z through the COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator.Clinical trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05041907).