Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Abstract There is now a robust pipeline of licensed and World Health Organization (WHO)–prequalified typhoid conjugate vaccines with a steady progression of national introductions. However, typhoid fever is responsible for less than half the total global burden of Salmonella disease, and even less among children aged <5 years. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease is the dominant clinical presentation of Salmonella in Africa, and over a quarter of enteric fever in Asia is due to paratyphoid A. In this article, we explore the case for combination Salmonella vaccines, review the current pipeline of these vaccines, and discuss key considerations for their development, including geographies of use, age of administration, and pathways to licensure. While a trivalent typhoid/nontyphoidal Salmonella vaccine is attractive for Africa, and a bivalent enteric fever vaccine for Asia, a quadrivalent vaccine covering the 4 main disease-causing serovars of Salmonella enterica would provide a single vaccine option for global Salmonella coverage.

Original publication




Journal article


Open Forum Infectious Diseases


Oxford University Press (OUP)

Publication Date





S58 - S66