The clinical features and genomic epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam.
Diep DTH., Tuan HM., Ngoc KM., Vinh C., Dung TTN., Phat VV., Nguyen Q., Tam DTH., Nien LV., Duyen BTH., Phung CT., Bac NH., Tuan TD., Thwaites G., Rabaa MA., Pham DT.
ObjectivesTo characterise the clinical features of A. baumannii infections and investigate the phylogenetic structure and transmission dynamics of A. baumannii in Vietnam.MethodsBetween 2019 and 2020, a surveillance of A. baumannii (AB) infections was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were analyzed using logistic regressions. Whole-genome sequence data were used to characterise genomic species, sequence types (STs), antimicrobial resistance genes, surface antigens and phylogenetic relatedness of AB isolates.ResultsEighty-four patients with AB infections were enrolled in the study, 96% of whom were hospital-acquired. Half of the AB isolates were identified from ICU-admitted patients while the remaining isolates were from non-ICU patients. The overall in-hospital mortality was 56%, with associated risk factors including advanced age, ICU stay, exposure to mechanical ventilation/central venous catheterization, pneumonia as source of AB infection, prior use of linezolid/aminoglycosides, and AB treatment with colistin-based therapy. Nearly 91% of isolates were carbapenem-resistant; 92% were multidrug-resistant and 6% were colistin-resistant. ST2, ST571 and ST16 were the three dominant CRAB genotypes, exhibiting distinct AMR gene profiles. Phylogenetic analysis of CRAB ST2 isolates together with previously published ST2 collection provided evidence of intra- and inter-hospital transmission of this clone.ConclusionsOur study highlights a high prevalence of carbapenem resistance and multidrug resistance in A. baumannii and elucidates the spread of CRAB within and between hospitals. Strengthening infection control measures and routine genomic surveillance are crucial to reducing the spread of CRAB and timely detecting novel pan drug-resistant variants.